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Albanian (; , or , ) is an
Indo-European language The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau. A few of these languages, su ...
spoken by the
Albanians The Albanians (; sq, Shqiptarët, ) are an ethnic group native to the Balkan Peninsula and are identified by a common Albanian Cultural heritage, ancestry, Albanian culture, culture, Albanian history, history and Albanian language, language. T ...
in the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather ...
and the Albanian diaspora in the Americas,
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest ...
and Oceania. With about 7.5 million speakers, it comprises an independent branch within the Indo-European languages and is not closely related to any other language. First attested in the 15th century, it is the last Indo-European branch to appear in written records. This is one of the reasons why its still-unknown origin has long been a matter of dispute among
linguists Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include phonetics, phonet ...
and historians. Albanian is considered to be the descendant of one of the Paleo-Balkan languages of antiquity. For more historical and geographical reasons than specifically linguistic ones, there are various modern historians and linguists who believe that the Albanian language may have descended from a southern Illyrian dialect spoken in much the same region in classical times. Alternative hypotheses hold that Albanian may have descended from Thracian or Daco-Moesian, other ancient languages spoken farther east than Illyrian. Not enough is known of these languages to completely prove or disprove the various hypotheses. The two main , Gheg Albanian, Gheg and Tosk Albanian, Tosk, are primarily distinguished by Phonology, phonological differences and are mutually intelligible, with Gheg spoken to the north and Tosk spoken to the south of the Shkumbin, Shkumbin river. Their characteristics in the treatment of both native words and loanwords indicate the dialectal split occurred after Christianisation of the region (4th century AD) and at the time of the Slavic migration to the Balkans, with the historic boundary between Gheg and Tosk being the Shkumbin''The river Shkumbin in central Albania historically forms the boundary between those two dialects, with the population on the north speaking varieties of Geg and the population on the south varieties of Tosk.'' (page 23
Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World
By Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie Contributor Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie Edition: illustrated Published by Elsevier,2008 ,
which straddled the Jireček line. Standard Albanian is a standardised form of spoken Albanian based on the Tosk Albanian, Tosk dialect. It is the official language of Albania and Kosovo and a co-official language in North Macedonia as well as a minority language of Italy, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia. Centuries-old communities speaking Albanian dialects can be found scattered in Croatia (the Arbanasi people, Arbanasi), Greece (the Arvanites and some communities in Epirus (region), Epirus, Western Macedonia and Albanian-speakers of Western Thrace, Western Thrace), Italy (the Arbëreshë people, Arbëreshë) as well as in Albanians of Romania, Romania, Albanians of Turkey, Turkey and Albanians in Ukraine, Ukraine. Two varieties of the Tosk dialect, Arvanitika in Greece and Arbëresh language, Arbëresh in Southern Italy, have preserved archaic elements of the language. Ethnic Albanians constitute a large diaspora, with many having long assimilated in different cultures and communities. Consequently, Albanian speakers do not correspond to the total ethnic Albanian population, as many ethnic Albanians may identify as Albanian but are unable to speak the language.


Geographic distribution

The language is spoken by approximately 6 million people in the Balkans, primarily in Albania, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece. However, due to old communities in Italy and the large Albanian diaspora, the worldwide total of speakers is much higher than in Southern Europe and numbers approximately 7.5 million.


Europe

The Albanian language is the official language of Albania and Kosovo and co-official in North Macedonia. Albanian is a recognised minority language in Croatia, Italy, Montenegro, Romania and in Serbia. Albanian is also spoken by a Albanian communities in Greece, minority in Greece, specifically in the Thesprotia and Preveza (regional unit), Preveza regional units and in a few villages in Ioannina (regional unit), Ioannina and Florina (regional unit), Florina regional units in Greece. It is also spoken by 450,000 Albanian immigrants in Greece. Albanian is the third most spoken language in Italy. This is due to a substantial Albanian immigration to Italy. Italy has a historical Albanian minority of about 500,000, scattered across Southern Italy, known as Arbëreshë people, Arbëreshë. Approximately 1 million Albanians from Kosovo are dispersed throughout Albanians in Germany, Germany, Albanians in Switzerland, Switzerland and Austria. These are mainly immigrants from Kosovo who migrated during the 1990s. In Albanians in Switzerland, Switzerland, the Albanian language is the Languages of Switzerland#Other languages, sixth most spoken language with 176,293 native speakers. Albanian became an official language in North Macedonia on 15 January 2019.


Americas

There are large numbers of Albanian speakers in the Albanian Americans, United States, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Albanian Canadians, Canada. Some of the first ethnic Albanians to arrive in the United States were Arbëreshë. Arbëreshe have a strong sense of identity and are unique in that they speak an archaic dialect of Tosk Albanian called Arbëreshë language, Arbëreshë. In the United States and Canada, there are approximately 250,000 Albanian Americans, Albanian speakers. It is primarily spoken on the East Coast of the United States in cities like New York City, New Jersey, Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia and Detroit, as well as in parts of the states of Ohio and Connecticut. In Argentina, there are nearly Argentina#Languages, 40,000 Albanian speakers, mostly in Buenos Aires.


Asia and Oceania

Approximately 1.3 million people of Albanian ancestry live in Turkey, and more than 500,000 recognising their ancestry, language and Culture of Albania, culture. There are other estimates, however, that place the number of people in Turkey with Albanian ancestry and or background upward to 5 million. However, the vast majority of this population is Language shift, assimilated and no longer possesses fluency in the Albanian language, though a vibrant Albanian community maintains its distinct identity in Istanbul to this day. In Egypt there are around 18,000 Albanians, mostly Tosk speakers. Many are descendants of the Janissary of Muhammad Ali Pasha, an Albanian who became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan. In addition to the Muhammad Ali Dynasty, dynasty that he established, a large part of the former Egyptian and Sudanese aristocracy was of Albanian origin. In addition to the recent emigrants, there are older diasporic communities around the world. Albanian is also spoken by Albanian diaspora communities residing in Australia and New Zealand.


Dialects

The Albanian language has two distinct dialects, Tosk Albanian, Tosk which is spoken in the south, and Gheg Albanian, Gheg spoken in the north. Standard Albanian is based on the Tosk dialect. The Shkumbin River is the rough dividing line between the two dialects. Gheg Albanian, Gheg is divided into four sub-dialects, in Northwest Gheg, Northeast Gheg, Central Gheg, and Southern Gheg. It is primarily spoken in northern Albania and throughout Albanians in Montenegro, Montenegro, Kosovo and northwestern Albanians in Macedonia, North Macedonia. One fairly divergent dialect is the Upper Reka Albanian dialect, Upper Reka dialect, which is however classified as Central Gheg. There is also a diaspora dialect in Croatia, the Arbanasi dialect. Tosk Albanian, Tosk is divided into five sub-dialects, including Northern Tosk (the most numerous in speakers), Labërisht, Cham Albanian dialect, Çam, Arvanitika, and Arbëreshë language, Arbëresh. Tosk is spoken in southern Albania, southwestern North Macedonia and northern and southern Greece. Cham Albanian is spoken in North-western Greece, while Arvanitika language, Arvanitika is spoken by the Arvanites in southern Greece. In addition, Arbëresh language, Arbëresh is spoken by the Arbëreshë people, Arbëreshë people, descendants of 15th and 16th century migrants who settled in southeastern Italy, in small communities in the regions of Sicily and Calabria.


Orthography

The Albanian language has been written using many alphabets since the earliest records from the 14th century. The history of Albanian language orthography is closely related to the cultural orientation and knowledge of certain foreign languages among Albanian writers. The earliest written Albanian records come from the Gheg area in makeshift spellings based on Italian or Greek. Originally, the Tosk dialect was written in the Greek alphabet and the Gheg dialect was written in the Latin script. Both dialects had also been written in the Ottoman Turkish language, Ottoman Turkish version of the Arabic script, Cyrillic script, Cyrillic, and some local alphabets (Elbasan alphabet, Elbasan, Vithkuqi alphabet, Vithkuqi, Todhri alphabet, Todhri, Veso Bey, Jan Vellara and others, see Albanian alphabet#Original alphabets, original Albanian alphabets). More specifically, the writers from northern Albania and under the influence of the Catholic Church used Latin letters, those in southern Albania and under the influence of the Greek Orthodox church used Greek letters, while others throughout Albania and under the influence of Islam used Arabic letters. There were initial attempts to create an original Albanian alphabet during the 1750–1850 period. These attempts intensified after the League of Prizren and culminated with the Congress of Manastir held by Albanian intellectuals from 14 to 22 November 1908, in Manastir (present day Bitola), which decided on which alphabet to use, and what the standardised spelling would be for standard Albanian. This is how the literary language remains. The alphabet is the Latin alphabet with the addition of the letters <ë>, <ç>, and ten Digraph (orthography), digraphs: ''dh'', ''th'', ''xh'', ''gj'', ''nj'', ''ng'', ''ll'', ''rr'', ''zh'' and ''sh''. According to Robert Elsie:
The hundred years between 1750 and 1850 were an age of astounding orthographic diversity in Albania. In this period, the Albanian language was put to writing in at least ten different alphabets – most certainly a record for European languages. ... the diverse forms in which this old Balkan language was recorded, from the earliest documents to the beginning of the twentieth century ... consist of adaptations of the Latin, Greek, Arabic, and Cyrillic alphabets and (what is even more interesting) a number of locally invented writing systems. Most of the latter alphabets have now been forgotten and are unknown, even to the Albanians themselves.Elsie, Robert. (2017). ''Albanian Alphabets: Borrowed and Invented''. London, UK: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. .


Classification

The Albanian language occupies an independent branch of the
Indo-European language The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau. A few of these languages, su ...
tree. ''Albanian forms its own separate branch of Indo-European; it is the last branch to appear in written records'' In 1854, Albanian was demonstrated to be an
Indo-European language The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau. A few of these languages, su ...
by the Comparative linguistics, philologist Franz Bopp. Albanian was formerly compared by a few Indo-European linguists with Germanic languages, Germanic and Balto-Slavic languages, Balto-Slavic, all of which share a number of isoglosses with Albanian. Other linguists linked the Albanian language with Latin Language, Latin, Greek language, Greek and Armenian language, Armenian, while placing Germanic and Balto-Slavic in another branch of Indo-European.Google Books
J. P. Mallory, Mallory, J. P. and Adams, D. Q.: The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World
JHholm.de
, Holm, Hans J.: The Distribution of Data in Word Lists and its Impact on the Subgrouping of Languages. In: Christine Preisach, Hans Burkhardt, Lars Schmidt-Thieme, Reinhold Decker (eds.): Data Analysis, Machine Learning, and Applications. Proc. of the 31st Annual Conference of the German Classification Society (GfKl), University of Freiburg, 7–9 March 2007. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg-Berlin
HJholm.de
A possible Homeland of the Indo-European Languages And their Migrations in the Light of the Separation Level Recovery (SLRD) Method – Hans J. Holm


History


Historical documentation

The first attested written mention of the Albanian language was on 14 July 1284 in Dubrovnik in modern Croatia when a crime witness named Matthew testified: "I heard a voice shouting on the mountainside in the Albanian language" ( lat, Audivi unam vocem, clamantem in monte in lingua albanesca). The Albanian language is also mentioned in the Descriptio Europae Orientalis dated in 1308:
''Habent enim Albani prefati linguam distinctam a Latinis, Grecis et Sclauis ita quod in nullo se intelligunt cum aliis nationibus.'' (Namely, the above-mentioned Albanians have a language that is different from the languages of Latins, Greeks and Slavs, so that they do not understand each other at all.)
The oldest attested document written in Albanian dates back to 1462, while the first audio recording in the language was made by Norbert Jokl on 4 April 1914 in Vienna. However, as Fortson notes, Albanian written works existed before this point; they have simply been lost. The existence of written Albanian is explicitly mentioned in a letter attested from 1332, and the first preserved books, including both those in Gheg and in Tosk, share orthographic features that indicate that some form of common literary language had developed. During the five-century period of the Ottoman Albania, Ottoman presence in Albania, the language was not officially recognised until 1909, when the Congress of Dibra decided that Albanian schools would finally be allowed.


Linguistic affinities

Albanian is considered an language isolate, isolate within the Indo-European language family; no other language has been conclusively linked to its language family#Subdivision, branch. The only other languages that are sole surviving members of a branch of Indo-European are Armenian language, Armenian and Greek language, Greek. The Albanian language is part of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European language family, language group and is considered to have evolved from one of the Paleo-Balkan languages of antiquity,Fine, JA. ''The Early medieval Balkans''. University of Michigan Press, 1991. pp. 10–11
Google Books
/ref> although it is still uncertain which particular Paleo-Balkan language represents the ancestor of Albanian, or where in Southern Europe that population lived. In general there is insufficient evidence to connect Albanian with one of those languages, whether one of the Illyrian languages (which historians mostly confirm), or Thracian and Dacian language, Dacian. Among these possibilities, Illyrian is typically held to be the most probable, though insufficient evidence still clouds the discussion. Although Albanian shares lexical isoglosses with Greek language, Greek, Germanic languages, Germanic, and to a lesser extent Balto-Slavic languages, Balto-Slavic, the vocabulary of Albanian is quite distinct. In 1995, Taylor, Donald Ringe, Ringe and Tandy Warnow, Warnow, using quantitative comparative linguistics, quantitative linguistic techniques, found that Albanian appears to comprise a "subgroup with Germanic". However, they argued that this fact is hardly significant, as Albanian has lost much of its original vocabulary and morphology, and so this "apparently close connection to Germanic rests on only a couple of lexical cognates – hardly any evidence at all".


Historical presence and location

The place and the time where the Albanian language was formed is uncertain. American linguist Eric P. Hamp, Eric Hamp stated that during an unknown chronological period a pre-Albanian population (termed as "Albanoid" by Hamp) inhabited areas stretching from Poland to the southwestern Balkans. Further analysis has suggested that it was in a mountainous region rather than on a plain or seacoast: while the words for plants and animals characteristic of mountainous regions are entirely original, the names for fish and for agricultural activities (such as ploughing) are borrowed from other languages.Tripod.co
Eric Hamp, "The position of Albanian, Ancient IE dialects, Proceedings of the Conference on IE linguistics held at the University of California, Los Angeles, April 25–27, 1963, ed. By Henrik Birnbaum and Jaan Puhvel. "It is clear that in the Middle Ages the Albanians extended farther north (Jokl, Albaner §2); that there are persuasive arguments which have been advanced against their having extended as far as the Adriatic coast—the fact that Scodra 'Scutari' (Shkodër) shows un-Albanian development (see §6 below), that there is no demonstrated old maritime vocabulary (see above), and that there are few ancient Greek loans (Jokl, Albaner §5; but see §5 below)
A deeper analysis of the vocabulary, however, shows that this could be a consequence of a prolonged Latin Language, Latin domination of the coastal and plain areas of the country, rather than evidence of the original environment where the Albanian language was formed. For example, the word for 'fish' is borrowed from Latin, but not the word for 'gills', which is native. Indigenous are also the words for 'ship', 'raft', 'navigation', 'sea shelves' and a few names of fish kinds, but not the words for 'sail', 'row' and 'harbor' – objects pertaining to navigation itself and a large part of sea fauna. This rather shows that Proto-Albanians were pushed away from coastal areas in early times (probably after the Latin conquest of the region) thus losing large parts (or the majority) of sea environment lexicon. A similar phenomenon could be observed with agricultural terms. While the words for 'arable land', 'corn', 'wheat', 'cereals', 'vineyard', 'yoke', 'harvesting', 'cattle breeding', etc. are native, the words for 'ploughing', 'farm' and 'farmer', agricultural practices, and some harvesting tools are foreign. This, again, points to intense contact with other languages and people, rather than providing evidence of a possible ''Urheimat''. The centre of Albanian settlement remained the Mat (river), Mat river. In 1079, they were recorded farther south in the valley of the Shkumbin river. The Shkumbin, a seasonal stream that lies near the old Via Egnatia, is approximately the boundary of the primary dialect division for Albanian, Tosk Albanian, Tosk and Gheg Albanian, Gheg. The characteristics of Tosk and Gheg in the treatment of the native and loanwords from other languages are evidence that the dialectal split preceded the Slavic migration to the Balkans, which means that in that period (the 5th to 6th centuries AD), Albanians were occupying nearly the same area around the Shkumbin river, which straddled the Jireček Line. References to the existence of Albanian as a distinct language survive from the 14th century, but they failed to cite specific words. The oldest surviving documents written in Albanian are the "formula e pagëzimit" (Baptismal formula), ''Un'te paghesont' pr'emenit t'Atit e t'Birit e t'Spertit Senit''. ("I baptize thee in Trinitarian formula, the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit") recorded by Pal Engjelli, Bishop of Durrës in 1462 in the Gheg dialect, and some New Testament verses from that period. Linguists Stefan Schumacher and Joachim Matzinger (University of Vienna) assert that the first literary records of Albanian date from the 16th century. The oldest known Albanian printed book, ''Meshari'', or "missal", was written in 1555 by Gjon Buzuku, a Roman Catholic cleric. In 1635 Frang Bardhi wrote the first Latin–Albanian dictionary. The first Albanian school is believed to have been opened by Franciscans in 1638 in Pdhanë. One of the earliest dictionaries of Albanian language was written in 1693 which was an Italian language manuscript authored by Montenegrin sea captain Julije Balović ''Pratichae Schrivaneschae'' and includes a multilingual dictionary of hundreds of the most often used words in everyday life in the Italian, Slavic, Greek, Albanian and Turkish language, Turkish languages.


Pre-Indo-European substratum

Pre-Indo-European (PreIE) sites are found throughout the territory of Albania. Such PreIE sites existed in Maliq, Vashtëm, Burimas, Barç, Dërsnik in Korçë District, Kamnik in Kolonja, Kolsh in Kukës District, Rashtan in Librazhd and Nezir in Mat District. As in other parts of Europe, these PreIE people joined the migratory Indo-European tribes that entered the Balkans and contributed to the formation of the historical Paleo-Balkan tribes. In terms of linguistics, the pre-Indo-European substrate language spoken in the southern Balkans has probably influenced Proto-Albanian language, pre-Proto-Albanian, the ancestor idiom of Albanian. The extent of this linguistic impact cannot be determined with precision due to the uncertain position of Albanian among Paleo-Balkan languages and their scarce attestation. Some loanwords, however, have been proposed such as ''shegë'' ("pomegranate") or ''lëpjetë'' ("Atriplex, orach", compare with Pre-Greek ''lápathon'', ''λάπαθον'', "Rumex alpinus, monk's rhubarb").


Proto-IE features

Although Albanian has several words that do not correspond to IE cognates, it has retained many proto-IE features: for example, the demonstrative pronoun *''ḱi-'' is ancestral to Albanian ''ky/kjo'', English ''he'', and Russian ''sej'' but not to English ''this'' or Russian ''etot''. Albanian is compared to other Indo-European languages below, but note that Albanian has exhibited some notable instances of semantic drift, such as ''motër'' meaning "sister" rather than "mother".


Albanian–PIE phonological correspondences

Phonologically, Albanian is not so conservative. Like many IE stocks, it has merged the two series of voiced stops (e.g. both *''d'' and *''dʰ'' became ''d''). In addition, voiced stops tend to disappear in between vowels. There is almost complete loss of final syllables and very widespread loss of other unstressed syllables (e.g. ''mik'' 'friend' from Lat. ''amicus''). PIE *''o'' appears as ''a'' (also as ''e'' if a high front vowel ''i'' follows), while *''ē'' and *''ā'' become ''o'', and PIE *''ō'' appears as ''e''. The palatals, velars, and labiovelars show distinct developments, with Albanian showing the three-way distinction also found in Luwian language, Luwian. Labiovelars are for the most part differentiated from all other Indo-European velar series before front vowels, but they merge with the "pure" (back) velars elsewhere. The palatal velar series, consisting of Proto-Indo-European *''ḱ'' and the merged *''ģ'' and ''ģʰ'', usually developed into ''th'' and ''dh'', but were depalatalised to merge with the back velars when in contact with sonorants. Because the original Proto-Indo-European tripartite distinction between dorsals is preserved in such reflexes, Albanian is therefore neither Centum-satem, centum nor satem, despite having a "satem-like" realization of the palatal dorsals in most cases. Thus PIE *''ḱ'', *''k'', and *''kʷ'' become ''th'', ''q'', and ''s'', respectively (before back vowels *''ḱ'' becomes ''th'', while *''k'' and *''kʷ'' merge as ''k''). A minority of scholars reconstruct a fourth Laryngeal theory, laryngeal *''h4'' allegedly surfacing as Alb. ''h'' word-initially, e.g. Alb. ''herdhe'' 'testicles' presumably from PIE *''h4órǵʰi-'' , (rather than the usual reconstruction *''h3erǵʰi-''), but this is generally not followed elsewhere, as ''h-'' has arisen elsewhere idiosyncratically (for example ''hark'' < Latin ''arcus'').


Standard Albanian

Since World War II, standard Albanian used in Albania has been based on the Tosk dialect. Kosovo and other areas where Albanian is official adopted the Tosk standard in 1969.Agim Morina, "Udhërrëfyes i shkurtë i historisë së standardizimit të shqipes,
''DodonaPress'' (2015-02-21)
also i
''Plisi.org'' (2015-02-24)


Elbasan-based standard

Until the early 20th century, Albanian writing developed in three main literary traditions: Gheg, Tosk, and Arbëreshë language, Arbëreshë. Throughout this time, an intermediate subdialect spoken around Elbasan served as ''lingua franca'' among the Albanians, but was less prevalent in writing. The Congress of Manastir of Albanian writers held in 1908 recommended the use of the Elbasan subdialect for literary purposes and as a basis of a unified national language. While technically classified as a southern Gheg variety, the Elbasan speech is closer to Tosk in phonology and practically a hybrid between other Gheg subdialects and literary Tosk. Between 1916 and 1918, the Albanian Literary Commission met in Shkodër under the leadership of Luigj Gurakuqi with the purpose of establishing a unified orthography for the language. The commission, made up of representatives from the north and south of Albania, reaffirmed the Elbasan subdialect as the basis of a national tongue. The rules published in 1917 defined spelling for the Elbasan variety for official purposes. The Commission did not, however, discourage publications in one of the dialects, but rather laid a foundation for Gheg and Tosk to gradually converge into one. When the Congress of Lushnje met in the aftermath of World War I to form a new Albanian government, the 1917 decisions of the Literary Commission were upheld. The Elbasan subdialect remained in use for administrative purposes and many new writers embraced for creative writing. Gheg and Tosk continued to develop freely and interaction between the two dialects increased.


Tosk standard

At the end of World War II, however, the new communist regime radically imposed the use of the Tosk dialect in all facets of life in Albania: administration, education, and literature. Most Communist leaders were Tosks from the south. Standardisation was directed by the Albanian Institute of Linguistics and Literature of the Academy of Sciences of Albania. Two dictionaries were published in 1954: an Albanian language dictionary and a Russian–Albanian dictionary. New orthography rules were eventually published in 1967 and 1973 ''Drejtshkrimi i gjuhës shqipe'' (Orthography of the Albanian Language). Until 1968, Kosovo and other Albanian-speaking areas in Yugoslavia followed the 1917 standard based on the Elbasan dialect, though it was gradually infused with Gheg elements in an effort to develop a Kosovan language separate from communist Albania's Tosk-based standard. Albanian intellectuals in the former Yugoslavia consolidated the 1917 twice in the 1950s, culminating with a thorough codification of orthographic rules in 1964. The rules already provided for a balanced variety that accounted for both Gheg and Tosk dialects, but only lasted through 1968. Viewing divergences with Albania as a threat to their identity, Kosovars arbitrarily adopted the Tosk project that Tirana had published the year before. Although it was never intended to serve outside of Albania, the project became the "unified literary language" in 1972, when approved by a rubberstamp Albanian Orthography Congress, Orthography Congress. Only about 1 in 9 participants were from Kosovo. The Congress, held at Tirana, authorized the orthography rules that came out the following year, in 1973. More recent dictionaries from the Albanian government are ''Fjalori Drejtshkrimor i Gjuhës Shqipe'' (1976) (Orthographic Dictionary of the Albanian Language) and ''Dictionary of Today's Albanian language'' (''Fjalori Gjuhës së Sotme Shqipe'') (1980). Prior to World War II, dictionaries consulted by developers of the standard have included ''Lexikon tis Alvanikis glossis'' (Albanian: ''Fjalori i Gjuhës Shqipe'' (Kostandin Kristoforidhi, 1904), ''Fjalori i Bashkimit'' (1908), and ''Fjalori i Gazullit'' (1941).


Calls for reform

Since the fall of the communist regime, Albanian orthography has stirred heated debate among scholars, writers, and public opinion in Albania and Kosovo, with hardliners opposed to any changes in the orthography, moderates supporting varying degrees of reform, and radicals calling for a return to the Elbasan dialect. Criticism of Standard Albanian has centred on the exclusion of the 'me+' infinitive and the Gheg lexicon. Critics say that Standard Albanian disenfranchises and stigmatises Gheg speakers, affecting the quality of writing and impairing effective public communication. Supporters of the Tosk standard view the Albanian Orthography Congress, 1972 Congress as a milestone achievement in Albanian history and dismiss calls for reform as efforts to "divide the nation" or "create two languages." Moderates, who are especially prevalent in Kosovo, generally stress the need for a unified Albanian language, but believe that the 'me+' infinitive and Gheg words should be included. Proponents of the Elbasan dialect have been vocal, but have gathered little support in the public opinion. In general, those involved in the language debate come from diverse backgrounds and there is no significant correlation between one's political views, geographic origin, and position on Standard Albanian. Many writers continue to write in the Elbasan dialect but other Gheg variants have found much more limited use in literature. Most publications adhere to a strict policy of not accepting submissions that are not written in Tosk. Some print media even translate direct speech, replacing the 'me+' infinitive with other verb forms and making other changes in grammar and word choice. Even authors who have published in the Elbasan dialect will frequently write in the Tosk standard. In 2013, a group of academics for Albania and Kosovo proposed minor changes to the orthography. Hardline academics boycotted the initiative, while other reformers have viewed it as well-intentioned but flawed and superficial. Media such as Rrokum and ''Java'' have offered content that is almost exclusively in the Elbasan dialect. Meanwhile, author and linguist Agim Morina has promoted ''Shqipe e Përbashkët'' or Common Albanian, a neostandard or a reformed version of the Tosk standard that aims at reflecting the natural development of the language among all Albanians. Common Albanian incorporates the 'me+' infinitive, accommodates for Gheg features, provides for dialect-neutral rules that favor simplicity, predictability, and usage trends. Many modern writers have embraced Common Albanian to various extents, especially in less formal writing.


Education

Albanian is the medium of instruction in most Albanian schools. The literacy rate in Albania for the total population, age 9 or older, is about 99%. Elementary education is compulsory (grades 1–9), but most students continue at least until a secondary education. Students must pass graduation exams at the end of the 9th grade and at the end of the 12th grade in order to continue their education.


Phonology

Standard Albanian has seven vowels and 29 consonants. Like English, Albanian has dental fricatives (like the ''th'' in ''thin'') and (like the ''th'' in ''this''), written as ''th'' and ''dh,'' which are rare cross-linguistically. Gheg Albanian, Gheg uses long vowel, long and nasal vowels, which are absent in Tosk Albanian, Tosk, and the mid-central vowel ''ë'' is lost at the end of the word. The stress is fixed mainly on the last syllable. Gheg ''n'' (''femën'': compare English ''feminine'') changes to ''r'' by Rhotacism (sound change), rhotacism in Tosk (''femër'').


Consonants

Notes: * The contrast between flapped ''r'' and trilled ''rr'' is the same as in Spanish or Armenian language, Armenian. In most of the dialects, as also in standard Albanian, the single "r" changes from an alveolar flap into a retroflex flap , or even an alveolar approximant when it is at the end of a word. * The palatal nasal corresponds to the Spanish ''ñ'' and the French and Italian ''gn''. It is pronounced as one sound, not a nasal plus a glide. * The ''ll'' sound is a velarised lateral, close to English ''dark L''. * The letter ''ç'' is sometimes written ''ch'' due to technical limitations because of its use in English sound and its analogy to the other digraph (orthography), digraphs ''xh'', ''sh'', and ''zh''. Usually it is written simply ''c'' or more rarely ''q'' with context resolving any ambiguities. * The position of ''q'' and ''gj'' sound is not clear. Many speakers merge them into the palatoalveolar sounds ''ç'' and ''xh''. This is especially common in Northern Gheg, but is increasingly the case in Tosk as well. Other speakers reduced them into in consonant clusters, such as in the word ''fjollë,'' which before standardisation was written as ''fqollë'' ( < Medieval Greek φακιολης). * The ''ng'' can pronounced as in final position, otherwise is an allophone of ''n'' before ''k'' and ''g''. * Before ''q'' and ''gj,'' the ''n'' is always pronounced but this is not reflected in the orthography. * are interdental.


Vowels


Schwa

Although the Indo-European schwa (''ə'' or -''h2''-) was preserved in Albanian, in some cases it was lost, possibly when a stressed syllable preceded it. Until the standardisation of the modern Albanian alphabet, in which the schwa is spelled as ''ë'', as in the work of Gjon Buzuku in the 16th century, various vowels and gliding vowels were employed, including ''ae'' by Lekë Matrënga and ''é'' by Pjetër Bogdani in the late 16th and early 17th century. The schwa in Albanian has a great degree of variability from extreme back to extreme front articulation. Within the borders of Albania, the phoneme is pronounced about the same in both the Tosk and the Gheg dialect due to the influence of standard Albanian. However, in the Gheg dialects spoken in the neighbouring Albanian-speaking areas of Kosovo and North Macedonia, the phoneme is still pronounced as back and rounded.


Grammar

Albanian has a canonical word order of subject–verb–object, SVO (subject–verb–object) like English and many other Indo-European languages. Albanian nouns are categorised by Grammatical gender, gender (masculine, feminine and neuter) and Albanian morphology, inflected for Grammatical number, number (singular and plural) and grammatical case, case. There are five declensions and six cases (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative case, dative, ablative, and vocative), although the vocative only occurs with a limited number of words, and the forms of the genitive and dative are identical (a genitive is produced when the prepositions ''i/e/të/së'' are used with the dative). Some dialects also retain a locative case, which is not present in standard Albanian. The cases apply to both definite and indefinite nouns, and there are numerous cases of syncretism (linguistics), syncretism. The following shows the declension of ''mal'' (mountain), a masculine noun which takes "i" in the definite singular: The following shows the declension of the masculine noun ''zog'' (bird), a masculine noun which takes "u" in the definite singular: The following table shows the declension of the feminine noun ''vajzë'' (girl): The definite article is placed after the noun as in many other Balkan languages, like in Romanian language, Romanian, Macedonian language, Macedonian and Bulgarian language, Bulgarian. * The definite article can be in the form of noun suffixes, which vary with gender and case. ** For example, in singular nominative, masculine nouns add ''-i'', or those ending in -g/-k/-h take ''-u'' (to avoid palatalization): ***''mal'' (mountain) / ''mali'' (the mountain); *** ''libër'' (book) / ''libri'' (the book); *** ''zog'' (bird) / ''zogu'' (the bird). ** Feminine nouns take the suffix ''-(i/j)a'': *** ''veturë'' (car) / ''vetura'' (the car); *** ''shtëpi'' (house) / ''shtëpia'' (the house); *** ''lule'' (flower) / ''lulja'' (the flower). * Neuter nouns take ''-t''. Albanian has developed an analytical verbal structure in place of the earlier synthetic system, inherited from Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European. Its complex system of Grammatical mood, moods (six types) and Grammatical tense, tenses (three simple and five complex constructions) is distinctive among Balkan languages. There are two general types of Grammatical conjugation, conjugations. Albanian verbs, like those of other Balkan languages, have an "admirative" mood (''mënyra habitore'') that is used to indicate surprise on the part of the speaker or to imply that an event is known to the speaker by report and not by direct observation. In some contexts, this mood can be translated using English "apparently". * ''Ti flet shqip.'' "You speak Albanian." (indicative) * ''Ti folke shqip!'' "You (surprisingly) speak Albanian!" (admirative) * ''Rruga është e mbyllur.'' "The street is closed." (indicative) * ''Rruga qenka e mbyllur.'' "(Apparently,) The street is closed." (admirative) For more information on verb conjugation and on inflection of other parts of speech, see Albanian morphology.


Word order

Albanian word order is relatively free. To say 'Agim ate all the oranges' in Albanian, one may use any of the following orders, with slight pragmatic differences: * subject–verb–object, SVO: Agimi i hëngri të gjithë portokallët. * subject–object–verb, SOV: Agimi të gjithë portokallët i hëngri. * Object–verb–subject, OVS: Të gjithë portokallët i hëngri Agimi. * Object–subject–verb, OSV: Të gjithë portokallët Agimi i hëngri. * Verb–subject–object, VSO: I hëngri Agimi të gjithë portokallët. * Verb–object–subject, VOS: I hëngri të gjithë portokallët Agimi. However, the most common order is subject–verb–object. The verb can optionally occur in sentence-initial position, especially with verbs in the non-active form (''forma joveprore''): * ''Parashikohet një ndërprerje'' "An interruption is anticipated".


Negation

Verbal negation in Albanian is mood-dependent, a trait shared with some fellow Indo-European languages such as Greek language, Greek. In indicative, conditional, or admirative sentences, negation is expressed by the particles ''nuk'' or ''s in front of the verb, for example: * ''Toni nuk flet anglisht'' "Tony does not speak English"; * ''Toni s'flet anglisht'' "Tony doesn't speak English"; * ''Nuk e di'' "I do not know"; * ''S'e di'' "I don't know". Subjunctive, imperative, optative, or non-finite forms of verbs are negated with the particle ''mos'': * ''Mos harro'' "do not forget!".


Numerals


Literary tradition


Earliest undisputed texts

The earliest known texts in Albanian: * the "formula e pagëzimit" (Baptismal Formula), which dates back to 1462 and was authored by Pal Engjëlli (or Paulus Angelus) (c. 1417 – 1470), Archbishop of Durrës. Engjëlli was a close friend and counsellor of Skanderbeg. It was written in a pastoral letter for a synod at the Holy Trinity in Mat and read in Latin characters as follows: ''Unte paghesont premenit Atit et Birit et Spertit Senit'' (standard Albanian: "Unë të pagëzoj në emër të Atit, të Birit e të Shpirtit të Shenjtë"; English: "I baptise you in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit"). It was discovered and published in 1915 by Nicolae Iorga. * the ''Fjalori i Arnold von Harfit'' (Arnold Ritter von Harff's lexicon), a short list of Albanian phrases with German glosses, dated 1496. * a song, recorded in the Greek alphabet, retrieved from an old codex that was written in Greek. The document is also called "Perikopeja e Ungjillit të Pashkëve" or "Perikopeja e Ungjillit të Shën Mateut" ("The Song of the Easter Gospel, or "The Song of Saint Matthew's Gospel"). Although the codex is dated to during the 14th century, the song, written in Albanian by an anonymous writer, seems to be a 16th-century writing. The document was found by Arbëreshë people, Arbëreshë people who had emigrated to Italy in the 15th century. * The first book in Albanian is the Meshari ("The Missal"), written by Gjon Buzuku between 20 March 1554 and 5 January 1555. The book was written in the Gheg dialect in the Latin script with some Slavic letters adapted for Albanian vowels. The book was discovered in 1740 by Gjon Nikollë Kazazi, the Albanian archbishop of Skopje. It contains the liturgies of the main holidays. There are also texts of prayers and rituals and catechism, catechetical texts. The grammar and the vocabulary are more archaic than those in the Gheg texts from the 17th century. The 188 pages of the book comprise about 154,000 words with a total vocabulary of c. 1,500 different words. The text is archaic yet easily interpreted because it is mainly a translation of known texts, in particular portions of the Bible. The book also contains passages from the Psalms, the Book of Isaiah, the Book of Jeremiah, the First Epistle to the Corinthians, Letters to the Corinthians, and many illustrations. The uniformity of spelling seems to indicate an earlier tradition of writing. The only known copy of the Meshari is held by the Vatican Library, Apostolic Library. In 1968 the book was published with transliterations and comments by linguists. * The first printed work in Tosk Albanian is the ''Mbsuame e krështerë'' (in Italian: ''Dottrina cristiana'') by Lekë Matrënga or (in Italian) Luca Matranga. It was published in 1592 and is written in an early form of the Arbëresh language (also known as Italo-Albanian). Albanian scripts were produced earlier than the first attested document, "formula e pagëzimit", but none yet have been discovered. We know of their existence by earlier references. For example, a French monk signed as "Broccardus" notes, in 1332, that "Although the Albanians have another language totally different from Latin, ''they still use Latin letters in all their books''".


Disputed earlier texts

In 1967 two scholars claimed to have found a brief text in Albanian inserted into the Bellifortis text, a book written in Latin dating to 1402–1405. Dr. Robert Elsie, a specialist in Albanian studies, considers that "The Todericiu/Polena Romanian translation of the non-Latin lines, although it may offer some clues if the text is indeed Albanian, is fanciful and based, among other things, on a false reading of the manuscript, including the exclusion of a whole line."


Ottoman period

In 1635, Frang Bardhi (1606–1643) published in Rome his ''Dictionarum latinum-epiroticum'', the first known Latin-Albanian dictionary. Other scholars who studied the language during the 17th century include Andrea Bogdani (1600–1685), author of the first Latin-Albanian grammar book, Nilo Katalanos (1637–1694) and others.


Lexicon

Albanian is known within historical linguistics as a case of a language which, although surviving through many periods of foreign rule and multilingualism, saw a "disproportionately high" influx of Loanword, loans from other languages augmenting and replacing much of its original vocabulary. Some scholars suggest that Albanian seems to have lost more than 90% of its original vocabulary in favour of Latin language, Latin, Greek language, Greek, Slavic languages, Slavic, Italian language, Italian and Turkish language, Turkish loanwords, but according to other scholars this percentage is definitely overstated. Of all the foreign influences in Albanian, the deepest reaching and most impactful was the absorption of loans from Latin in the Classical period and its Romance successors afterward, with over 60% of Albanian vocabulary consisting of Latin roots, causing Albanian to once have been mistakenly identified as a Romance language.Sawicka, Irena
"A Crossroad Between West, East and Orient–The Case of Albanian Culture."
Colloquia Humanistica. No. 2. Instytut Slawistyki Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 2013. Page 97: "Even according to Albanian linguists, Albanian vocabulary is composed in 60 percent of Latin words from different periods... When albanological studies were just emerging, it happened that Albanian was classified as a Romance language. Already there exists the idea of a common origin of both Albanian and Rumanian languages. The Rumanian grammar is almost identical to that of Albanian, but it may be as well the effect of later convergence within the Balkan Sprachbund.."
Major work in reconstructing Proto-Albanian has been done with the help of knowledge of the original forms of loans from Ancient Greek, Latin and Slavic, while Ancient Greek loanwords are scarce the Latin loanwords are of extreme importance in phonology. The presence of loanwords from more well-studied languages from time periods before Albanian was attested, reaching deep back into the Classical Era, has been of great use in phonological reconstructions for earlier ancient and medieval forms of Albanian.Matasovic, Ranko (2018)
''A Grammatical Sketch of Albanian for students of Indo-European''
Page 6.
Some words in the core vocabulary of Albanian have no known etymology linking them to Proto-Indo-European or any known source language, and as of 2018 are thus tentatively attributed to an unknown, unattested, pre-Indo-European substrate language; some words among these include (heart) and (iron). Some among these putative pre-IE words are thought to be related to putative pre-IE substrate words in neighboring Indo-European languages, such as (flower), which has been tentatively linked to Latin and Greek . Lexical distance of Albanian in a Lexicostatistics, lexicostatistical analysis of the Ukrainian linguist Tyshchenko (the lower figure – the higher similarity): 49% Slovenian language, Slovenian, 53% Romanian language, Romanian, 56% Greek language, Greek, 82% French language, French, 86% Macedonian language, Macedonian, 86% Bulgarian language, Bulgarian.


Cognates with Illyrian

* Andena/Andes/Andio/Antis — personal Illyrian names based on a root-word ''and-'' or ''ant-'', found in both the southern and the Dalmatian-Pannonian (including modern Bosnia and Herzegovina) onomastic provinces; cf. Alb. ''andë'' (northern Albanian dialect, or Gheg) and ''ëndë'' (southern Albanian dialect or Tosk) "appetite, pleasure, desire, wish"; ''Andi'' proper name, ''Andizetes'', an Illyrian people inhabiting the Roman province of Panonia. * ''aran'' "field"; cf. Alb. ''arë''; plural ''ara'' * ''Ardiaioi/Ardiaei'', name of an Illyrian people, cf. Alb. ''ardhja'' "arrival" or "descent", connected to ''hardhi'' "vine-branch, grape-vine", with a sense development similar to Germanic *stamniz, meaning both ''stem, tree stalk'' and ''tribe, lineage''. However, the insufficiency of this hypothesis is that so far there is no certainty as to the historical or etymological development of either ''ardhja/hardhi'' or ''Ardiaioi'', as with many other words. * ''Bilia'' "daughter"; cf. Alb. ''bijë'', dial. ''bilë'' * ''Bindo/Bindus'', an Illyrian deity from Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina; cf. Alb. ''bind'' "to convince" or "to make believe", ''përbindësh'' "monster". * ''bounon'', "hut, cottage"; cf. Alb ''bun'' * ''brisa'', "husk of grapes"; cf. Alb ''bërsí'' "lees, dregs; mash" ( < PA *''brutiā'') * ''Barba-'' "swamp", a toponym from ''Metubarbis''; possibly related to Alb. ''bërrakë'' "swampy soil" * ''can-'' "dog"; related to Alb. ''qen'' * ''Daesitiates'', a name of an Illyrian people, cf. Alb. ''dash'' "ram", corresponding contextually with south Slavonic ''dasa'' "ace", which might represent a borrowing and adaptation from Illyrian (or some other ancient language). * ''mal'', "mountain"; cf. Alb ''mal'' * ''bardi'', "white"; cf. Alb ''bardhë'' * ''drakoina'' "supper"; cf. Alb. ''darke'', ''dreke'' * ''drenis'', "deer"; cf. Alb ''dre, dreni'' * ''delme'' "sheep"; cf. Alb ''dele'', Gheg dialect ''delme'' * ''dard'', "pear"; cf. Alb ''dardhë'' * ''Hyllus'' (the name of an Illyrian king); cf. Alb. ''yll'' (''hyll'' in some northern dialects) "star", also Alb. ''hyj'' "god", ''Ylli'' proper name. * ''sīca'', "dagger"; cf. Alb ''thikë'' or ''thika'' "knife" * ''Ulc-'', "wolf" (pln. ''Ulcinium''); cf. Alb ''ujk'' "wolf", ''ulk'' (Northern Dialect) * ''loúgeon'', "pool"; cf. Alb ''lag'', ''legen'' "to wet, soak, bathe, wash" ( < PA *''lauga''), ''lëgatë'' "pool" ( < PA *''leugatâ''), ''lakshte'' "dew" ( < PA ''laugista'') * ''mag-'' "great"; cf. Alb. ''i madh'' "big, great" * ''mantía'' "bramblebush"; Old and dial. Alb ''mandë'' "berry, mulberry" (mod. Alb ''mën, man'') * ''rhinos'', "fog, mist"; cf. Old Alb ''ren'' "cloud" (mod. Alb ''re, rê'') ( < PA *''rina'') * ''Vendum'' "place"; cf. Proto-Alb. wen-ta (Mod. Alb. vend)


Early linguistic influences

The earliest loanwords attested in Albanian come from Doric Greek, whereas the strongest influence came from Latin. According to Matthew C. Curtis, the loanwords do not necessarily indicate the geographical location of the ancestor of Albanian language. However, according to other linguists, the borrowed words can help to get an idea about the place of origin and the evolution of the Albanian language. Some scholars argue that Albanian originated from an area located east of its present geographic spread due to the several Albanian–Romanian linguistic relationship, common lexical items found between the Albanian and Romanian language, Romanian languages. However it does not necessarily define the genealogical history of Albanian language, and it does not exclude the possibility of Proto-Albanian language, Proto-Albanian presence in both Illyrians, Illyrian and Thracians, Thracian territory. The period during which Proto-Albanian and Latin interacted was protracted, lasting from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD. Over this period, the lexical borrowings can be roughly divided into three layers, the second of which is the largest. The first and smallest occurred at the time of less significant interaction. The final period, probably preceding the Migration Period, Slavic or Germanic invasions, also has a notably smaller number of borrowings. Each layer is characterised by a different treatment of most vowels: the first layer follows the evolution of Early Proto-Albanian into Albanian; while later layers reflect vowel changes endemic to Late Latin (and presumably Proto-Romance language, Proto-Romance). Other formative changes include the syncretism of several noun case endings, especially in the plural, as well as a large-scale palatalisation. A brief period followed, between the 7th and the 9th centuries, that was marked by heavy borrowings from South Slavic languages, Southern Slavic, some of which predate the "o-a" shift common to the modern forms of this language group. Starting in the latter 9th century, there was a period characterised by protracted contact with the Proto-Romanian language, Proto-Romanians (or "Vlachs"), though lexical borrowing seems to have been mostly one sided: from Albanian into Romanian. Such borrowing indicates that the Romanians migrated from an area where the majority was Slavic (i.e. Middle Bulgarian) to an area with a majority of Albanian speakers (i.e. Dardania (Roman province), Dardania, where Vlachs are recorded in the 10th century). Their movement is presumably related to the expansion of the Bulgarian Empire into Albania around that time.


Early Greek loans

There are some 30 Ancient Greek loanwords in Albanian. Many of these reflect a dialect which voiced its aspirants, as did the Macedonian dialect. Other loanwords are Doric; these words mainly refer to commodity items and trade goods and probably came through trade with a now-extinct intermediary. * bletë; "hive, bee" < Attic ''mélitta'' "bee" (vs. Ionic ''mélissa''). * drapër; "sickle" < (Northwest Greek) ''drápanon''Ancient Indo-European dialects: proceedings, Volume 1963 Ancient Indo-European Dialects: Proceedings, University of California, Los Angeles. Center for Research in Languages and Linguistics Authors Henrik Birnbaum, Jaan Puhvel, University of California, Los Angeles. Center for Research in Languages and Linguistics Editors Henrik Birnbaum, Jaan Puhvel Publisher University of California Press, 1966 p.102 * kumbull; "plum" < ''kokkúmelon'' * lakër; "cabbage, green vegetables" < ''lákhanon'' "green; vegetable" * lëpjetë; "orach, dock" < ''lápathon'' * leva (lyej); "to smear, oil" < *''liwenj'' < *''elaiwā'' < Gk ''elai(w)ṓn'' "oil" * mokër; "millstone" < (Northwest) ''mākhaná'' "device, instrument"The Field of Linguistics, Volume 2 Volume 1 of World of linguistics Authors Bernd Kortmann, Johan Van Der Auwera Editors Bernd Kortmann, Johan Van Der Auwera Publisher Walter de Gruyter, 2010 , p.412 * mollë; "apple" < ''mēlon'' "fruit" * pjepër; "melon" < ''pépōn'' * presh; "leek" < ''práson'' * shpellë; "cave" < ''spḗlaion'' * trumzë; "thyme" < (Northwest) ''thýmbrā, thrýmbrē'' * pellg; "pond, pool" < ''pélagos'' "high sea" * verë; "wine" < ''*woínā'' The following come from a Greek dialect without any significant attestation called "Makedonian" because it was akin to the native idiom of the Greek-speaking population in the Argead kingdom: * angari; "corvée" < ''*ẚngareíā'' (''ἀγγαρεία'') * pëllëmbë; "palm of the hand" < ''*palámā'' * llërë; "elbow" < ''*ὠlénā'' * ''brukë''; "tamarisk" < ''*mīrýkhā'' * ''mëllagë''; 'mallow' < ''*malákhā'' (with the reflex of /ɡ/ for Greek <χ> indicating a dialectal voicing of the what came as an aspirate stop from Greek) * ''maraj'' "fennel" < ''*márathrion'' (cf Romanian ''marariu'', Ionic ''márathron''; with the Albanian simplification of -dri̯- to -j- reflecting that of earlier *udri̯om to ''ujë'' "water") * ''bredh'' "fir tree" < ''brathy'' "savin", with Romanian ''brad'' having the same Greek dialectal origin, the Greek itself being of ultimate Semitic provenance


Latin influence

In total Latin roots comprise over 60% of the Albanian lexicon. They include many frequently used core vocabulary items, including ''shumë'' ("very", from Latin ''summus''), ''pak'' ("few", Latin ''paucus''), ''ngushtë'' ("narrow", Latin ''angustus''), ''pemë'' ("tree", Latin ''poma''), ''vij'' ("to come", Latin ''venio''), ''rërë'' ("sand", Latin ''arena''), ''drejt'' ("straight", Latin "directus"), ''kafshë'' ("beast", Latin ''causa'', meaning "thing"), and ''larg'' ("far away", Latin ''largus''). Jernej Kopitar (1780–1844) was the first to note Latin's influence on Albanian and claimed "the Latin loanwords in the Albanian language had the pronunciation of the time of Emperor Augustus". Kopitar gave examples such as Albanian ''qiqer'' 'chickpea' from Latin ''cicer'', ''qytet'' 'city, town' from ''civitas'', ''peshk'' 'fish' from ''piscis'', and ''shigjetë'' 'arrow' from ''sagitta''. The hard pronunciations of Latin and are retained as palatal and velar stops in the Albanian loanwords. Gustav Meyer (1888) and Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke (1914) later corroborated this. Meyer noted the similarity between the Albanian verbs ''shqipoj'' "to speak clearly, enunciate" and ''shqiptoj'' "to pronounce, articulate" and the Latin word ''excipio'' (meaning "to welcome"). Therefore, he believed that the word ''Shqiptar'' "Albanian person" was derived from ''shqipoj'', which in turn was derived from the Latin word ''excipere''. Johann Georg von Hahn, an Austrian linguist, had proposed the same hypothesis in 1854. Eqrem Çabej also noticed, among other things, the archaic Latin elements in Albanian: # Latin /au/ becomes Albanian /a/ in the earliest loanwords: ''aurum'' → ''ar'' 'gold'; ''gaudium'' → ''gaz'' 'joy'; ''laurus'' → ''lar'' 'laurel'. Latin /au/ is retained in later loans, but is altered in a way similar to Greek orthography, Greek: ''causa'' 'thing' → ''kafshë'' 'thing; beast, brute'; ''laud'' → ''lavd''. # Latin /oː/ becomes Albanian /e/ in the oldest Latin loans: ''pōmus'' → ''pemë'' 'fruit tree'; ''hōra'' → ''ora'' 'hour'. An analogous mutation occurred from Proto-Indo-European to Albanian; PIE ''*nōs'' became Albanian ''ne'' 'we', PIE ''*oḱtō'' + suffix ''-ti-'' became Albanian ''tetë'' 'eight', etc. # Latin unstressed internal and initial syllables become lost in Albanian: ''cubitus'' → ''kub'' 'elbow'; ''medicus'' → ''mjek'' 'physician'; ''palūdem'' 'swamp' → VL ''padūle'' → ''pyll'' 'forest'. An analogous mutation occurred from Proto-Indo-European to Albanian. In contrast, in later Latin loanwords, the internal syllable is retained: ''paganus'' → ''pagan''; ''plaga'' → ''plagë'' 'wound', etc. # Latin /tj/, /dj/, /kj/ palatalized to Albanian /s/, /z/, /c/: ''vitium'' → ''ves'' 'vice; worries'; ''rationem'' → ''arsye'' 'reason'; ''radius'' → ''rreze'' 'ray; spoke'; ''facies'' → ''faqe'' 'face, cheek'; ''socius'' → ''shok'' 'mate, comrade', ''shoq'' 'husband', etc. In turn, Latin /s/ was altered to /ʃ/ in Albanian. Haralambie Mihăescu demonstrated that: * Some 85 Latin words have survived in Albanian but not (as inherited) in any Romance language. A few examples include Late Latin ''celsydri'' → dial. ''kulshedër'' → ''kuçedër'' 'hydra', ''hībernus'' → ''vërri'' 'winter pasture', ''sarcinārius'' 'used for packing, loading' → ''shelqëror'' 'forked peg, grapnel, forked hanger', ''solanum'' 'nightshade', lit. 'sun plant' → ''shullë(r)'' 'sunny place out of the wind, sunbathed area', ''splēnēticus'' → ''shpretkë'' 'spleen', ''trifurcus'' → ''tërfurk'' 'pitchfork'. * 151 Albanian words of Latin origin were not inherited in Romanian. A few examples include Latin ''amicus'' → Albanian ''mik'' 'friend', ''inimicus'' → ''armik'' 'foe, enemy', ''rationem'' → ''arsye'', ''benedicere'' → ''bekoj'', ''bubulcus'' 'ploughman, herdsman' → ''bulk'', ''bujk'' 'peasant', ''calicis'' → ''qelq'' 'drinking glass', ''castellum'' → ''kështjellë'' 'castle', ''centum'' → ''qind'' 'hundred', ''gallus'' → ''gjel'' 'rooster', ''iunctūra'' → ''gjymtyrë'' 'limb; joint', ''medicus'' → ''mjek'' 'doctor', ''retem'' → ''rrjetë'' 'net', ''spērāre'' → dial. ''shp(ë)rej'' ''shpresoj'' 'to hope' ''pres'' 'await', ''voluntās'' (''voluntātis'') → ''vullnet'' 'will; volunteer'. * Some Albanian church terminology has phonetic features which demonstrate their very early borrowing from Latin. A few examples include Albanian ''bekoj'' 'to bless' from ''benedīcere'', ''engjëll'' 'angel' from ''angelus'', ''kishë'' 'church' from ''ecclēsia'', ''i krishterë'' 'Christian' from ''christiānus'', ''kryq'' 'cross' from ''crux'' (''crucis''), (obsolete) ''lter'' 'altar' from Latin ''altārium'', ''mallkoj'' 'to curse' from ''maledīcere'', ''meshë'' 'mass' from ''missa'', ''murg'' 'monk' from ''monacus'', ''peshkëp'' 'bishop' from ''episcopus'', and ''ungjill'' 'gospel' from ''ēvangelium''. Other authors have detected Latin loanwords in Albanian with an ancient sound pattern from the 1st century BC, for example, Albanian ''qingël(ë)'' 'saddle girth; dwarf elder' from Latin ''cingula'' and Albanian ''e vjetër'' 'old, aged; former' from ''vjet'' but influenced by Latin ''veteris''. The Romance languages inherited these words from Vulgar Latin: ''cingula'' became Romanian ''chinga'' 'girdle; saddle girth', and Vulgar Latin ''Veteranus, veterānus'' became Romanian ''bătrân'' 'old'. Albanian, Basque language, Basque, and the surviving Celtic languages such as Breton language, Breton and Welsh language, Welsh are the non-Romance languages today that have this sort of extensive Latin element dating from ancient Roman times, which has undergone the sound changes associated with the languages. Other languages in or near the former Roman area either came on the scene later (Turkish, the Slavic languages, Arabic) or borrowed little from Latin despite coexisting with it (Greek, German), although German does have a few such ancient Latin loanwords (''Fenster'' 'window', ''Käse'' 'cheese', ''Köln''). Romanian scholars such as Vatasescu and Mihaescu, using lexical analysis of the Albanian language, have concluded that Albanian was heavily influenced by an extinct Romance language that was distinct from both Romanian and Dalmatian language, Dalmatian. Because the Latin words common to only Romanian and Albanian are significantly fewer in number than those that are common to only Albanian and Western Romance, Mihaescu argues that the Albanian language evolved in a region with much greater contact with Western Romance regions than with Romanian-speaking regions, and located this region in present-day Albania, Kosovo and Western Macedonia, spanning east to Bitola and Pristina.


Other loans

It is assumed that Ancient Greek language, Greek and Balkan Latin (the ancestor of Romanian and other Balkan Romance languages) exerted a great influence on Albanian. Examples of words borrowed from Latin: ''qytet < civitas'' (city), ''qiell < caelum'' (sky), ''mik < amicus'' (friend), ''kape ditën < carpe diem'' (seize the day). After the Slavs arrived in the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather ...
, the Slavic languages became an additional source of loanwords. The rise of the Ottoman Empire meant an influx of Turkish language, Turkish words; this also entailed the borrowing of Persian and Arabic words through Turkish. Some Turkish personal names, such as ''Altin'', are common. There are some loanwords from Modern Greek, especially in the south of Albania. Many borrowed words have been replaced by words with Albanian roots or modern Latinised (international) words.


=Gothic

= Albanian is also known to possess a small set of loans from Gothic language, Gothic, with early inquiry into the matter done by Norbert Jokl and Sigmund Feist, though such loans had been claimed earlier in the 19th century by early linguists such as Gustav Meyer. Many words claimed as Gothic have now been attributed to other origins by later linguists of Albanian (''fat'' and ''tufë'', though used for major claims by Huld in 1994, are now attributed to Latin, for example), or may instead be native to Albanian, inherited from Proto-Indo-European. Today, it is accepted that there are a few words from Gothic in Albanian, but for the most part they are scanty because the Goths had few contacts with Balkan peoples.Curtis, M.C., 2012
Slavic-Albanian language contact, convergence, and coexistence
Page 19
Martin HuldHuld, M.E., 1994
Albanian zverk - Gothic *swairhs
''Historische Sprachforschung/Historical Linguistics'', 107(1. H), pp.165-171. Pages 167-8.
defends the significance of the admittedly sparse Gothic loans for Albanian studies, however, arguing that Gothic is the only clearly post-Roman and "pre-Ottoman" language after Latin with a notable influence on the Albanian lexicon (the influence of Slavic languages is both pre-Ottoman and Ottoman). He argues that Gothic words in Albanian are attributable to the late fourth and early fifth centuries during the invasions of various Gothic speaking groups of the Balkans under Alaric I, Alaric, Odoacer, and Theodoric. He argues that Albanian Gothicisms bear evidence for the ordering of developments within Proto-Albanian at this time: for example, he argues Proto-Albanian at this stage had already shifted /uː/ to [y] as Gothic words with /uː/ reflect with /u/ in Albanian, not /y/ as seen in most Latin and ancient Greek loans, but had not yet experienced the shift of /t͡s/ to /θ/, since loans from Gothic words with /θ/ replace /θ/ with /t/ or another close sound. Notable words that continue to be attributed to Gothic in Albanian by multiple modern sources include: * ''tirk'' "felt gaiters, white felt" (cf Romanian ''tureac'' "top of boot") < Gothic *θiuh-brōks-Orel, Vladimir (1998). ''Albanian Etymological Dictionary''. Page 456-7 or *θiuhbrōkeis, cf Old High German ''theobrach'' "gaiters" * ''shkumë'' "foam" < Gothic ''*skūm-'', perhaps via an intermediary in a Romance *scuma * ''gardh'' "fence, garden" is either considered a native Albanian word that was loaned into Romanian as ''gard'' or from a Romance word itself loaned from Gothic ''gards'' * ''zverk'' "nape, back of neck" < Gothic *''swairhs''; the "difficult" word having various otherwise been attributed (with phonological issues) to Celtic, Greek or native development. * ''horr'' "villain, scoundrel" and ''horre'' "whore" < Gothic *''hors'' "adulterer, cf Old Norse ''hóra'' "whore" * ''punjashë'' "purse", diminutive of ''punjë'' < Gothic ''puggs'' "purse"Orel, Vladimir (1998). ''Albanian Etymological Dictionary''. Page 350


Patterns in loaning

Although Albanian is characterised by the absorption of many loans, even, in the case of Latin, reaching deep into the core vocabulary, certain semantic fields nevertheless remained more resistant. Terms pertaining to social organisation are often preserved, though not those pertaining to political organisation, while those pertaining to trade are all loaned or innovated. Hydronyms present a complicated picture; the term for "sea" (''det'') is native and an "Albano-Germanic" innovation referring to the concept of depth, but a large amount of maritime vocabulary is loaned. Words referring to large streams and their banks tend to be loans, but ''lumë'' ("river") is native, as is ''rrymë'' (the flow of water). Words for smaller streams and stagnant pools of water are more often native, but the word for "pond", ''pellg'' is in fact a semantically shifted descendant of the old Greek word for "high sea", suggesting a change in location after Greek contact. Albanian has maintained since Proto-Indo-European a specific term referring to a riverside forest (''gjazë''), as well as its words for marshes. Curiously, Albanian has maintained native terms for "whirlpool", "water pit" and (aquatic) "deep place", leading Orel to speculate that the Albanian Urheimat likely had an excess of dangerous whirlpools and depths. Regarding forests, words for most conifers and shrubs are native, as are the terms for "alder", "elm", "oak", "beech", and "linden", while "ash", "chestnut", "birch", "maple", "poplar", and "willow" are loans. The original kinship terminology of Indo-European was radically reshaped; changes included a shift from "mother" to "sister", and were so thorough that only three terms retained their original function, the words for "son-in-law", "mother-in-law" and "father-in-law". All the words for second-degree blood kinship, including "aunt", "uncle", "nephew", "niece", and terms for grandchildren, are ancient loans from Latin. The Proto-Albanians appear to have been cattle breeders given the vastness of preserved native vocabulary pertaining to cow breeding, milking and so forth, while words pertaining to dogs tend to be loaned. Many words concerning horses are preserved, but the word for horse itself is a Latin loan.


See also

* Abetare * Arbëresh language * Arvanitika * Gheg Albanian * Illyrian languages * Help:IPA/Albanian, IPA/Albanian * Messapian language * Thraco-Illyrian * Tosk Albanian


Notes


References


Bibliography

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External links


Albanian Online
by Brian Joseph, Angelo Costanzo, and Jonathan Slocum, free online lessons at th
Linguistics Research Center
at the University of Texas at Austin
glottothèque - Ancient Indo-European Grammars online
an online collection of introductory videos to Ancient Indo-European languages produced by the University of Göttingen {{Authority control Albanian language, Languages attested from the 15th century Indo-European languages Illyrian languages Languages of Albania Languages of Greece Languages of Italy Languages of Kosovo Languages of North Macedonia Languages of Romania Languages of Montenegro Languages of Serbia Languages of Sicily Languages of Turkey Subject–verb–object languages