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Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
(January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was a Swiss-American politician, diplomat, ethnologist and linguist. He was an important leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, serving in various federal elective and appointed positions across four decades. He represented Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
in the Senate and the House of Representatives before becoming the longest-tenured United States Secretary of the Treasury and serving as a high-ranking diplomat. Born in Geneva
Geneva
in present-day Switzerland, Gallatin immigrated to the United States
United States
in the 1780s, settling in western Pennsylvania. He served as a delegate to the 1789 Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
constitutional convention and won election to the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
General Assembly. An opponent of Alexander Hamilton's economic policies, Gallatin was elected to the United States Senate
United States Senate
in 1793. However, he was removed from office on a party-line vote after a protest raised by his opponents suggested he did not meet the required nine years of citizenship. Returning to Pennsylvania, Gallatin helped calm many angry farmers during the Whiskey Rebellion. Gallatin returned to Congress in 1795 after winning election to the House of Representatives. He became the chief spokesman on financial matters for the Democratic-Republican Party, leading opposition to the Federalist economic program. He also helped found the House Committee on Finance (later the Ways and Means Committee) and often engineered withholding of finances by the House as a method of overriding executive actions to which he objected. Gallatin's mastery of public finance led to his choice as Secretary of the Treasury by President Thomas Jefferson, despite Federalist attacks that he was a "foreigner" with a French accent. Under Jefferson and James Madison, Gallatin served as secretary from 1801 until February 1814. Gallatin retained much of Hamilton's financial system, though he also presided over a reduction in the national debt prior to the War of 1812. Gallatin served on the American commission that agreed to the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812. In the aftermath of the war, he helped found the Second Bank of the United States. Declining another term at the Treasury, Gallatin served as Ambassador to France
France
from 1816 to 1823, struggling with scant success to improve relations with the government during the Bourbon Restoration. In the election of 1824, Gallatin was nominated for Vice President by the Democratic-Republican Congressional caucus. Gallatin never wanted the position and was humiliated when forced to withdraw from the race because he lacked popular support. In 1826 and 1827, he served as the ambassador to Britain and negotiated several agreements, such as a ten-year extension of the joint occupation of Oregon Country. After his tenure abroad, Gallatin settled in New York City, helping to found New York University. He also became president of the National Bank's branch in New York City
New York City
and Gallatin the American Ethnological Society. With his studies of the languages of Native Americans, he has been called "the father of American ethnology."

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 American travels 1.2 Pennsylvania

2 Political career

2.1 Senator 2.2 Whiskey Rebellion 2.3 Party leader 2.4 Secretary of the Treasury

2.4.1 National debt 2.4.2 Budget 2.4.3 West 2.4.4 Internal improvements 2.4.5 War of 1812

2.5 Diplomat 2.6 Politics

3 Later life

3.1 Founding of New York University 3.2 Native American studies 3.3 Death

4 Honors

4.1 Place names

5 See also 6 Notes 7 Bibliography

7.1 Primary sources

8 External links

Early life[edit]

Coat of Arms of Albert Gallatin

Gallatin was born in Geneva, Switzerland, to wealthy Jean Gallatin and his wife, Sophie Albertine Rollaz.[1] Gallatin's family had great influence in Switzerland, and many family members held distinguished positions in the magistracy, military, and in Swiss delegations in foreign armies. Gallatin's father, a prosperous merchant, died in 1765, followed by his mother in April 1770. Now orphaned, Gallatin was taken into the care of Mademoiselle Pictet, a family friend and distant relative of Gallatin's father. In January 1773, Gallatin was sent to boarding school.[2] As a student at the elite Academy of Geneva, Gallatin read deeply in philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
and Voltaire, along with the French Physiocrats; he became dissatisfied with the traditionalism of Geneva. A student of the Enlightenment, he believed in human nature and that when free from social restrictions, it would display noble qualities and greater results, in both the physical and the moral world. The democratic spirit of the United States
United States
attracted him and he decided to emigrate.[3] In April 1780, he secretly left Geneva
Geneva
with his classmate Henri Serre. Carrying letters of recommendation from eminent Colonials (including Benjamin Franklin) that the Gallatin family procured, the young men left France
France
in May, sailing on an American ship, "the Kattie". They reached Cape Ann
Cape Ann
on July 14 and arrived in Boston
Boston
the next day, traveling the intervening thirty miles by horseback.[4] American travels[edit] Bored with monotonous Bostonian life, the men set sail with a Swiss female companion, to the settlement of Machias, located on the northeastern tip of the Maine
Maine
frontier. At Machias, Gallatin operated a bartering venture, in which he dealt with a variety of goods and supplies. He enjoyed the simple life and the natural environment surrounding him.[5] During the winter of 1780–81, Gallatin served in the defense of his new country and even commanded a garrison in Maine for a time.[5] Gallatin and Serre returned to Boston
Boston
in October 1781, after abandoning their bartering venture in Machias. Gallatin supported himself by giving French language lessons. Soon afterward, he sent a letter to Mademoiselle Pictet, offering a frank account of the troubles he was having in America. Pictet sensed this would be the case, and she had already contacted Dr. Samuel Cooper, a distinguished Bostonian patriot, whose grandson was a student in Geneva. With Cooper's influence, Gallatin was able to secure a faculty position in July 1782 at Harvard College, where he taught French.[citation needed] Pennsylvania[edit]

Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
House; Friendship Hill
Friendship Hill
National Historic Site

Gallatin used his early salary to purchase 370 acres (1.5 km2) of land in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, near Point Marion south of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
which he thought well suited for farming and as a staging area for selling land and goods. Gallatin honored his friends by naming the new property Friendship Hill.[6] He moved there in 1784.[7] In the spring of 1789, Gallatin eloped with Sophia Allegre, the attractive daughter of his landlady, who disapproved of him. She unfortunately died of unknown causes 5 months after their marriage. Possible causes of death could be complications of childbirth, or the common cold. Medical technology during the late 18th century was almost non-existent. He was in mourning for a number of years and seriously considered returning to Geneva. However, on November 1, 1793, he married Hannah Nicholson, daughter of the well-connected Commodore James Nicholson. They had two sons and four daughters: Catherine, Sophia, Hannah Marie, Frances, James, and Albert Rolaz Gallatin. Catherine, Sophia and Hannah Marie all died as infants. In 1794, Gallatin was hearing rumors of mass exodus of Europeans fleeing the French Revolution. An idea struck his fancy: perhaps he should develop a settlement for these emigrants. Throughout the spring and summer of 1795 Gallatin pondered, planned and finally selected Wilson's Port, a small river town located one mile (1.6 km) north of his Friendship Hill. Collecting four other investors, three of them also Swiss, Gallatin had the partnership incorporated as Albert Gallatin & Company. Together they purchased Wilson's Port, Georgetown and vacant lots across the river in Greensboro. The partners named their new settlement New Geneva. With a company store, glassworks, gun factory, sawmill, gristmill, winery, distillery, and a boat yard along Georges Creek, the partners awaited the rush of settlers. The only successful industry of Gallatin's was the glassworks. An improved European situation and mild economic recession in 1796–1797 did not bring the expected wealth to the Gallatin partnership. As Gallatin struggled with the Federalists in the Congress, his partners happened upon six German glassblowers traveling to Kentucky. Convinced that glass would revive their sagging investment, the partners asked the Germans to set up shop in New Geneva. Gallatin was appalled with the idea, and considered it to be a gamble. Nonetheless, production of glass began on January 18, 1798. Window glass, whiskey bottles, and other hollow ware were produced. This was the first glass blown west of the Alleghenies. The glass business was not without its problems. Poor initial profits, material shortages and a labor "insurrection" combined to make Gallatin believe that the glass industry should be abandoned. By 1800, though, the business had made a turnaround. With the availability of coal across the river, the glass works were moved to Greensboro in 1807. Later in 1816 Gallatin would call the glassworks his most "productive property". Another industry to make its appearance at the New Geneva
Geneva
complex was the manufacture of muskets. In 1797, a crisis with France
France
had flared into an undeclared war. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
called out to its militia, only to find a shortage of muskets, bayonets and cartridge boxes. Contracts were awarded to private manufacturers to produce 12,000 stands of arms. Seeing an opportunity to relieve festering debts from the land and glass businesses, the western partners sought Gallatin's advice and political pull in the state government to acquire an arms contract. Initially against the idea, the mounting debts forced Gallatin to reconsider. He signed a contract in January 1799 to produce 2000 muskets with bayonets. The Gallatin partners subcontracted Melchior Baker of Haydentown to make the muskets. Lack of skilled labor and quality steel supported by poor management plagued the business. By April 1801, only 600 muskets had been delivered, fifteen months behind schedule. Seeing only complete financial ruin if he remained in the agreement, Gallatin transferred all contractual obligations to Melchior Baker and Abraham Stewart. During his fifth year as Minister to France, Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
longed for retirement to Friendship Hill. Hoping to live off the profits of the glass business, Gallatin made substantial improvements to the house and grounds. It was not a happy homecoming. The economic "Panic of 1819" caught up with the glass business and forced its closure in 1821. While "contented to live and die amongst the Monongahela hills" Gallatin sold his beloved Friendship Hill
Friendship Hill
and other western holdings at great financial loss. Political career[edit]

Daguerreotype
Daguerreotype
of Albert Gallatin, original probably by Anthony, Edwards & Co., circa 1844-1860

Almost immediately, Gallatin became active in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
politics; he was a member of the state constitutional convention in 1789, and was elected to the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
General Assembly in 1790. Senator[edit] In 1793, Gallatin won election to the United States
United States
Senate. When the Third Congress opened on December 2, 1793, he took the oath of office, but, on that same day, nineteen Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Federalists filed a protest with the Senate that Gallatin did not have the minimum nine years of citizenship required to be a senator. The petition was sent to committee, which duly reported that Gallatin had not been a citizen for the required period. Gallatin rebutted the committee report, noting his unbroken residence of thirteen years in the United States, his 1785 oath of allegiance to the Commonwealth of Virginia, his service in the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
legislature, and his substantial property holdings in the United States. The report and Gallatin's rebuttal were sent to a second committee. This committee also reported that Gallatin should be removed. The matter then went before the full Senate where Gallatin was removed in a party-line vote of 14–12. Gallatin's brief stint in the Senate was not without consequence. Gallatin had proven to be an effective opponent of Alexander Hamilton's financial policies, and the election controversy added to his fame. The dispute itself had important ramifications. At the time, the Senate held closed sessions. However, with the American Revolution only a decade ended, the senators were leery of anything which might hint that they intended to establish an aristocracy, so they opened up their chamber for the first time for the debate over whether to unseat Gallatin. Soon after, open sessions became standard procedure for the Senate.[8] Whiskey Rebellion[edit] Returning home, he found western Pennsylvanians (mostly Scotch Irish) angry at the liquor tax imposed in 1791 by Congress at the demand of Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
to raise money to pay the national debt. Farmers could only export whiskey because transportation costs were too high for grain. Although Gallatin had opposed the tax before it was passed and attended numerous protest meetings, he counseled moderation. Nevertheless, the role he played in the Whiskey Rebellion
Whiskey Rebellion
in the early 1790s proved a lasting political liability, as President George Washington denounced the tax protesters, called out the militia, and marched at the head of the army for a portion of their way to put down the rebellion. A group of radicals, headed by a lawyer named David Bradford, staged incendiary meetings, to which they summoned the local militia, terrorized conservatives in Pittsburgh, threatened federal revenue officers with death, and called for rebellion. Gallatin calmed the westerners; with courage and persuasive oratory, he faced the excited and armed mobs, heartened the moderates, won over the wavering, and at last secured a vote of 34 to 23 in the revolutionary committee of sixty for peaceable submission to the law of the country. The rebellion collapsed as the army moved near, Bradford fled, and there was no fighting. Gallatin had the farmers agree on a reduction proposal on the tax on whiskey. Congress accepted the proposal, then later repealed the tax on whiskey. Gallatin's neighbors approved his advocacy of their cause and elected him to the U.S. House of Representatives for three terms, 1795–1801. Party leader[edit] Entering the House of Representatives in 1795, he served in the fourth through sixth Congresses. He was the major spokesman on finance for the new Jeffersonian Republican Party (later referred to by historians as the Democratic-Republican Party), headed by James Madison. By 1797, when Madison retired, Gallatin became the party leader in the House, a position now known as House Majority Leader. He strongly opposed the domestic programs of the Federalist Party, as well as the Jay Treaty of 1795, which he thought was a sellout to the British. When the Quasi War with France
France
erupted in 1798, he kept a low profile, but did oppose the Alien and Sedition Acts. Although Gallatin opposed the entire program of Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
in the 1790s, when he came to power in 1801, he found himself keeping all the main parts, and supporting the Bank of the United States, which other Jeffersonians vehemently opposed. As party leader, Gallatin put a great deal of pressure on President John Adams' Treasury Secretary Oliver Wolcott, Jr.
Oliver Wolcott, Jr.
to maintain fiscal responsibility. He also helped found the House Committee on Finance (which would evolve into the Ways and Means Committee) and often engineered withholding of finances by the House as a method of overriding executive actions to which he objected. His measures to withhold naval appropriations during this period were met with vehement animosity by the Federalists, who accused him of being a French spy. Secretary of the Treasury[edit]

Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Bureau of Engraving and Printing
portrait of Gallatin as Secretary of the Treasury

Gallatin's mastery of public finance, an ability rare among members of the Jeffersonian party, led to his automatic choice as Secretary of the Treasury by Thomas Jefferson, despite Federalist attacks that he was a "foreigner" with a French accent. He was secretary from 1801 to May 1814 under presidents Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and James Madison, the longest tenure of this office in American history. National debt[edit] Jefferson and Gallatin focused on the danger that the public debt, unless it was paid off, would be a threat to republican values. They were appalled that Hamilton was increasing the national debt and using it to solidify his Federalist base. Gallatin was the Democratic-Republican Party's chief expert on fiscal issues and as Treasury Secretary under Jefferson and Madison worked hard to lower taxes and lower the debt, while at the same time paying cash for the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
and funding the War of 1812. Burrows says of Gallatin:

His own fears of personal dependency and his small-shopkeeper's sense of integrity, both reinforced by a strain of radical republican thought that originated in England a century earlier, convinced him that public debts were a nursery of multiple public evils—corruption, legislative impotence, executive tyranny, social inequality, financial speculation, and personal indolence. Not only was it necessary to extinguish the existing debt as rapidly as possible, he argued, but Congress would have to ensure against the accumulation of future debts by more diligently supervising government expenditures.[9]

Budget[edit]

Portrait of Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
by Gilbert Stuart
Gilbert Stuart
(ca. 1803)

The national debt was seen as an indicator of waste and corruption, and Jeffersonians wanted it paid off totally. They also wanted to buy Louisiana and fight a war with Britain, and Gallatin managed to finance these grand objectives, but he could not simultaneously pay off the debt. The debt stood at $80 million in 1801, and Gallatin devoted three quarters of federal revenues to reducing it. Despite spending $15 million on Louisiana, and losing the tax on whiskey when it was repealed in 1802, Gallatin trimmed the debt to $45 million. The government saved money by mothballing the navy and keeping the army small and poorly equipped. Gallatin reluctantly supported Jefferson's embargo of 1807–1808, which tried to use economic coercion to change British policies, and failed to do so.[10] The War of 1812 (1812–1815) proved expensive, and the debt soared to $123 million, even with burdensome new taxes. West[edit] Gallatin helped plan the Lewis and Clark Expedition, mapping out the area to be explored. Upon finding the source of the Missouri River
Missouri River
at present-day Three Forks, Montana, Captains Lewis and Clark named the eastern of the three tributaries after Gallatin; the other two were named after President Jefferson and James Madison, the Secretary of State (and next President). The Gallatin River
Gallatin River
descends from Yellowstone National Park, followed north by U.S. Highway 191
U.S. Highway 191
past the Big Sky Resort, towards Bozeman. A few miles southwest of the city, the river turns northwest, where Interstate 90
Interstate 90
follows it to Three Forks. Internal improvements[edit] In 1808 Gallatin proposed a dramatic $20 million program of internal improvements—that is, roads and canals along the Atlantic seacoast and across the Appalachian mountain barrier to be financed by the federal government. This was something new, and many considered it outright unconstitutional. It was rejected by the "Old Republican" faction of his party that deeply distrusted the national government, and anyway there was no money to pay for it. Most of Gallatin's proposals were eventually carried out years later, but this was done not by the concerted federal action he proposed, but by local governmental and private action. Though often wasteful, this method enlisted local and private energies in large enterprises.[11] While not a pacifist, he strongly opposed building up a navy and endorsed Jefferson's scheme of using small gunboats to protect major ports. The plan failed in the War of 1812
War of 1812
as the British, unhindered, landed behind the harbors. War of 1812[edit]

Albert Gallatin, signature

In 1812, the U.S. was financially unprepared for war. The Democratic Republicans allowed the First Bank of the United States
United States
to expire in 1811, over Gallatin's objections. He had to ship $7 million to Europe to pay off its foreign stockholders just at a time money was needed for war. The heavy military expenditures for the War of 1812, and the decline in tariff revenue caused by the embargo and the British blockade cut off legitimate trade (there was plenty of untaxed smuggling). In 1813, the Treasury had expenditures of $39 million and revenue of only $15 million. Despite anger from Congress, Gallatin was forced to reintroduce the Federalist taxes he had denounced in 1798, such as the taxes on whiskey and salt, as well as a direct tax on land and slaves. Absent a national bank and with the refusal of New England financiers to loan money for the war effort, Gallatin resorted to innovative methods to finance the war. In March 1813, he initiated the public bidding system that was to characterize subsequent government borrowings. A financial syndicate subscribed for 57% of the $16,000,000 loan, of which $5,720,000 came from New York City, $6,858,000 from Philadelphia, and $75,000 from Boston. He succeeded in funding the deficit of $69 million by bond issues and thereby paid the direct cost of the war, which amounted to $87 million. Deciding on a need for a national bank, he helped charter the Second Bank of the United States
United States
in 1816. Diplomat[edit] In 1813, President James Madison
James Madison
sent him as the United States representative to a Russian-brokered peace talk, which Britain ultimately refused, preferring direct negotiations. Gallatin then resigned as Secretary of the Treasury to head the United States delegation for these negotiations and was instrumental in securing the Treaty of Ghent, which brought the War of 1812
War of 1812
to a close. His patience and skill in dealing with not only the British but also his fellow members of the American commission, including Henry Clay
Henry Clay
and John Quincy Adams, made the Treaty "the special and peculiar triumph of Mr. Gallatin."[12] Declining another term at the Treasury, from 1816 to 1823 Gallatin served as United States
United States
Minister to France, struggling with scant success to improve relations with the government during the Bourbon Restoration. Politics[edit]

Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
statue in front of the northern entrance to the United States Treasury Building

Gallatin returned to America in 1823 and was nominated for Vice President by the Democratic-Republican Congressional caucus that had chosen William H. Crawford
William H. Crawford
as its Presidential candidate in the 1824 election. Gallatin never wanted the role and was humiliated when he was forced to withdraw from the race because he lacked popular support.[13] Gallatin was alarmed at the possibility Andrew Jackson might win; he saw Jackson as "an honest man and the idol of the worshippers of military glory, but from incapacity, military habits, and habitual disregard of laws and constitutional provisions, altogether unfit for the office."[14] He returned home to Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
where he lived until 1826. In 1825, Gallatin declined to return to his position as Secretary of the Treasury when he was offered the post by President John Quincy Adams. Gallatin opposed American domination of the North American continent, fearing that it would lead to empire-building, something he thought would be harmful to the nation's republican institutions.[15] By 1826, there was much contention between the United States
United States
and Britain over claims to the Columbia River
Columbia River
system on the Northwest coast. Gallatin put forward a claim in favor of American ownership, outlining what has been called the "principle of contiguity" in his statement called "The Land West of the Rockies". It states that lands adjacent to already settled territory can reasonably be claimed by the settled territory. This argument is an early version of the doctrine of America's "manifest destiny". This principle became the legal premise by which the United States
United States
was able to claim the lands to the west. In 1826 and 1827, he served as minister to the Court of St. James's (i.e., minister to Great Britain) and negotiated several useful agreements, such as a ten-year extension of the joint occupation of Oregon. Later life[edit] Founding of New York University[edit] Gallatin then settled in New York City, where he helped found New York University in 1831, in order to offer university education to the working and merchant classes as well as the wealthy. He became president of the National Bank in New York City,[16] which was renamed Gallatin Bank from 1831 until 1839.[17] Native American studies[edit]

First Nation Control over North America about 1600 AD. (In: Archaeologia Americana. Transactions and Collections of the American Antiquarian Society. Vol II. By the Hon. Albert Gallatin. Cambridge: Printed For The Society, At The University Press. 1836)

His last great endeavor was founding the American Ethnological Society (AES). With his studies of the languages of the Native Americans, he has been called "the father of American ethnology."[18] Throughout his career, Gallatin pursued an interest in Native American language and culture. He drew upon government contacts in his research, gathering information through Lewis Cass, explorer William Clark, and Thomas McKenney of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Gallatin developed a personal relationship with Cherokee
Cherokee
tribal leader John Ridge, who provided him with information on the vocabulary and the structure of the Cherokee
Cherokee
language. Gallatin's research resulted in two published works: A Table of Indian Languages of the United States (1826) and Synopsis of the Indian Tribes of North America (1836). His research led him to conclude that the natives of North and South America were linguistically and culturally related and that their common ancestors had migrated from Asia in prehistoric times. In 1842, Gallatin joined with John Russell Bartlett
John Russell Bartlett
to found the AES. Later research efforts include examination of selected Pueblo societies, the Akimel O'odham (Pima) peoples, and the Maricopa of the Southwest. In politics, Gallatin stood for assimilation of Native Americans into European based American society, encouraging federal efforts in education leading to assimilation and denying annuities for Native Americans displaced by western expansion.[citation needed] As of 1848, Gallatin was serving as the president of the AES.[19] Death[edit] On August 12, 1849, Gallatin died in Astoria, now in the Borough of Queens, New York at age 88. He is interred at Trinity Churchyard
Trinity Churchyard
in New York City.[20] Prior to his death, Gallatin had been the last surviving member of the Jefferson Cabinet and the last surviving senator from the 18th century. Honors[edit]

Albert Gallatin's grave at New York's Trinity Churchyard

The Gallatin School of Individualized Study
Gallatin School of Individualized Study
at New York University honors his participation in the founding of the university. The ALBERT student information system at New York University
New York University
is named for him. Gallatin's portrait was on the front of the $500 United States
United States
Note issued in 1862–63. Gallatin's portrait was on the regular issue Prominent Americans series 1¼ ¢ postage stamp from 1967–73. Friendship Hill
Friendship Hill
National Historic Site, a 661-acre (2.67 km2) estate which includes the beautifully restored home of Albert Gallatin, is run by the National Park Service and is located in Fayette County, Pa. It is open to the public. The United States
United States
Department of the Treasury's highest career service award is named the Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
Award in his honor. There is a bronze statue of Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
by James Earle Fraser located in front of the northern entrance of the Treasury Building. 250-ton U.S. Revenue Cutter
U.S. Revenue Cutter
Albert Gallatin, built in 1871 and lost in 1892. USCGC Gallatin (WHEC-721), a 378-foot (115 m), high-endurance Coast Guard cutter homeported in Charleston, S.C., is named for him. A school district in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, in which his home, Friendship Hill
Friendship Hill
is located is named the Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
Area School District in his honor. Elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society
American Antiquarian Society
in 1836.[21] In the alternate timeline of the North American Confederacy novels by L. Neil Smith, Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
plays a major role in the backstory.

Place names[edit]

A 1967 U.S. stamp honoring Albert Gallatin

Gallatin County, Illinois Gallatin County, Kentucky Gallatin, Missouri Gallatin County, Montana Gallatin National Forest, Montana Gallatin River, Montana Gallatin Range, Montana Gallatin Gateway, Montana Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
Area School District, Pennsylvania Gallatin, Tennessee Gallatin Street in Washington, D.C. Gallatin Street in Jackson, Mississippi Gallatin Street in Providence, Rhode Island Gallatin Street in Vandalia, Illinois Gallatin Road in Pico Rivera, California Gallatin Road (formerly Gallatin School House Road) in Downey, California Gallatin Elementary School in Downey, California Avenue de Gallatin in Geneva, Switzerland Gallatin Hall at Harvard Business School
Harvard Business School
in Boston, Massachusetts Gallatin School of Individualized Study
Gallatin School of Individualized Study
at New York University
New York University
in New York City, New York Gallatin Hall at Robert Morris University
Robert Morris University
in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Gallatin, Rusk County, Texas Town of Gallatin, Columbia County, New York Village of Gallatin, Nicholson Township, Fayette County, Pennsylvania Gallatin Avenue, Uniontown, Fayette County, Pennsylvania

See also[edit]

Biography portal

List of foreign-born United States
United States
Cabinet Secretaries List of United States
United States
Senators born outside the United States Gallatin Bank Building

Notes[edit]

^ Stevens, John Austin (1888). Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
(6 ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. 1.  ^ Stevens (1888), p2. ^ Henry Adams, Life of Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
(1879) p. 16 ^ Stevens (1888), pp. 11–12. ^ a b Stevens (1888), p16. ^ Friendship Hill
Friendship Hill
National Historic Site, National Park Service (nps.gov) ^ At the time of the purchase, his land was originally a part of Virginia, but it became part of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
soon afterward. ^ Butler, Anne M.; Wolff, Wendy (1995). "Case 1: Albert Gallatin". Senate Election, Expulsion and Censure Cases from 1793 to 1990. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp. 3–5.  ^ Edwin G. Burrows. "Gallatin, Albert" in American National Biography Online (2000) Accessed Dec 03 2013 ^ Richard Mannix, "Gallatin, Jefferson, and the Embargo of 1808", Diplomatic History (1979) v.3 #3, pp. 151–172. ^ Carter Goodrich, "The Gallatin Plan after One Hundred and Fifty Years." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 1958 102(5): 436–41. ^ Adams (1879) p. 546 ^ Raymond Walters, Albert Gallatin: Jeffersonian Financier and Diplomat
Diplomat
(1957) pp. 320-4 ^ Adams (1879), p599. ^ "Stephen Rosen on Conversations with Bill Kristol".  ^ "New York Bank History - National Bank History - Bob Kerstein, Founder".  ^ " Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
- United States
United States
government official".  ^ Dungan, p. 165 ^ Squier, E.G. (1848). Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. p. 48.  ^ Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
at Find a Grave ^ "MemberListG". 

Bibliography[edit]

Adams, Henry (1879). Life of Albert Gallatin.  online edition, the standard biography despite its age Burrows. Edwin G. "Gallatin, Albert" in American National Biography Online (2000) Cachia-Riedl, Markus Claudius (1998). Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
and the Politics of the New Nation. Ph.D. dissertation at U. of California, Berkeley.  Dungan, Nicholas (2010). Gallatin: America's Swiss Founding Father. New York University
New York University
Press. ISBN 0814721117.  Goodrich, Carter (1958). "The Gallatin Plan after One Hundred and Fifty Years". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 102 (5): 436–441. JSTOR 985588.  Hickey, Donald R. (1981). "American Trade Restrictions during the War of 1812". Journal of American History. 68 (3): 517–538. JSTOR 1901937.  Kuppenheimer, L. B. (1996). Albert Gallatin's Vision of Democratic Stability: An Interpretive Profile.  McCraw, Thomas K. The Founders and Finance: How Hamilton, Gallatin, and Other Immigrants Forged a New Economy (2012) Mannix, Richard (1979). Gallatin, Jefferson, and the Embargo of 1808. Diplomatic History. 3. pp. 151–172. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1979.tb00307.x. ISSN 0145-2096.  Nelson, John Robert (1979). Hamilton and Gallatin: Political Economy and Policy-Making in the New Nation, 1789–1812. Ph.D. dissertation, Northern Illinois U.  Nettels, Curtis (1962). The Emergence of a National Economy, 1775–1815.  Muzzey, David Saville (1931). "Gallatin, Abraham Alfonse Albert". Dictionary of American Biography. 4.  Rothman, Rozann (1972). "Political Method in the Federal System: Albert Gallatin's Contribution". Publius. 1 (2): 123–141. JSTOR 3329473.  Stevens, John Austin. Albert Gallatin. 1883. Walters, Raymond, Jr. (1957). Albert Gallatin: Jeffersonian Financier and Diplomat.  The standard scholarly biography online edition

Primary sources[edit]

Adams, Henry, ed. (1879). The Writings of Albert Gallatin. Three volumes.  Volume I (PDF), Volume II (PDF),Volume III (PDF) Gallatin, Albert (1976). "The Land West of the Rockies". The Annals of America. 11 volumes. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica. pp. 209–214.  Gallatin, Albert (1848). Peace with Mexico. Hosted by the Portal
Portal
to Texas History. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
at Wikimedia Commons  "Gallatin, Albert". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.   "Gallatin, Albert". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900.  Kestenbaum, Lawrence. "Index to Politicians: Gallaher to Gallmeyer". The Political Graveyard. Archived from the original on 7 August 2006. Retrieved 2006-08-22. 

United States
United States
Congress. " Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
(id: G000020)". Biographical Directory of the United States
United States
Congress.  Works by Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
at Internet Archive Friendship Hill
Friendship Hill
National Historical Site Albert Gallatin, A Genevan at the root source of the American dream. Exhibition, 14.10.2011-17.03.2012, Library of Genava, Switzerland

U.S. Senate

Preceded by William Maclay United States
United States
Senator (Class 1) from Pennsylvania 1793–1794 Served alongside: Robert Morris Succeeded by James Ross

Honorary titles

Preceded by John Rutherfurd Baby of the Senate 1793–1794 Succeeded by John Rutherfurd

Most Senior Living U.S. Senator Sitting or Former 1840–1849 Succeeded by William Plumer

U.S. House of Representatives

Preceded by William Findley Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania's 12th congressional district 1795–1801 Succeeded by William Hoge

Political offices

Preceded by Samuel Dexter United States
United States
Secretary of the Treasury 1801–1814 Succeeded by George W. Campbell

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by William H. Crawford United States
United States
Minister to France 1816–1823 Succeeded by James Brown

Preceded by Rufus King United States
United States
Minister to the United Kingdom 1826–1827 Succeeded by James Barbour

Party political offices

Preceded by Daniel D. Tompkins Democratic-Republican nominee for Vice President of the United States¹ Withdrew 1824 Served alongside: John C. Calhoun, Nathaniel Macon, Nathan Sanford Position abolished

Notes and references

1. The Democratic-Republican Party
Democratic-Republican Party
split in the 1824 election, fielding four separate candidates.

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United States
United States
Secretaries of the Treasury

18th century

Hamilton Wolcott Dexter

19th century

Gallatin Campbell Dallas Crawford Rush Ingham McLane Duane Taney Woodbury Ewing Forward Spencer Bibb Walker Meredith Corwin Guthrie Cobb Thomas Dix Chase Fessenden McCulloch Boutwell Richardson Bristow Morrill Sherman Windom Folger Gresham McCulloch Manning Fairchild Windom Foster Carlisle Gage

20th century

Shaw Cortelyou MacVeagh McAdoo Glass Houston Mellon Mills Woodin Morgenthau Vinson Snyder Humphrey Anderson Dillon Fowler Barr Kennedy Connally Shultz Simon Blumenthal Miller Regan Baker Brady Bentsen Rubin Summers

21st century

O'Neill Snow Paulson Geithner Lew Mnuchin

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United States
United States
Senators from Pennsylvania

Class 1

W. Maclay Gallatin Ross S. Maclay Leib Roberts Findlay Barnard Dallas McKean Sturgeon Brodhead S. Cameron Wilmot Buckalew J. Scott Wallace Mitchell Quay Knox Oliver Knox Crow Reed Guffey Martin H. Scott Heinz Wofford Santorum Casey

Class 3

Morris Bingham Muhlenberg Logan Gregg Lacock Lowrie Marks Wilkins Buchanan S. Cameron Cooper Bigler Cowan S. Cameron J. Cameron Penrose Pepper Vare† Grundy Davis Myers Duff Clark Schweiker Specter Toomey

Notes

† Never officially seated.

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Ambassadors of the United States
United States
of America to France

Envoys to France 1776–1779

Benjamin Franklin, Arthur Lee, Silas Deane
Silas Deane
(substituted by John Adams in 1778) (1776–1779)

Ministers Plenipotentiary to France 1778–1815

Franklin (1778–85) Jefferson (1785–89) Short (1790–92) Morris (1792–94) Monroe (1794–96) Pinckney (1796–97) Livingston (1801–04) Armstrong (1804–10) Russell (chargé d'affaires) (1811) Barlow (1811–12) Crawford (1813–15)

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to France 1816–1893

Gallatin (1816–23) Brown (1824–29) Rives (1829–32) Harris (chargé d'affaires) (1833) Livingston (1833–35) Barton (chargé d'affaires) (1835) Cass (1836–42) King (1844–46) Rush (1847–49) Rives (1849–53) Mason (1853–59) Faulkner (1860–61) Dayton (1861–64) Bigelow (1865–66) Dix (1866–69) Washburne (1869–77) Noyes (1877–81) Morton (1881–85) McLane (1885–89) Reid (1889–92) Coolidge (1892–93)

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to France 1893–present

Eustis (1893–97) Porter (1897–05) McCormick (1905–07) White (1907–09) Bacon (1909–12) Herrick (1912–14) Sharp (1914–1919) Wallace (1919–21) Herrick (1921–29) Edge (1929–33) Straus (1933–36) Bullitt (1936–40) Leahy (1941–42) Tuck (chargé d'affaires) (1942) Caffery (1944–49) Bruce (1949–52) Dunn (1952–53) Dillon (1953–57) Houghton (1957–61) Gavin (1961–62) Bohlen (1962–68) Shriver (1968–70) Watson (1970–72) Irwin (1973–74) Rush (1974–77) Hartman (1977–81) Galbraith (1981–85) Rodgers (1985–89) Curley (1989–93) Harriman (1993–97) Rohatyn (1997–2000) Leach (2001–05) Stapleton (2005–09) Rivkin (2009–2013) Hartley (2014–2017) McCourt (2017–present)

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Ambassadors of the United States
United States
of America to the Court of St. James's

Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1785–1811

John Adams
John Adams
(1785–1788) Thomas Pinckney
Thomas Pinckney
(1792–1796) Rufus King
Rufus King
(1796–1803) James Monroe
James Monroe
(1803–1807) William Pinkney
William Pinkney
(1808–1811) Jonathan Russell
Jonathan Russell
(chargé d'affaires) (1811–1812)

Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1815–1893

John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
(1815–1817) Richard Rush
Richard Rush
(1818–1825) Rufus King
Rufus King
(1825–1826) Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
(1826–1827) James Barbour
James Barbour
(1828–1829) Louis McLane
Louis McLane
(1829–1831) Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
(1831–1832) Aaron Vail (chargé d'affaires) (1832–1836) Andrew Stevenson
Andrew Stevenson
(1836–1841) Edward Everett
Edward Everett
(1841–1845) Louis McLane
Louis McLane
(1845–1846) George Bancroft
George Bancroft
(1846–1849) Abbott Lawrence
Abbott Lawrence
(1849–1852) Joseph R. Ingersoll (1852–1853) James Buchanan
James Buchanan
(1853–1856) George M. Dallas
George M. Dallas
(1856–1861) Charles Adams Sr. (1861–1868) Reverdy Johnson
Reverdy Johnson
(1868–1869) John Lothrop Motley
John Lothrop Motley
(1869–1870) Robert C. Schenck
Robert C. Schenck
(1871–1876) Edwards Pierrepont
Edwards Pierrepont
(1876–1877) John Welsh (1877–1879) James Russell Lowell
James Russell Lowell
(1880–1885) Edward J. Phelps (1885–1889) Robert Todd Lincoln
Robert Todd Lincoln
(1889–1893)

Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1893–present

Thomas F. Bayard
Thomas F. Bayard
Sr. (1893–1897) John Hay
John Hay
(1897–1898) Joseph Choate (1899–1905) Whitelaw Reid
Whitelaw Reid
(1905–1912) Walter Page (1913-1918) John W. Davis
John W. Davis
(1918–1921) George Harvey (1921–1923) Frank B. Kellogg
Frank B. Kellogg
(1924–1925) Alanson B. Houghton
Alanson B. Houghton
(1925–1929) Charles G. Dawes
Charles G. Dawes
(1929–1931) Andrew W. Mellon
Andrew W. Mellon
(1932–1933) Robert Bingham (1933–1937) Joseph P. Kennedy (1938–1940) John G. Winant (1941–1946) W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
(1946) Lewis W. Douglas (1947–1950) Walter S. Gifford (1950–1953) Winthrop W. Aldrich
Winthrop W. Aldrich
(1953–1957) John Hay
John Hay
Whitney (1957–1961) David K. E. Bruce (1961–1969) Walter H. Annenberg (1969–1974) Elliot L. Richardson (1975–1976) Anne Armstrong (1976–1977) Kingman Brewster Jr. (1977–1981) John J. Louis Jr. (1981–1983) Charles H. Price II
Charles H. Price II
(1983–1989) Henry E. Catto Jr. (1989–1991) Raymond G. H. Seitz (1991–1994) William J. Crowe
William J. Crowe
(1994–1997) Philip Lader
Philip Lader
(1997–2001) William Stamps Farish III
William Stamps Farish III
(2001–2004) Robert H. Tuttle
Robert H. Tuttle
(2005–2009) Louis Susman
Louis Susman
(2009–2013) Matthew Barzun
Matthew Barzun
(2013–2017) Woody Johnson
Woody Johnson
(2017– )

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Cabinet of President Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(1801–09)

Secretary of State

James Madison
James Madison
(1801–09)

Secretary of the Treasury

Samuel Dexter
Samuel Dexter
(1801) Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
(1801–09)

Secretary of War

Henry Dearborn
Henry Dearborn
(1801–09)

Attorney General

Levi Lincoln Sr.
Levi Lincoln Sr.
(1801–04) Robert Smith (1805) John Breckinridge (1805–06) Caesar A. Rodney (1807–09)

Postmaster General

Joseph Habersham
Joseph Habersham
(1801) Gideon Granger (1801–09)

Secretary of the Navy

Benjamin Stoddert
Benjamin Stoddert
(1801) Robert Smith (1801–09)

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Cabinet of President James Madison
James Madison
(1809–17)

Secretary of State

Robert Smith (1809–11) James Monroe
James Monroe
(1811–14, 1815–17)

Secretary of the Treasury

Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
(1809–14) George W. Campbell
George W. Campbell
(1814) Alexander J. Dallas (1814–16) William H. Crawford
William H. Crawford
(1816–17)

Secretary of War

William Eustis
William Eustis
(1809–13) John Armstrong Jr.
John Armstrong Jr.
(1813–14) James Monroe
James Monroe
(1814–15) William H. Crawford
William H. Crawford
(1815–16) George Graham (1816–1817)

Attorney General

Caesar A. Rodney (1809–11) William Pinkney
William Pinkney
(1811–14) Richard Rush
Richard Rush
(1814–17)

Postmaster General

Gideon Granger (1809–14) Return J. Meigs Jr.
Return J. Meigs Jr.
(1814–17)

Secretary of the Navy

Paul Hamilton (1809–13) William Jones (1813–14) Benjamin W. Crowninshield (1814–17)

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New York University

Academics

Archives Brennan Center for Justice Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics Center on the Administration of Criminal Law Frederic Ewen Academic Freedom Center Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy GNAT New York Institute for the Humanities New York University
New York University
Journal of International Law and Politics New York University
New York University
Law Review New York University
New York University
Press NYU Annual Survey of American Law NYU Catherine B. Reynolds Program for Social Entrepreneurship Root-Tilden Scholarship Rudin Center for Transportation Policy & Management Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine Washington Square Review

Athletics

NYU Violets

Men's basketball

Coles Sports and Recreation Center Deans' Cup Eastern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association University Athletic Association

Campus

370 Jay Street Brown Building Casa Italiana Zerilli Marimò Elmer Holmes Bobst Library Fales Library James B. Duke House La Maison Française Langone Medical Center Puck Building Residence halls Silver Center Skirball Center for the Performing Arts Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Archives Union Square University Village Washington Mews Washington Square Park Washington Square Village Wunsch Building NYU Paris NYU London NYU Florence

Culture

NYU in popular culture

People

List of New York University
New York University
alumni List of New York University
New York University
faculty List of New York University
New York University
honorary degree recipients List of Presidents of New York University List of New York University
New York University
staff

Schools

Undergraduate

College of Arts and Science Liberal Studies Nursing Individualized Study Engineering Social Work Public Service Mathematical Sciences Culture, Education, and Human Development Business Arts NYU Abu Dhabi NYU Shanghai

Graduate

Dentistry Mathematical Sciences Arts and Science Ancient World Fine Arts Engineering Public Service Professional Studies Law Medicine Social Work

Library

New York University
New York University
Libraries Elmer Holmes Bobst Library Fales Library

Life

Eucleian Society Graduate Student Organizing Committee History of NYU NYU Local Philomathean Society The Plague Red Dragon Society Student life Student Senators Council Washington Square News WNYU-FM

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Whiskey Rebellion

People

Alexander Addison Hugh Henry Brackenridge David Bradford William Findley Thomas Gaddis Albert Gallatin Alexander Hamilton Herman Husband Henry Lee Daniel Morgan Robert Philson John Smilie George Washington John Wilkins, Jr.

Places

Western Pennsylvania Andrew Rabb House Bethel Presbyterian Church Black Horse Tavern David Bradford House Defibaugh Tavern Fort Gaddis Huffman Distillery and Chopping Mill John Corbley Farm Mingo Creek Presbyterian Church and Churchyard Oliver Miller Homestead Lobb's Cemetery and Yohogania County Courthouse Site Redstone Old Fort William Crawford House Whiskey Point

Legacy

Wigle Whiskey The Whiskey Rebels "Copper Kettle" Wilderness Boy The Delectable Country The Latimers Whiskey Rebellion

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 15580820 LCCN: n50015401 ISNI: 0000 0000 8095 519X GND: 119467143 SUDOC: 035661305 BNF: cb13327785b (data) BIBSYS: 13004635 ULAN: 500329566 HDS: 25658 NDL: 00742896 US Congress: G000020 BNE: XX1355

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