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The Albany Plan of Union was a plan to create a unified government for the Thirteen Colonies, suggested by Benjamin Franklin, then a senior leader (age 48) and a delegate from Pennsylvania, at the Albany Congress on July 10, 1754 in Albany, New York. More than twenty representatives of several Northern and Mid-Atlantic colonies had gathered to plan their defense related to the French and Indian War, the front in North America of the Seven Years' War between Great Britain and France. The Plan represented one of multiple early attempts to form a union of the colonies "under one government as far as might be necessary defense and other general important purposes."[1]

Contents

1 Background 2 Proposals 3 Later plans 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Background[edit] The Albany Congress discussed the plan. After a committee reviewed different plans offered by delegates, its members chose Franklin's plan with some small modifications. Benjamin Chew, then a young lawyer from Dover, Pennsylvania, served as secretary, and Richard Peters and Isaac Norris, both from Philadelphia, were among the members of this committee and the Pennsylvania delegation. It went beyond the original scope of the Congress, which was to develop a plan of defense related to near-term threats by France. The northern colonies were most concerned, as they shared a border with the French colony in Canada, but the mid-Atlantic colonies were also affected by differing loyalties of various Native American nations, usually related to their trading with France or Great Britain. The New England and northern tier colonies had long been subject to raiding from Canada during times of conflict. The Albany Plan was the first proposed unification of the colonies. Proposals[edit] The Plan called for a general government to be administered by a President General, to be appointed and supported by the Crown, and a Grand Council to be chosen by the representatives of the colonial assemblies. After the larger group of delegates discussed their issues and objections, they resolved most of them and adopted the Plan. They sent copies of letters to each of the Colonial Assemblies and to the British Board of Trade in London.[2] The colonial assemblies and the British representatives rejected the Albany Plan. Benjamin Franklin wrote of the rejections: "The colonial assemblies and most of the people were narrowly provincial in outlook, mutually jealous, and suspicious of any central taxing authority."[3] Many in the British government, already wary of some of the strong-willed colonial assemblies, disliked the idea of consolidating additional power into their hands. They preferred that the colonies concentrate on their part in the forthcoming military campaign. The Board of Trade never sought official approval for the Plan from the Crown. They proposed that colonial governors, along with some members of their respective councils, order the raising of troops and building of forts, to be funded by the Treasury of Great Britain. This amount would later have to be repaid, and Parliament imposed a tax on the colonies to pay for the defenses in North America.[4] Later plans[edit] The Galloway Plan proposed at the First Continental Congress bore striking resemblance to the Albany Plan.[5] It was submitted by conservative Loyalists and quickly rejected in favor of more radical proposals. In the aftermath of the Revolutionary War, the Albany Plan of Union inspired some aspects of the draft Articles of Confederation.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Albany Congress

References[edit]

^ The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, Second Edition. Yale University Press, 1964. pp. 209-210 ^ The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, Second Edition. Yale University Press, 1964. p. 210 ^ Notes, The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, Second Edition. Yale University Press, 1964. pp. 210-211 ^ The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, Second Edition. Yale University Press, 1964, p. 211 ^ Union: Joseph Galloway, Plan of Union The Founders' Constitution, accessed December 11, 2009.

Further reading[edit]

McAnear, Beverly. "Personal Accounts of the Albany Congress of 1754," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 39, No. 4 (Mar., 1953), pp. 727–746 in JSTOR, primary documents Timothy J. Shannon, Indians and Colonists at the Crossroads of Empire: The Albany Congress of 1754 (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2000)

External links[edit]

Albany Plan of Union 1754, Yale University

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Benjamin Franklin

January 6, 1706 – April 17, 1790 President of Pennsylvania (1785–1788), Ambassador to France (1779–1785) Second Continental Congress (1775–1776)

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Silence Dogood letters (1722) A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain (1725) The Busy-Body letters (1729) Pennsylvania Gazette (1729–1790) Poor Richard's Almanack (1732–1758) The Drinker's Dictionary (1737) "Advice to a Friend on Choosing a Mistress" (1745) "The Speech of Polly Baker" (1747) Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, etc. (1751) Experiments and Observations on Electricity (1751) Birch letters (1755) The Way to Wealth (1758) Pennsylvania Chronicle (1767) Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Small One (1773) Proposed alliance with the Iroquois (1775) A Letter To A Royal Academy (1781) Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America (1784) The Morals of Chess (1786) An Address to the Public (1789) A Plan for Improving the Condition of the Free Blacks (1789) The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (1771–90, pub. 1791) Bagatelles and Satires (pub. 1845) Franklin as a journalist

Legacy

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Albany, New York

History

General

History (Prehistory–1664, 1664–1784, 1784–1860, 1860–1900, 1900–1942, 1942–1983, 1983–present) Architecture National Register of Historic Places listings

17th century

Mohawks Mahicans Dutch West India Company (1621–1791) Fort Nassau (1614) Fort Orange (1624) Rensselaerswijck (1629–1840) Beverwijck (1652–1664) Stadt Huys (1635, 1646, or 1673) Fort Frederick (1676–1789) Dongan Charter (1686)

18th century

Van Ostrande-Radliff House (1728) Quackenbush House (1736) Albany Plan of Union (1754) Schuyler Mansion (1765)

19th century

Clermont (1807) Erie Canal (1825) Albany Basin (1825) Albany Lumber District (1830s–1908) City Hall (1832) Governor's Mansion (1856) City Hall (1883) New York State Capitol (1899)

20th century

Albany Municipal Airport (1908) Miss Albany Diner (1941) W. Averell Harriman State Office Building Campus (1956–1994) Albany County Airport (1960) Empire State Plaza (1965–1978) Times Union Center (1990) Albany International Airport (1996–1998)

21st century

Hudson River Way (2002) Albany Convention Center (proposed)

Government

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Neighborhoods

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People

Thomas Dongan (1634–1715) Peter Schuyler (1657–1724) Erastus Corning (1794–1872) Daniel P. O'Connell (1885–1977) Erastus Corning 2nd (1909–1983) John McEneny (1943–present)

Geography

Land

Albany Pine Bush Westerlo Island

Water

Buckingham Lake Hudson River (Valley) Normans Kill Patroon Creek Rensselaer Lake Tivoli Lake Washington Park Lake

Education

Secondary

Academy of the Holy Names The Albany Academy Albany Academy for Girls Albany Free School Bishop Maginn High School City School District of Albany (Albany High School) LaSalle School See also: List of school districts in New York's Capital District

Higher

Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences Albany Law School Albany Medical College College of Saint Rose Excelsior College Maria College Mildred Elley Sage College of Albany SUNY Albany See also: List of colleges and universities in New York's Capital District

Religion

Episcopal Diocese of Albany (Cathedral of All Saints, Bishop William Love) Roman Catholic Diocese of Albany (Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Bishop Howard Hubbard)

Culture

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Transportation

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Capital District, New York

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Largest communities (over 20,000 in 2010)

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City of Amsterdam Brunswick Cohoes East Greenbush Glens Falls Gloversville Malta North Greenbush Schodack Watervliet Wilton

Small communities (5,000 to 10,000 in 2000)

Town of Amsterdam Ballston Spa Cobleskill Village of Colonie Duanesburg City of Johnstown Town of Johnstown Kinderhook Mechanicville New Scotland Rensselaer Sand Lake Scotia Town of Stillwater Waterford

Counties

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History

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Geography

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Religion and culture

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Education

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Newspapers

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Television

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Broadcast television in the Capital District of New York and Berkshire County, Massachusetts, including Albany and Pittsfield

Reception may vary by location and some stations may only be viewable with cable television

Local stations

WRGB (6.1 CBS, 6.2 TBD, 6.3 Comet) WTEN (10.1 ABC, 10.2 GetTV, 10.3 Justice, 10.4 Escape) WNYT (13.1 NBC, 13.2 MeTV, 13.3 H&I) WMHT (17.1 PBS, 17.2 Create, 17.3 World, 17.4 PBS Kids) WXXA-TV (23.1 Fox, 23.2 Capital OTB TV, 23.3 Laff, 23.4 Bounce TV) WNGN-LP 35 / WNGX-LD 42 Analog (FN) WCWN (45.1 The CW, 45.2 Charge!, 45.3 CBS simulcast) WNYA (51.1 MNTV, 51.2 Light TV, 51.3 Decades)

Outlying area stations

WYCX-CD (2.1/.2 Retro, 2.3 Tuff TV; Manchester, VT) W04AJ 4 (PBS; Glens Falls, via WMHT) W04BD 4 (PBS; Schoharie, via WMHT) WNCE-CD (8.1 YTA; Glens Falls) WYBN-LD (14.1 BUZZR, 14.2 ASN, 14.3 Tuff TV, 14.4 France 24, 14.5 Rev'n, 14.6 LATV, 14.7 This TV; Cobleskill) WNYT 18 (NBC, Troy) W21CP-D 21 (NBC, Gloversville, via WNYT) W28DA-D 28 (NBC, Pittsfield, MA, via WNYT) W38DL-D 38 (NBC, Adams, MA, via WNYT) WVBG-LP 41 Analog (Ind; Greenwich) WNYT 45 (NBC, Glens Falls) W47CM 47 Analog (silent; Glens Falls) WYPX (55.1 Ion, 55.2 qubo, 55.3 Life; Amsterdam)

Adjacent locals

Burlington, VT/Plattsburgh

WCAX-TV (3.1 CBS, 3.2 Movies!, 3.3 Ion; Burlington, VT) WVER (28.1 PBS/VPBS, 28.2 PBS+/World, 28.3 Create, 28.4 PBS Kids; Rutland)

New York City

WNYW (5.1 Fox, 5.2 Movies!, 5.4 Light TV; New York) WWOR-TV (9.1 MNTV, 9.3 Buzzr, 9.4 H&I; Secaucus, NJ) WEPT-CD (15.1 AMGTV; Newburgh) WRNN-TV (48.1 Ind / AMGTV / JTV / News, 48.2 Stadium, 48.3 Arirang TV, 48.4 NHK World; Kingston)

Utica

WKTV (2.1 NBC, 2.2 CBS, 2.3 CW, 2.4 MeTV; Utica) WUTR (20.1 ABC, 20.2 MNTV, 20.3 Grit, 20.4 Bounce TV; Utica)

Cable-only stations

MSG Network MSG Plus Spectrum News Capital Region SNY YES

Defunct stations

TW3 WEDG-TV (UPN, cable-only) WCDC-TV 19 (CBS/ABC, Adams, MA) WCDB 29 (CBS, Hagaman) W52DF 52 (TBN, Glens Falls)

Radio

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Radio stations in the Albany–Schenectady–Troy market

By AM frequency

590 8101 900 930 980 1160 1190 1230 1240 1300 1330 1340 1400 1440 1460 1490 1540 1570

By FM frequency

88.3 89.1 89.7 89.9 90.3 90.7 (Acra) 90.7 (Pattersonville) 90.9 91.1 91.5 92.3 92.9 93.1 93.5 93.7 94.3 94.5 94.9 95.5 96.3 96.7 97.3 97.5 (Albany) 97.5 (Hoosick Falls) 97.7 97.9 98.3 98.5 98.7 99.1 99.5 99.9 100.5 100.9 101.1 101.3 101.9 102.3 102.7 102.9 103.1 103.5 103.9 104.3 104.5 104.7 104.9 105.7 106.1 106.5 107.1 107.3 107.7

NOAA Weather Radio frequency

162.550

Digital radio by frequency & subchannel

810 980 89.1-1 89.1-2 90.3-1 90.3-2 98.3-1 98.3-2 99.5-1 99.5-2 102.3-1 102.3-2 103.1-1 103.1-2 105.7-1 105.7-2 106.5-1 106.5-2 107.7-1 107.7-2 107.7-3

By callsign

W226AC W232CE W235AY W248AX W256BU W260CH W263CG W266BX W275BS W282BI W284BZ W287AB W291BY WABY WAIX WAJZ WAMC WAMC-FM

HD2

WBPM WCAA-LP WCDB WCSS WCTW WDCD WDCD-FM WENT WEQX WEXT WFLY WFNY WGDJ WGNA-FM

HD2 HD3

WGXC WGY1 WGY-FM

HD2

WHAZ WHAZ-FM WHUC WHVP WINU WIZR WJIV WJKE WKBE WKKF

HD2

WKLI-FM WMHT-FM

HD2

WMYY WOFX WOPG WOPG-FM WPGL WPTR WPYX

HD2

WQBJ WQBK-FM WQSH

HD2

WRIP WROW WRPI WRUC WRVE

HD2

WSDE WTMM-FM WTRY-FM

HD2

WVCR-FM WVTL WXL34 WYAI WYJB WYKV WZCR

Defunct

WCKL/560 WGFM/99.5 WHRL/103.1 WRSA/1280 WROW-FM/95.5 WTRI WXKW

1 = Clear-channel stations with extended nighttime coverage.

Capit

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