ALBERT EINSTEIN (/ˈaɪnstaɪn/ ; German: ( listen ); 14 March
1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist .
Einstein developed the theory of relativity , one of the two pillars
of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics ). :274 Einstein's
work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science .
Einstein is best known by the general public for his mass–energy
equivalence formula E = mc2 (which has been dubbed "the world's most
famous equation"). He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in
his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery
of the law of the photoelectric effect ", a pivotal step in the
evolution of quantum theory .
Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian
mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical
mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field . This led him to
develop his special theory of relativity during his time at the Swiss
Patent Office in
Bern (1902–1909), Switzerland. However, he realized
that the principle of relativity could also be extended to
gravitational fields and—with his subsequent theory of gravitation
in 1916—he published a paper on general relativity . He continued to
deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which
led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules
. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the
foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, Einstein applied
the general theory of relativity to model the large-scale structure of
the universe .
Between 1895 and 1914 he lived in
Switzerland (except for one year in
Prague, 1911–12), where he received his academic diploma from the
Swiss Federal Polytechnic in
Zürich (later the Eidgenössische
Technische Hochschule, ETH) in 1900. He later taught there at the same
institute as a professor of theoretical physics between 1912 and 1914
before he left for Berlin. In 1901, after being stateless for more
than five years, Einstein acquired
Swiss citizenship , which he kept
for the rest of his life. In 1905, Einstein was awarded a PhD by the
University of Zürich . The same year, his annus mirabilis (miracle
year), he published four groundbreaking papers , which were to bring
him to the notice of the academic world, at the age of 26.
He was visiting the United States when
Adolf Hitler came to power in
1933 and—being Jewish —did not go back to Germany, where he had
been a professor at the
Berlin Academy of Sciences . He settled in the
United States, becoming an
American citizen in 1940. On the eve of
World War II
World War II , he endorsed a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt
alerting him to the potential development of "extremely powerful bombs
of a new type" and recommending that the U.S. begin similar research.
This eventually led to what would become the
Manhattan Project .
Einstein supported defending the Allied forces , but generally
denounced the idea of using the newly discovered nuclear fission as a
weapon. Later, with the British philosopher
Bertrand Russell ,
Einstein signed the
Russell–Einstein Manifesto , which highlighted
the danger of nuclear weapons. Einstein was affiliated with the
Institute for Advanced Study
Institute for Advanced Study in
Princeton, New Jersey , until his
death in 1955.
Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over
150 non-scientific works. Einstein's intellectual achievements and
originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with "genius ".
* 1 Biography
* 1.1 Early life and education
* 1.2 Marriages and children
* 1.3 Friends
* 1.4 Patent office
* 1.4.1 First scientific papers
* 1.5 Academic career
* 1.6 1921–1922: Travels abroad
* 1.7 1930–1931: Travel to the U.S.
* 1.8 1933: Emigration to the U.S.
* 1.8.1 Refugee status
* 1.8.2 Resident scholar at the Princeton Institute for Advanced
World War II
World War II and the
* 1.8.4 U.S. citizenship
* 1.9 Personal life
* 1.9.1 Supporter of civil rights
* 1.9.2 Assisting Zionist causes
* 1.9.3 Love of music
* 1.9.4 Political and religious views
* 1.10 Death
* 2 Scientific career
* 2.1 1905 –
Annus Mirabilis papers
Thermodynamic fluctuations and statistical physics
* 2.3 General principles
Theory of relativity
Theory of relativity and E = mc²
* 2.5 Photons and energy quanta
* 2.6 Quantized atomic vibrations
* 2.7 Adiabatic principle and action-angle variables
* 2.9 Theory of critical opalescence
General relativity and the equivalence principle
* 2.11.1 Gravitational waves
Hole argument and Entwurf theory
* 2.14 Modern quantum theory
* 2.16 Energy momentum pseudotensor
Unified field theory
* 2.18 Wormholes
* 2.20 Equations of motion
* 2.21 Other investigations
* 2.22 Collaboration with other scientists
* 2.22.1 Einstein–de Haas experiment
* 2.22.2 Schrödinger gas model
* 2.23 Bohr versus Einstein
* 2.24 Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox
* 3 Non-scientific legacy
* 4 In popular culture
* 5 Awards and honors
* 6 Publications
* 7 See also
* 8 Notes
* 9 References
* 10 Further reading
* 11 External links
EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION
Einstein family Einstein at the age of 3 in 1882
Albert Einstein in 1893 (age 14) Einstein's matriculation
certificate at the age of 17, showing his final grades from the
Argovian cantonal school (Aargauische Kantonsschule, on a scale of
1–6, with 6 being the highest possible mark)
Albert Einstein was born in
Ulm , in the
Kingdom of Württemberg in
German Empire , on 14 March 1879. His parents were Hermann
Einstein , a salesman and engineer, and
Pauline Koch . In 1880, the
family moved to
Munich , where Einstein's father and his uncle Jakob
founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein ">
Albert Einstein in
1904 (age 25)
The discovery and publication in 1987 of an early correspondence
between Einstein and Marić revealed that they had had a daughter,
called "Lieserl" in their letters, born in early 1902 in Novi Sad
where Marić was staying with her parents. Marić returned to
Switzerland without the child, whose real name and fate are unknown.
Einstein probably never saw his daughter. The contents of his letter
to Marić in September 1903 suggest that the girl was either given up
for adoption or died of scarlet fever in infancy. Einstein with
his wife Elsa, 1921
Einstein and Marić married in January 1903. In May 1904, their first
Hans Albert Einstein , was born in
Switzerland . Their
second son, Eduard , was born in
Zürich in July 1910. In April 1914
they moved to
Berlin . After a few months his wife returned to Zürich
with their sons, after learning that Einstein's chief romantic
attraction was his first and second cousin Elsa. They divorced on 14
February 1919, having lived apart for five years. Eduard, whom his
father called "Tete" (for petit), had a breakdown at about age 20 and
was diagnosed with schizophrenia . His mother cared for him and he
was also committed to asylums for several periods, finally being
committed permanently after her death.
In letters revealed in 2015, Einstein wrote to his early love, Marie
Winteler, about his marriage and his still-strong feelings for Marie.
In 1910 he wrote to her that "I think of you in heartfelt love every
spare minute and am so unhappy as only a man can be" while his wife
was pregnant with their second child. Einstein spoke about a
"misguided love" and a "missed life" regarding his love for Marie.
Elsa Löwenthal in 1919, after having had a
personal relationship with her since 1912. She was a first cousin
maternally and a second cousin paternally. In 1933, they emigrated to
the United States. In 1935,
Elsa Einstein was diagnosed with heart and
kidney problems; she died in December 1936.
Among Einstein's well-known friends were
Michele Besso , Paul
Marcel Grossmann ,
János Plesch ,
Maurice Solovine , and
Stephen Wise .
Olympia Academy founders:
Conrad Habicht ,
Maurice Solovine and
After graduating in 1900, Einstein spent almost two frustrating years
searching for a teaching post. He acquired
Swiss citizenship in
February 1901, but was not conscripted for medical reasons. With the
Marcel Grossmann 's father, he secured a job in
Bern at the
Federal Office for Intellectual Property , the patent office, as an
assistant examiner – level III . He evaluated patent applications
for a variety of devices including a gravel sorter and an
electromechanical typewriter. In 1903, his position at the Swiss
Patent Office became permanent, although he was passed over for
promotion until he "fully mastered machine technology". :370
Much of his work at the patent office related to questions about
transmission of electric signals and electrical-mechanical
synchronization of time, two technical problems that show up
conspicuously in the thought experiments that eventually led Einstein
to his radical conclusions about the nature of light and the
fundamental connection between space and time. :377
With a few friends he had met in Bern, Einstein started a small
discussion group in 1902, self-mockingly named "The
Olympia Academy ",
which met regularly to discuss science and philosophy. Their readings
included the works of
Henri Poincaré ,
Ernst Mach , and
David Hume ,
which influenced his scientific and philosophical outlook.
First Scientific Papers
Einstein's official 1921 portrait after receiving the Nobel
In 1900, Einstein's paper "Folgerungen aus den
Capillaritätserscheinungen" ("Conclusions from the Capillarity
Phenomena") was published in the journal
Annalen der Physik . On 30
April 1905, Einstein completed his thesis, with
Alfred Kleiner ,
Professor of Experimental Physics, serving as pro-forma advisor. As a
result, Einstein was awarded a PhD by the
University of Zürich , with
his dissertation titled, "A New Determination of Molecular
Dimensions." That same year, which has been called Einstein's annus
mirabilis (miracle year), he published four groundbreaking papers , on
the photoelectric effect, Brownian motion, special relativity, and the
equivalence of mass and energy, which were to bring him to the notice
of the academic world, at the age of 26.
By 1908, he was recognized as a leading scientist and was appointed
lecturer at the University of
Bern . The following year, after giving
a lecture on electrodynamics and the relativity principle at the
University of Zürich,
Alfred Kleiner recommended him to the faculty
for a newly created professorship in theoretical physics. Einstein was
appointed associate professor in 1909.
Einstein became a full professor at the German Charles-Ferdinand
Prague in April 1911, accepting Austrian citizenship in
Austro-Hungarian Empire to do so. During his
Prague stay, he
wrote 11 scientific works, five of them on radiation mathematics and
on the quantum theory of solids. In July 1912, he returned to his alma
mater in Zürich. From 1912 until 1914, he was professor of
theoretical physics at the
ETH Zurich , where he taught analytical
mechanics and thermodynamics . He also studied continuum mechanics ,
the molecular theory of heat, and the problem of gravitation, on which
he worked with mathematician and friend
Marcel Grossmann .
On 3 July 1913, he was voted for membership in the Prussian Academy
of Sciences in Berlin.
Max Planck and
Walther Nernst visited him the
next week in Zurich to persuade him to join the academy, additionally
offering him the post of director at the
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for
Physics , which was soon to be established. (Membership in the
academy included paid salary and professorship without teaching duties
Humboldt University of Berlin
Humboldt University of Berlin .) He was officially elected to
the academy on 24 July, and he accepted to move to the German Empire
the next year. His decision to move to
Berlin was also influenced by
the prospect of living near his cousin Elsa, with whom he had
developed a romantic affair. He joined the academy and thus the Berlin
University on 1 April 1914. As World War I broke out that year, the
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for
Physics was aborted. The
institute was established on 1 October 1917, with Einstein as its
Director. In 1916, Einstein was elected president of the German
Physical Society (1916–1918).
Based on calculations Einstein made in 1911, about his new theory of
general relativity, light from another star should be bent by the
Sun's gravity. In 1919, that prediction was confirmed by Sir Arthur
Eddington during the solar eclipse of 29 May 1919 . Those observations
were published in the international media, making Einstein world
famous. On 7 November 1919, the leading British newspaper The Times
printed a banner headline that read: "Revolution in Science – New
Theory of the
Universe – Newtonian Ideas Overthrown".
In 1920, he became a Foreign Member of the Royal Netherlands Academy
of Arts and Sciences . In 1922, he was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize
Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially
for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". While the
general theory of relativity was still considered somewhat
controversial, the citation also does not treat the cited work as an
explanation but merely as a discovery of the law, as the idea of
photons was considered outlandish and did not receive universal
acceptance until the 1924 derivation of the
Planck spectrum by S. N.
Bose . Einstein was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society
(ForMemRS) in 1921 . He also received the
Copley Medal from the Royal
Society in 1925.
1921–1922: TRAVELS ABROAD
Einstein visited New York City for the first time on 2 April 1921,
where he received an official welcome by Mayor
John Francis Hylan
John Francis Hylan ,
followed by three weeks of lectures and receptions. He went on to
deliver several lectures at
Columbia University and Princeton
University , and in Washington he accompanied representatives of the
National Academy of Science on a visit to the
White House . On his
return to Europe he was the guest of the British statesman and
Viscount Haldane in London, where he met several renowned
scientific, intellectual and political figures, and delivered a
lecture at King\'s College London .
He also published an essay, "My First Impression of the U.S.A.," in
July 1921, in which he tried briefly to describe some characteristics
of Americans, much as had
Alexis de Tocqueville
Alexis de Tocqueville , who published his
own impressions in
Democracy in America (1835). For some of his
observations, Einstein was clearly surprised: "What strikes a visitor
is the joyous, positive attitude to life . . . The American is
friendly, self-confident, optimistic, and without envy." :20
In 1922, his travels took him to Asia and later to Palestine, as part
of a six-month excursion and speaking tour, as he visited
Japan , where he gave a series of lectures to thousands of
Japanese. After his first public lecture, he met the emperor and
empress at the Imperial Palace , where thousands came to watch. In a
letter to his sons, he described his impression of the Japanese as
being modest, intelligent, considerate, and having a true feel for
Because of Einstein's travels to the Far East, he was unable to
personally accept the Nobel Prize for
Physics at the Stockholm award
ceremony in December 1922. In his place, the banquet speech was held
by a German diplomat, who praised Einstein not only as a scientist but
also as an international peacemaker and activist.
On his return voyage, he visited Palestine for 12 days in what would
become his only visit to that region. He was greeted as if he were a
head of state, rather than a physicist, which included a cannon salute
upon arriving at the home of the British high commissioner, Sir
Herbert Samuel . During one reception, the building was stormed by
people who wanted to see and hear him. In Einstein's talk to the
audience, he expressed happiness that the
Jewish people were beginning
to be recognized as a force in the world.
Einstein visited Spain for two weeks in 1923, where he briefly met
Santiago Ramón y Cajal and also received a diploma from King Alfonso
XIII naming him a member of the Spanish Academy of Sciences.
1930–1931: TRAVEL TO THE U.S.
In December 1930, Einstein visited America for the second time,
originally intended as a two-month working visit as a research fellow
California Institute of Technology
California Institute of Technology . After the national
attention he received during his first trip to the U.S., he and his
arrangers aimed to protect his privacy. Although swamped with
telegrams and invitations to receive awards or speak publicly, he
declined them all.
After arriving in New York City, Einstein was taken to various places
and events, including Chinatown , a lunch with the editors of the New
York Times, and a performance of Carmen at the
Metropolitan Opera ,
where he was cheered by the audience on his arrival. During the days
following, he was given the keys to the city by Mayor
Jimmy Walker and
met the president of Columbia University, who described Einstein as
"the ruling monarch of the mind."
Harry Emerson Fosdick , pastor at
Riverside Church , gave Einstein a tour of the church and
showed him a full-size statue that the church made of Einstein,
standing at the entrance. Also during his stay in New York, he joined
a crowd of 15,000 people at
Madison Square Garden during a Hanukkah
Einstein next traveled to California, where he met
and Nobel laureate,
Robert A. Millikan . His friendship with Millikan
was "awkward", as Millikan "had a penchant for patriotic militarism,"
where Einstein was a pronounced pacifist . During an address to
Caltech's students, Einstein noted that science was often inclined to
do more harm than good. Einstein (left) and
Charlie Chaplin at
Hollywood premiere of
City Lights , January 1931
This aversion to war also led Einstein to befriend author Upton
Sinclair and film star
Charlie Chaplin , both noted for their
Carl Laemmle , head of
Universal Studios , gave Einstein a
tour of his studio and introduced him to Chaplin. They had an instant
rapport, with Chaplin inviting Einstein and his wife, Elsa, to his
home for dinner. Chaplin said Einstein's outward persona, calm and
gentle, seemed to conceal a "highly emotional temperament," from which
came his "extraordinary intellectual energy." :320
Chaplin also remembers Elsa telling him about the time Einstein
conceived his theory of relativity . During breakfast one morning, he
seemed lost in thought and ignored his food. She asked him if
something was bothering him. He sat down at his piano and started
playing. He continued playing and writing notes for half an hour, then
went upstairs to his study, where he remained for two weeks, with Elsa
bringing up his food. At the end of the two weeks, he came downstairs
with two sheets of paper bearing his theory. :320
City Lights , was to premiere a few days later in
Hollywood, and Chaplin invited Einstein and Elsa to join him as his
Walter Isaacson , Einstein's biographer, described
this as "one of the most memorable scenes in the new era of
celebrity." Chaplin visited Einstein at his home on a later trip to
Berlin, and recalled his "modest little flat" and the piano at which
he had begun writing his theory. Chaplin speculated that it was
"possibly used as kindling wood by the Nazis." :322
1933: EMIGRATION TO THE U.S.
Cartoon of Einstein, who has shed his "Pacifism" wings, standing
next to a pillar labeled "World Peace." He is rolling up his sleeves
and holding a sword labeled "Preparedness" (by Charles R. Macauley, c.
In February 1933 while on a visit to the United States, Einstein knew
he could not return to Germany with the rise to power of the Nazis
under Germany's new chancellor,
Adolf Hitler .
While at American universities in early 1933, he undertook his third
two-month visiting professorship at the California Institute of
Technology in Pasadena. He and his wife Elsa returned to Belgium by
ship in March, and during the trip they learned that their cottage was
raided by the Nazis and his personal sailboat confiscated. Upon
Antwerp on 28 March, he immediately went to the German
consulate and surrendered his passport, formally renouncing his German
citizenship. The Nazis later sold his boat and converted his cottage
Hitler Youth camp.
In April 1933, Einstein discovered that the new German government had
passed laws barring Jews from holding any official positions,
including teaching at universities. Historian
Gerald Holton describes
how, with "virtually no audible protest being raised by their
colleagues," thousands of Jewish scientists were suddenly forced to
give up their university positions and their names were removed from
the rolls of institutions where they were employed.
A month later, Einstein's works were among those targeted by the
German Student Union in the
Nazi book burnings , with Nazi propaganda
Joseph Goebbels proclaiming, "Jewish intellectualism is
dead." One German magazine included him in a list of enemies of the
German regime with the phrase, "not yet hanged", offering a $5,000
bounty on his head. In a subsequent letter to physicist and friend
Max Born , who had already emigrated from Germany to England, Einstein
wrote, "... I must confess that the degree of their brutality and
cowardice came as something of a surprise." After moving to the U.S.,
he described the book burnings as a "spontaneous emotional outburst"
by those who "shun popular enlightenment," and "more than anything
else in the world, fear the influence of men of intellectual
Einstein was now without a permanent home, unsure where he would live
and work, and equally worried about the fate of countless other
scientists still in Germany. He rented a house in De Haan, Belgium,
where he lived for a few months. In late July 1933, he went to England
for about six weeks at the personal invitation of British naval
Oliver Locker-Lampson , who had become friends with
Einstein in the preceding years. To protect Einstein, Locker-Lampson
had two assistants watch over him at his secluded cottage outside
London, with photo of them carrying shotguns and guarding Einstein,
published in the Daily Herald on July 24, 1933.
Locker-Lampson took Einstein to meet
Winston Churchill at his home,
Austen Chamberlain and former Prime Minister Lloyd George .
Einstein asked them to help bring Jewish scientists out of Germany.
Martin Gilbert notes that Churchill responded
immediately, and sent his friend, physicist Frederick Lindemann to
Germany to seek out Jewish scientists and place them in British
universities. Churchill later observed that as a result of Germany
having driven the Jews out, they had lowered their "technical
standards" and put the Allies\' technology ahead of theirs.
Einstein later contacted leaders of other nations, including Turkey
's Prime Minister,
İsmet İnönü , to whom he wrote in September
1933 requesting placement of unemployed German-Jewish scientists. As a
result of Einstein's letter, Jewish invitees to
totaled over "1,000 saved individuals."
Locker-Lampson also submitted a bill to parliament to extend British
citizenship to Einstein, during which period Einstein made a number of
public appearances describing the crisis brewing in Europe. In one of
his speeches he denounced Germany's treatment of Jews, while at the
same time he introduced a bill promoting Jewish citizenship in
Palestine, as they were being denied citizenship elsewhere. In his
speech he described Einstein as a "citizen of the world" who should be
offered a temporary shelter in the U.K. Both bills failed, however,
and Einstein then accepted an earlier offer from the Princeton
Institute for Advanced Study
Institute for Advanced Study , in the U.S., to become a resident
Resident Scholar At The Princeton Institute For Advanced Study
Portrait taken in 1935 in Princeton
In October 1933 Einstein returned to the U.S. and took up a position
at the Institute for Advanced Study, noted for having become a
refuge for scientists fleeing Nazi Germany. At the time, most
American universities, including Harvard, Princeton and Yale, had
minimal or no Jewish faculty or students, as a result of their Jewish
quota which lasted until the late 1940s.
Einstein was still undecided on his future. He had offers from
several European universities, including
Christ Church, Oxford
Christ Church, Oxford where
he stayed for three short periods between May 1931 and June 1933 and
was offered a 5-year studentship, but in 1935 he arrived at the
decision to remain permanently in the United States and apply for
Einstein's affiliation with the
Institute for Advanced Study
Institute for Advanced Study would
last until his death in 1955. He was one of the four first selected
(two of the others being
John von Neumann
John von Neumann and
Kurt Gödel ) at the new
Institute, where he soon developed a close friendship with Gödel. The
two would take long walks together discussing their work. Bruria
Kaufman , his assistant, later became a physicist. During this period,
Einstein tried to develop a unified field theory and to refute the
accepted interpretation of quantum physics , both unsuccessfully.
World War II
World War II And The Manhattan Project
In 1939, a group of Hungarian scientists that included émigré
Leó Szilárd attempted to alert Washington to ongoing Nazi
atomic bomb research. The group's warnings were discounted. Einstein
and Szilárd, along with other refugees such as
Edward Teller and
Eugene Wigner , "regarded it as their responsibility to alert
Americans to the possibility that German scientists might win the race
to build an atomic bomb , and to warn that Hitler would be more than
willing to resort to such a weapon." To make certain the U.S. was
aware of the danger, in July 1939, a few months before the beginning
World War II
World War II in Europe, Szilárd and Wigner visited Einstein to
explain the possibility of atomic bombs, which Einstein, a pacifist,
said he had never considered. He was asked to lend his support by
writing a letter , with Szilárd, to President Roosevelt ,
recommending the U.S. pay attention and engage in its own nuclear
The letter is believed to be "arguably the key stimulus for the U.S.
adoption of serious investigations into nuclear weapons on the eve of
the U.S. entry into World War II". In addition to the letter,
Einstein used his connections with the
Belgian Royal Family and the
Belgian queen mother to get access with a personal envoy to the White
House's Oval Office. President Roosevelt could not take the risk of
allowing Hitler to possess atomic bombs first. As a result of
Einstein's letter and his meetings with Roosevelt, the U.S. entered
the "race" to develop the bomb, drawing on its "immense material,
financial, and scientific resources" to initiate the Manhattan Project
. The U.S. became the only country to successfully develop nuclear
World War II
World War II and also remains the only country to have
used them in combat, against Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9,
1945, respectively, towards the end of the war.
For Einstein, "war was a disease ... he called for resistance to
war." By signing the letter to Roosevelt, he went against his pacifist
principles. In 1954, a year before his death, Einstein said to his
Linus Pauling , "I made one great mistake in my
life—when I signed the letter to President Roosevelt recommending
that atom bombs be made; but there was some justification—the danger
that the Germans would make them ..."
Einstein accepting U.S. citizenship certificate from judge
Einstein became an
American citizen in 1940. Not long after settling
into his career at the
Institute for Advanced Study
Institute for Advanced Study (in Princeton, New
Jersey), he expressed his appreciation of the meritocracy in American
culture when compared to Europe. He recognized the "right of
individuals to say and think what they pleased", without social
barriers, and as a result, individuals were encouraged, he said, to be
more creative, a trait he valued from his own early education.
Supporter Of Civil Rights
Einstein was a passionate, committed antiracist and joined National
Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in
Princeton, where he campaigned for the civil rights of African
Americans. He considered racism America's "worst disease," seeing it
as "handed down from one generation to the next." As part of his
involvement, he corresponded with civil rights activist W. E. B. Du
Bois and was prepared to testify on his behalf during his trial in
1951. :565 When Einstein offered to be a character witness for Du
Bois, the judge decided to drop the case. Einstein in 1947
In 1946 Einstein visited Lincoln University in Pennsylvania, a
historically black college , where he was awarded an honorary degree.
(Lincoln was the first university in the United States to grant
college degrees to
African Americans ; alumni include Langston Hughes
Thurgood Marshall .) Einstein gave a speech about racism in
America, adding, "I do not intend to be quiet about it." A resident
of Princeton recalls that Einstein had once paid the college tuition
for a black student.
Assisting Zionist Causes
Einstein was a figurehead leader in helping establish the Hebrew
University of Jerusalem , which opened in 1925, and was among its
first Board of Governors. Earlier, in 1921, he was asked by the
biochemist and president of the
World Zionist Organization , Chaim
Weizmann , to help raise funds for the planned university. He also
submitted various suggestions as to its initial programs.
Among those, he advised first creating an Institute of Agriculture in
order to settle the undeveloped land. That should be followed, he
suggested, by a Chemical Institute and an Institute of Microbiology,
to fight the various ongoing epidemics such as malaria , which he
called an "evil" that was undermining a third of the country's
development. :161 Establishing an Oriental Studies Institute, to
include language courses given in both Hebrew and Arabic, for
scientific exploration of the country and its historical monuments,
was also important. :158
Chaim Weizmann later became Israel's first president. Upon his death
while in office in November 1952 and at the urging of Ezriel Carlebach
, Prime Minister
David Ben-Gurion offered Einstein the position of
President of Israel , a mostly ceremonial post. The offer was
presented by Israel's ambassador in Washington,
Abba Eban , who
explained that the offer "embodies the deepest respect which the
Jewish people can repose in any of its sons". Einstein declined, and
wrote in his response that he was "deeply moved", and "at once
saddened and ashamed" that he could not accept it.
Love Of Music
Einstein (right) with writer, musician and Nobel laureate
Rabindranath Tagore , 1930
Einstein developed an appreciation for music at an early age, and
later wrote: "If I were not a physicist, I would probably be a
musician. I often think in music. I live my daydreams in music. I see
my life in terms of music... I get most joy in life out of music."
His mother played the piano reasonably well and wanted her son to
learn the violin , not only to instill in him a love of music but also
to help him assimilate into
German culture . According to conductor
Leon Botstein , Einstein is said to have begun playing when he was 5,
although he did not enjoy it at that age.
When he turned 13, he discovered the violin sonatas of
whereupon "Einstein fell in love" with Mozart's music and studied
music more willingly. He taught himself to play without "ever
practicing systematically", he said, deciding that "love is a better
teacher than a sense of duty." At age 17, he was heard by a school
Aarau as he played
Beethoven 's violin sonatas , the
examiner stating afterward that his playing was "remarkable and
revealing of 'great insight'." What struck the examiner, writes
Botstein, was that Einstein "displayed a deep love of the music, a
quality that was and remains in short supply. Music possessed an
unusual meaning for this student."
Music took on a pivotal and permanent role in Einstein's life from
that period on. Although the idea of becoming a professional musician
himself was not on his mind at any time, among those with whom
Einstein played chamber music were a few professionals, and he
performed for private audiences and friends.
Chamber music had also
become a regular part of his social life while living in Bern,
Zürich, and Berlin, where he played with
Max Planck and his son,
among others. He is sometimes erroneously credited as the editor of
the 1937 edition of the
Köchel catalogue of Mozart's work; that
edition was prepared by
Alfred Einstein , who may have been a distant
In 1931, while engaged in research at the California Institute of
Technology, he visited the Zoellner family conservatory in Los
Angeles, where he played some of
Beethoven and Mozart's works with
members of the
Zoellner Quartet . Near the end of his life, when the
Juilliard Quartet visited him in Princeton, he played his violin
with them, and the quartet was "impressed by Einstein's level of
coordination and intonation."
Political And Religious Views
Main articles: Albert Einstein\'s political views and Albert
Einstein\'s religious views
Albert Einstein with his wife Elsa
Einstein and Zionist leaders, including future President of Israel
Chaim Weizmann , his wife
Vera Weizmann ,
Menahem Ussishkin , and
Ben-Zion Mossinson on arrival in New York City in 1921
Einstein's political view was in favor of socialism and critical of
capitalism, which he detailed in his essays such as "
Why Socialism? ".
Einstein offered and was called on to give judgments and opinions on
matters often unrelated to theoretical physics or mathematics. He
strongly advocated the idea of a democratic global government that
would check the power of nation-states in the framework of a world
federation. The FBI created a secret dossier on Einstein in 1932, and
by the time of his death his FBI file was 1,427 pages long.
Einstein spoke of his religious outlook in a wide array of original
writings and interviews. Einstein stated that he believed in the
pantheistic God of Baruch Spinoza . He did not believe in a personal
God who concerns himself with fates and actions of human beings, a
view which he described as naïve. He clarified however that, "I am
not an atheist", preferring to call himself an agnostic , or a
"deeply religious nonbeliever." When asked if he believed in an
afterlife , Einstein replied, "No. And one life is enough for me."
On 17 April 1955, Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by
the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm , which had previously
been reinforced surgically by
Rudolph Nissen in 1948. He took the
draft of a speech he was preparing for a television appearance
commemorating the State of Israel's seventh anniversary with him to
the hospital, but he did not live long enough to complete it.
Einstein refused surgery, saying: "I want to go when I want. It is
tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is
time to go. I will do it elegantly." He died in Princeton Hospital
early the next morning at the age of 76, having continued to work
until near the end.
During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas
Stoltz Harvey , removed Einstein\'s brain for preservation without the
permission of his family, in the hope that the neuroscience of the
future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent .
Einstein's remains were cremated and his ashes were scattered at an
In a memorial lecture delivered on December 13, 1965, at UNESCO
headquarters, nuclear physicist
Robert Oppenheimer summarized his
impression of Einstein as a person: "He was almost wholly without
sophistication and wholly without worldliness ... There was always
with him a wonderful purity at once childlike and profoundly
Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and
articles. He published more than 300 scientific papers and 150
non-scientific ones. On 5 December 2014, universities and archives
announced the release of Einstein's papers, comprising more than
30,000 unique documents. Einstein's intellectual achievements and
originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with "genius ".
In addition to the work he did by himself he also collaborated with
other scientists on additional projects including the Bose–Einstein
statistics , the
Einstein refrigerator and others.
1905 – ANNUS MIRABILIS PAPERS
Annus Mirabilis papers ,
Photoelectric effect ,
Special theory of relativity ,
Mass–energy equivalence , and
Annus Mirabilis papers are four articles pertaining to the
photoelectric effect (which gave rise to quantum theory ), Brownian
motion , the special theory of relativity , and E = mc2 that Einstein
published in the
Annalen der Physik scientific journal in 1905. These
four works contributed substantially to the foundation of modern
physics and changed views on space , time, and matter . The four
AREA OF FOCUS
On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and
Transformation of Light
Resolved an unsolved puzzle by suggesting that energy is exchanged
only in discrete amounts (quanta ). This idea was pivotal to the
early development of quantum theory.
On the Motion of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid,
as Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat
Explained empirical evidence for the atomic theory , supporting the
application of statistical physics .
Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies
Maxwell's equations for electricity and magnetism with
the laws of mechanics by introducing major changes to mechanics close
to the speed of light, resulting from analysis based on empirical
evidence that the speed of light is independent of the motion of the
observer. Discredited the concept of a "luminiferous ether ."
Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?
Equivalence of matter and energy, E = mc2 (and by implication, the
ability of gravity to "bend" light), the existence of "rest energy ",
and the basis of nuclear energy.
THERMODYNAMIC FLUCTUATIONS AND STATISTICAL PHYSICS
Statistical mechanics , thermal fluctuations , and
Einstein's first paper submitted in 1900 to
Annalen der Physik was
on capillary attraction . It was published in 1901 with the title
"Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen", which translates as
"Conclusions from the capillarity phenomena". Two papers he published
in 1902–1903 (thermodynamics) attempted to interpret atomic
phenomena from a statistical point of view. These papers were the
foundation for the 1905 paper on Brownian motion, which showed that
Brownian movement can be construed as firm evidence that molecules
exist. His research in 1903 and 1904 was mainly concerned with the
effect of finite atomic size on diffusion phenomena.
He articulated the principle of relativity . This was understood by
Hermann Minkowski to be a generalization of rotational invariance from
space to space-time. Other principles postulated by Einstein and later
vindicated are the principle of equivalence , general covariance and
the principle of adiabatic invariance of the quantum number.
THEORY OF RELATIVITY AND E = MC²
History of special relativity
Einstein's "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" ("On the
Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies") was received on 30 June 1905 and
published 26 September of that same year. It reconciles Maxwell\'s
equations for electricity and magnetism with the laws of mechanics, by
introducing major changes to mechanics close to the speed of light .
This later became known as Einstein's special theory of relativity.
Consequences of this include the time–space frame of a moving body
appearing to slow down and contract (in the direction of motion) when
measured in the frame of the observer. This paper also argued that the
idea of a luminiferous aether —one of the leading theoretical
entities in physics at the time—was superfluous.
In his paper on mass–energy equivalence , Einstein produced E = mc2
from his special relativity equations. Einstein's 1905 work on
relativity remained controversial for many years, but was accepted by
leading physicists, starting with
Max Planck .
PHOTONS AND ENERGY QUANTA
The photoelectric effect. Incoming photons on the left strike a
metal plate (bottom), and eject electrons, depicted as flying off to
the right. Main articles:
In a 1905 paper, Einstein postulated that light itself consists of
localized particles (quanta ). Einstein's light quanta were nearly
universally rejected by all physicists, including
Max Planck and Niels
Bohr. This idea only became universally accepted in 1919, with Robert
Millikan 's detailed experiments on the photoelectric effect, and with
the measurement of
Compton scattering .
Einstein concluded that each wave of frequency f is associated with a
collection of photons with energy hf each, where h is Planck\'s
constant . He does not say much more, because he is not sure how the
particles are related to the wave. But he does suggest that this idea
would explain certain experimental results, notably the photoelectric
QUANTIZED ATOMIC VIBRATIONS
In 1907, Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a
lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator. In the
Einstein model, each atom oscillates independently—a series of
equally spaced quantized states for each oscillator. Einstein was
aware that getting the frequency of the actual oscillations would be
difficult, but he nevertheless proposed this theory because it was a
particularly clear demonstration that quantum mechanics could solve
the specific heat problem in classical mechanics.
Peter Debye refined
ADIABATIC PRINCIPLE AND ACTION-ANGLE VARIABLES
Old quantum theory
Throughout the 1910s, quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover
many different systems. After
Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus
and proposed that electrons orbit like planets,
Niels Bohr was able to
show that the same quantum mechanical postulates introduced by Planck
and developed by Einstein would explain the discrete motion of
electrons in atoms, and the periodic table of the elements .
Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the
Wilhelm Wien had made. Wien had shown that the
hypothesis of adiabatic invariance of a thermal equilibrium state
allows all the blackbody curves at different temperature to be derived
from one another by a simple shifting process . Einstein noted in 1911
that the same adiabatic principle shows that the quantity which is
quantized in any mechanical motion must be an adiabatic invariant.
Arnold Sommerfeld identified this adiabatic invariant as the action
variable of classical mechanics.
Einstein during his visit to the United States Main article:
Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner
Second Class in 1906, he had not given up on academia. In 1908, he
Privatdozent at the University of Bern. In "Über die
Entwicklung unserer Anschauungen über das Wesen und die Konstitution
der Strahlung" ("The Development of our Views on the Composition and
Essence of Radiation"), on the quantization of light, and in an
earlier 1909 paper, Einstein showed that Max Planck's energy quanta
must have well-defined momenta and act in some respects as
independent, point-like particles . This paper introduced the photon
concept (although the name photon was introduced later by Gilbert N.
Lewis in 1926) and inspired the notion of wave–particle duality in
quantum mechanics . Einstein saw this wave–particle duality in
radiation as concrete evidence for his conviction that physics needed
a new, unified foundation.
THEORY OF CRITICAL OPALESCENCE
Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations,
giving a treatment of the density variations in a fluid at its
critical point. Ordinarily the density fluctuations are controlled by
the second derivative of the free energy with respect to the density.
At the critical point, this derivative is zero, leading to large
fluctuations. The effect of density fluctuations is that light of all
wavelengths is scattered, making the fluid look milky white. Einstein
relates this to
Rayleigh scattering , which is what happens when the
fluctuation size is much smaller than the wavelength, and which
explains why the sky is blue. Einstein quantitatively derived
critical opalescence from a treatment of density fluctuations, and
demonstrated how both the effect and
Rayleigh scattering originate
from the atomistic constitution of matter.
In a series of works completed from 1911 to 1913, Planck reformulated
his 1900 quantum theory and introduced the idea of zero-point energy
in his "second quantum theory." Soon, this idea attracted the
attention of Einstein and his assistant
Otto Stern . Assuming the
energy of rotating diatomic molecules contains zero-point energy, they
then compared the theoretical specific heat of hydrogen gas with the
experimental data. The numbers matched nicely. However, after
publishing the findings, they promptly withdrew their support, because
they no longer had confidence in the correctness of the idea of
GENERAL RELATIVITY AND THE EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE
History of general relativity
History of general relativity See also: Principle of
Theory of relativity
Theory of relativity , and
Einstein field equations
Eddington 's photograph of a solar eclipse
General relativity (GR) is a theory of gravitation that was developed
by Einstein between 1907 and 1915. According to general relativity ,
the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from the
warping of space and time by those masses.
General relativity has
developed into an essential tool in modern astrophysics . It provides
the foundation for the current understanding of black holes , regions
of space where gravitational attraction is so strong that not even
light can escape.
As Einstein later said, the reason for the development of general
relativity was that the preference of inertial motions within special
relativity was unsatisfactory, while a theory which from the outset
prefers no state of motion (even accelerated ones) should appear more
satisfactory. Consequently, in 1907 he published an article on
acceleration under special relativity. In that article titled "On the
Relativity Principle and the Conclusions Drawn from It", he argued
that free fall is really inertial motion, and that for a free-falling
observer the rules of special relativity must apply. This argument is
called the equivalence principle . In the same article, Einstein also
predicted the phenomena of gravitational time dilation , gravitational
red shift and deflection of light .
In 1911, Einstein published another article "On the Influence of
Gravitation on the Propagation of Light" expanding on the 1907
article, in which he estimated the amount of deflection of light by
massive bodies. Thus, the theoretical prediction of general relativity
can for the first time be tested experimentally.
In 1916, Einstein predicted gravitational waves , ripples in the
curvature of spacetime which propagate as waves , traveling outward
from the source, transporting energy as gravitational radiation. The
existence of gravitational waves is possible under general relativity
due to its
Lorentz invariance which brings the concept of a finite
speed of propagation of the physical interactions of gravity with it.
By contrast, gravitational waves cannot exist in the Newtonian theory
of gravitation , which postulates that the physical interactions of
gravity propagate at infinite speed.
The first, indirect, detection of gravitational waves came in the
1970s through observation of a pair of closely orbiting neutron stars
PSR B1913+16 . The explanation of the decay in their orbital period
was that they were emitting gravitational waves. Einstein's
prediction was confirmed on 11 February 2016, when researchers at LIGO
published the first observation of gravitational waves , on Earth,
exactly one hundred years after the prediction.
HOLE ARGUMENT AND ENTWURF THEORY
While developing general relativity, Einstein became confused about
the gauge invariance in the theory. He formulated an argument that led
him to conclude that a general relativistic field theory is
impossible. He gave up looking for fully generally covariant tensor
equations, and searched for equations that would be invariant under
general linear transformations only.
In June 1913, the Entwurf ("draft") theory was the result of these
investigations. As its name suggests, it was a sketch of a theory,
less elegant and more difficult than general relativity, with the
equations of motion supplemented by additional gauge fixing
conditions. After more than two years of intensive work, Einstein
realized that the hole argument was mistaken and abandoned the theory
in November 1915.
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In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to the
structure of the universe as a whole. He discovered that the general
field equations predicted a universe that was dynamic, either
contracting or expanding. As observational evidence for a dynamic
universe was not known at the time, Einstein introduced a new term,
the cosmological constant , to the field equations, in order to allow
the theory to predict a static universe. The modified field equations
predicted a static universe of closed curvature, in accordance with
Einstein's understanding of Mach\'s principle in these years. This
model became known as the Einstein World or Einstein\'s static
Following the discovery of the recession of the nebulae by Edwin
Hubble in 1929, Einstein abandoned his static model of the universe,
and proposed two dynamic models of the cosmos, The Friedmann-Einstein
universe of 1931 and the
Einstein–de Sitter universe of 1932. In
each of these models, Einstein discarded the cosmological constant,
claiming that it was "in any case theoretically unsatisfactory".
In many Einstein biographies, it is claimed that Einstein referred to
the cosmological constant in later years as his "biggest blunder". The
Mario Livio has recently cast doubt on this claim,
suggesting that it may be exaggerated.
In late 2013, a team led by the Irish physicist Cormac
O\'Raifeartaigh discovered evidence that, shortly after learning of
Hubble's observations of the recession of the nebulae, Einstein
considered a steady-state model of the universe. In a hitherto
overlooked manuscript, apparently written in early 1931, Einstein
explored a model of the expanding universe in which the density of
matter remains constant due to a continuous creation of matter, a
process he associated with the cosmological constant. As he stated
in the paper, "In what follows, I would like to draw attention to a
solution to equation (1) that can account for Hubbel's facts, and in
which the density is constant over time" ... "If one considers a
physically bounded volume, particles of matter will be continually
leaving it. For the density to remain constant, new particles of
matter must be continually formed in the volume from space."
It thus appears that Einstein considered a steady-state model of the
expanding universe many years before Hoyle, Bondi and Gold. However,
Einstein's steady-state model contained a fundamental flaw and he
quickly abandoned the idea.
MODERN QUANTUM THEORY
Schrödinger equation Newspaper headline on May
Einstein was displeased with quantum theory and quantum mechanics (a
theory he had helped create), despite its acceptance by other
physicists, stating that God "is not playing at dice." Einstein
continued to maintain his disbelief in the theory, and attempted
unsuccessfully to disprove it until he died at the age of 76. In
1917, at the height of his work on relativity, Einstein published an
article in Physikalische Zeitschrift that proposed the possibility of
stimulated emission , the physical process that makes possible the
maser and the laser . This article showed that the statistics of
absorption and emission of light would only be consistent with
Planck's distribution law if the emission of light into a mode with n
photons would be enhanced statistically compared to the emission of
light into an empty mode. This paper was enormously influential in the
later development of quantum mechanics, because it was the first paper
to show that the statistics of atomic transitions had simple laws.
Louis de Broglie 's work, and supported his ideas,
which were received skeptically at first. In another major paper from
this era, Einstein gave a wave equation for de Broglie waves , which
Einstein suggested was the
Hamilton–Jacobi equation of mechanics.
This paper would inspire Schrödinger's work of 1926.
In 1924, Einstein received a description of a statistical model from
Satyendra Nath Bose
Satyendra Nath Bose , based on a counting method that
assumed that light could be understood as a gas of indistinguishable
particles. Einstein noted that Bose's statistics applied to some atoms
as well as to the proposed light particles, and submitted his
translation of Bose's paper to the
Zeitschrift für Physik . Einstein
also published his own articles describing the model and its
implications, among them the
Bose–Einstein condensate phenomenon
that some particulates should appear at very low temperatures. It was
not until 1995 that the first such condensate was produced
Eric Allin Cornell and
Carl Wieman using
ultra-cooling equipment built at the NIST –
JILA laboratory at the
University of Colorado at Boulder .
Bose–Einstein statistics are
now used to describe the behaviors of any assembly of bosons .
Einstein's sketches for this project may be seen in the Einstein
Archive in the library of the Leiden University.
ENERGY MOMENTUM PSEUDOTENSOR
General relativity includes a dynamical spacetime, so it is difficult
to see how to identify the conserved energy and momentum. Noether\'s
theorem allows these quantities to be determined from a Lagrangian
with translation invariance , but general covariance makes translation
invariance into something of a gauge symmetry . The energy and
momentum derived within general relativity by Noether's presecriptions
do not make a real tensor for this reason.
Einstein argued that this is true for fundamental reasons, because
the gravitational field could be made to vanish by a choice of
coordinates. He maintained that the non-covariant energy momentum
pseudotensor was in fact the best description of the energy momentum
distribution in a gravitational field. This approach has been echoed
Lev Landau and
Evgeny Lifshitz , and others, and has become
The use of non-covariant objects like pseudotensors was heavily
criticized in 1917 by
Erwin Schrödinger and others.
UNIFIED FIELD THEORY
Classical unified field theories
Following his research on general relativity, Einstein entered into a
series of attempts to generalize his geometric theory of gravitation
to include electromagnetism as another aspect of a single entity. In
1950, he described his "unified field theory " in a Scientific
American article titled "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation".
Although he continued to be lauded for his work, Einstein became
increasingly isolated in his research, and his efforts were ultimately
unsuccessful. In his pursuit of a unification of the fundamental
forces, Einstein ignored some mainstream developments in physics, most
notably the strong and weak nuclear forces , which were not well
understood until many years after his death. Mainstream physics, in
turn, largely ignored Einstein's approaches to unification. Einstein's
dream of unifying other laws of physics with gravity motivates modern
quests for a theory of everything and in particular string theory ,
where geometrical fields emerge in a unified quantum-mechanical
In 1935, Einstein collaborated with
Nathan Rosen to produce a model
of a wormhole , often called
Einstein–Rosen bridges . His
motivation was to model elementary particles with charge as a solution
of gravitational field equations, in line with the program outlined in
the paper "Do Gravitational Fields play an Important Role in the
Constitution of the Elementary Particles?". These solutions cut and
pasted Schwarzschild black holes to make a bridge between two patches.
If one end of a wormhole was positively charged, the other end would
be negatively charged. These properties led Einstein to believe that
pairs of particles and antiparticles could be described in this way.
Einstein–Cartan theory Einstein at his office,
Berlin , 1920
In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general
relativity, the affine connection needed to be generalized to include
an antisymmetric part, called the torsion . This modification was made
by Einstein and Cartan in the 1920s.
EQUATIONS OF MOTION
The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law—the Einstein
equations which describe how space curves, the geodesic equation which
describes how particles move may be derived from the Einstein
Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear, a lump of
energy made out of pure gravitational fields, like a black hole, would
move on a trajectory which is determined by the Einstein equations
themselves, not by a new law. So Einstein proposed that the path of a
singular solution, like a black hole, would be determined to be a
geodesic from general relativity itself.
This was established by Einstein, Infeld, and Hoffmann for pointlike
objects without angular momentum, and by
Roy Kerr for spinning
Main article: Einstein\'s unsuccessful investigations
Einstein conducted other investigations that were unsuccessful and
abandoned. These pertain to force , superconductivity , and other
COLLABORATION WITH OTHER SCIENTISTS
Solvay Conference in Brussels, a gathering of the
world's top physicists. Einstein is in the center.
In addition to longtime collaborators
Leopold Infeld ,
Nathan Rosen ,
Peter Bergmann and others, Einstein also had some one-shot
collaborations with various scientists.
Einstein–de Haas Experiment
Einstein–de Haas effect
Einstein–de Haas effect
Einstein and De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the
motion of electrons, nowadays known to be the spin. In order to show
this, they reversed the magnetization in an iron bar suspended on a
torsion pendulum . They confirmed that this leads the bar to rotate,
because the electron's angular momentum changes as the magnetization
changes. This experiment needed to be sensitive, because the angular
momentum associated with electrons is small, but it definitively
established that electron motion of some kind is responsible for
Schrödinger Gas Model
Einstein suggested to
Erwin Schrödinger that he might be able to
reproduce the statistics of a Bose–Einstein gas by considering a
box. Then to each possible quantum motion of a particle in a box
associate an independent harmonic oscillator. Quantizing these
oscillators, each level will have an integer occupation number, which
will be the number of particles in it.
This formulation is a form of second quantization , but it predates
modern quantum mechanics.
Erwin Schrödinger applied this to derive
the thermodynamic properties of a semiclassical ideal gas .
Schrödinger urged Einstein to add his name as co-author, although
Einstein declined the invitation.
In 1926, Einstein and his former student
Leó Szilárd co-invented
(and in 1930, patented) the
Einstein refrigerator . This absorption
refrigerator was then revolutionary for having no moving parts and
using only heat as an input. On 11 November 1930, U.S. Patent
1,781,541 was awarded to Einstein and
Leó Szilárd for the
refrigerator. Their invention was not immediately put into commercial
production, and the most promising of their patents were acquired by
the Swedish company
BOHR VERSUS EINSTEIN
Bohr–Einstein debates Einstein and
Niels Bohr ,
Bohr–Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about
quantum mechanics between Einstein and
Niels Bohr who were two of its
founders. Their debates are remembered because of their importance to
the philosophy of science . Their debates would influence later
interpretations of quantum mechanics .
In 1935, Einstein returned to the question of quantum mechanics. He
considered how a measurement on one of two entangled particles would
affect the other. He noted, along with his collaborators, that by
performing different measurements on the distant particle, either of
position or momentum, different properties of the entangled partner
could be discovered without disturbing it in any way.
He then used a hypothesis of local realism to conclude that the other
particle had these properties already determined. The principle he
proposed is that if it is possible to determine what the answer to a
position or momentum measurement would be, without in any way
disturbing the particle, then the particle actually has values of
position or momentum.
This principle distilled the essence of Einstein's objection to
quantum mechanics. As a physical principle, it was shown to be
incorrect when the
Aspect experiment of 1982 confirmed Bell\'s theorem
, which had been promulgated in 1964.
While traveling, Einstein wrote daily to his wife Elsa and adopted
stepdaughters Margot and Ilse. The letters were included in the papers
The Hebrew University . Margot Einstein permitted the
personal letters to be made available to the public, but requested
that it not be done until twenty years after her death (she died in
1986 ). Einstein had expressed his interest in the profession of
plumber and was made an honorary member of the Plumbers and
Steamfitters Union. Barbara Wolff, of
The Hebrew University 's
Albert Einstein Archives , told the
BBC that there are about 3,500
pages of private correspondence written between 1912 and 1955.
Corbis , successor to The Roger Richman Agency, licenses the use of
his name and associated imagery, as agent for the university.
IN POPULAR CULTURE
Albert Einstein in popular culture
In the period before World War II,
The New Yorker
The New Yorker published a
vignette in their "The
Talk of the Town" feature saying that Einstein
was so well known in America that he would be stopped on the street by
people wanting him to explain "that theory". He finally figured out a
way to handle the incessant inquiries. He told his inquirers "Pardon
me, sorry! Always I am mistaken for Professor Einstein."
Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels,
films, plays, and works of music. He is a favorite model for
depictions of mad scientists and absent-minded professors ; his
expressive face and distinctive hairstyle have been widely copied and
exaggerated. Time magazine's Frederic Golden wrote that Einstein was
"a cartoonist's dream come true".
AWARDS AND HONORS
Main article: Einstein\'s awards and honors
Einstein received numerous awards and honors and in 1922 he was
awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in
Physics "for his services to
Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of
the photoelectric effect." None of the nominations in 1921 met the
criteria set by
Alfred Nobel , so the 1921 prize was carried forward
and awarded to Einstein in 1922.
The following publications by Einstein are referenced in this
article. A more complete list of his publications may be found at List
of scientific publications by
Albert Einstein .
* Einstein, Albert (1901) , written at Zurich, Switzerland,
"Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen" (PDF), Annalen der
Physik (Berlin) (in German), Hoboken, NJ (published 14 March 2006),
309 (3), pp. 513–523,
Bibcode :1901AnP...309..513E, doi
:10.1002/andp.19013090306 – via Wiley Online Library
* Einstein, Albert (1905a) , written at Berne, Switzerland, "Über
einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden
heuristischen Gesichtspunkt" (PDF),
Annalen der Physik (Berlin) (in
German), Hoboken, NJ (published 10 March 2006), 322 (6), pp.
Bibcode :1905AnP...322..132E, doi :10.1002/andp.19053220607
– via Wiley Online Library
* Einstein, Albert (1905b) . Written at Berne, Switzerland,
published by Wyss Buchdruckerei. Eine neue Bestimmung der
Moleküldimensionen (PDF). Dissertationen Universität
Thesis) (in German). Zurich, Switzerland:
2008). doi :10.3929/ethz-a-000565688 – via
* Einstein, Albert (1905c) , written at Berne, Switzerland, "Über
die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte
Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen"
Annalen der Physik (Berlin) (in German), Hoboken, NJ (published
10 March 2006), 322 (8), pp. 549–560,
doi :10.1002/andp.19053220806 , hdl :10915/2785 – via Wiley
* Einstein, Albert (1905d) , written at Berne, Switzerland, "Zur
Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" (PDF),
Annalen der Physik (Berlin)
(in German), Hoboken, NJ (published 10 March 2006), 322 (10), pp.
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