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The Albanian National Awakening
Albanian National Awakening
(Albanian: Rilindja Kombëtare) (also known as the National Renaissance or National Revival), refers to the period in the history of Albania
Albania
from 1870 until the declaration of independence in 1912. The activists are called Revivalists (Albanian: Rilindas).[1][2] The National Awakening began in the middle of the 19th century and lasted until 1912, when the Albanians
Albanians
declared the creation of an independent Albania, which included the area that is now Albania
Albania
and the neighbouring territories.[3] On December 20, 1912, the Conference of Ambassadors in London recognized an independent Albania
Albania
within its present-day borders.[4]

Contents

1 Background

1.1 1831–1878 1.2 Early revolts and beginnings of Nationalism

2 Rise of Nationalism 3 Literary revival 4 1910 and 1911 uprisings 5 Revolt of 1912 6 Declaration of Independence 7 See also 8 References 9 Literature

Background[edit] Main articles: Massacre of the Albanian Beys, Albanian Revolts of 1833–1839, Albanian Revolt of 1843–1844, Albanian Revolt of 1847, and List of wars involving Albania
Albania
§ Ottoman Albania (1479–1912) 1831–1878[edit]

The Pashalik of Scutari
Pashalik of Scutari
(1757-1831) was the last of the Albanian pashaliks to fall.

After the fall of the Yanina Pashalik, the power and influence of the Albanian beys had faded. The remaining beys thus attempted to restore their rule.[5] An assembly was held in Berat
Berat
in 1828. In this Convention, the leaders were Ismail Bey Qemali, Zylyftar Poda and Shahin bej Delvina. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
tried to prevent the rise of local beys, which presented a menace to centralized power. In 1830, the Sublime Porte
Sublime Porte
sent an expeditionary force under the command of Reşid Mehmed Pasha to suppress the local Albanian beys. On hearing the news of the Ottoman forces' arrival, the three most powerful local chiefs, Zylyftar Poda, accompanied by the remains of Ali Pasha's faction, Veli Bey (whose power base was around Yannina), and Arslan Bey, along with other less powerful beys, began to prepare their forces to resist a probable Ottoman attack.[5] Realising the seriousness of the situation and the danger of a general uprising, Reşid Mehmed Pasha invited the Albanian beys to a meeting on the pretext that they would be rewarded for their loyalty to the Porte.[6] The beys however, were all killed along with their guards.[5] The last Albanian pashalik to fall was the Scutari Pashalik. The Bushati dynasty rule ended when an Ottoman army under Mehmed Reshid Pasha besieged the Rozafa Castle
Rozafa Castle
and forced Mustafa Reshiti to surrender (1831).[7] The Albanian defeat ended a planned alliance between the Albanian beys and the Bosnian nobility, who were similarly seeking autonomy.[8] Instead of the pashalik, the vilayets of Scutari and that of Kosovo were created. Early revolts and beginnings of Nationalism[edit] By removing the Timar system, the Sublime Porte
Sublime Porte
intended to strengthen its central government and reclaim the power of the Empire which had been severely weakened due to economic and social backwardness, from the exploitative system and from the ongoing uprisings of peoples. Reforms began to be implemented in Albania
Albania
since the 1830s. They gave a blow to the ranks of the old military feudal class which had been weakened from Ottoman expeditions from 1822 to 1831. Parts of the feudal heads that had launched revolts were eliminated, others were exiled and those who could, had escaped from the country. All their properties were declared state-owned. This gave rise to new landowners who had connections to the Sublime Porte.[9] Due to the Ottoman occupation, the ideology of Nationalism developed difficultly and were limited in Albanian-inhabited territories in the Balkan. They found more favorable development conditions outside, in the capital of the Empire, Istanbul, Italy, other Balkan countries etc.[10] The national ideas became apparent via popular uprisings against the Tanzimat reforms, but they still did not reach a period to be formulated in full policy of the National Movement. They were more expressed with literary works and studies of the Albanian people, history, language and culture.In their writings, the Rilindas fought to invoke feelings of love for the country by exalting patriotic traditions and episodes of history, especially that of the Skanderbeg
Skanderbeg
era and folk culture; They devoted a lot of attention to native language and Albanian schools as a means to affirm individuality and national vindication.[11] The centralizing reforms of the Ottoman government were implemented immediately with the deployment of civil and military personnel in Albania. This was met with resistance by the local population which first began with the refusal to execute orders and quickly transformed into armed rebellion. After two local uprisings that burst in the beginning of 1833 in Kolonjë
Kolonjë
and in Dibër were repressed, uprisings occurred in Berat-Vlorë-Delvinë-Çamëria area in larger scales than before.[12] The actions of the Ottoman army were driven by terror and increased unhappiness in the local population, who were aptly anticipated to revolt again. Fugitive agitators circulated across the provinces to organize further rebellions, calling on the people to prepare for war. Others were sent to neighboring provinces to secure their presence by pointing out they are "brothers." To get ahead of the danger Of the new outbreak of popular hate, at the beginning of 1844, the Ottoman authorities urged urgent action. They concentrated large military forces at various points, especially in Bitola
Bitola
where the state was worse.[13] By the end of March 1844, the new uprising erupted but was suppressed. In the ensuing years there were bursts of armed insurrections throughout Albania
Albania
against the Ottoman centralizing reforms, and especially against the burden of the new taxes imposed and against the obligatory military service. But, at the same time and within the bosom of these insurrections, preliminary national claims started to spread. These claims came forth especially in the revolt of 1847, which assumed great proportions in two zones of Southern Albania: in the Gjirokastra region led by Zenel Gjoleka and in that of Berat
Berat
led by Rapo Hekali.[14] Rise of Nationalism[edit] Further information: League of Prizren, Albanian Nationalism, Rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire, and National Awakening in the Balkans

The 4 Ottoman vilayets (Kosovo, Scutari, Monastir and Janina), proposed as Albanian vilayet, by the League of Prizren
League of Prizren
1878.

Because of religious ties of the Albanian majority of the population with the ruling Ottomans and the lack of an Albanian state in past, nationalism was less developed among Albanians
Albanians
in the 19th century than among other southeast European nations.[1] The centralist Tanzimat reforms, which were aimed at replacing local Albanian functionaries and suppression of Albanian culture sowed the seeds of the Rilindja.[15][16] In that period an intellectual and merchant class with the new ideas that were emerging in Europe was shaped, empowering the existing struggle against the Ottoman rule.[17] The son of one merchant family, Naum Veqilharxhi, started his work to write an alphabet intented to help Albanians
Albanians
overcome religious and political issues in 1824 or 1825.[18][19] His work facilitated the difussion of national awareness based on the unity of kin, identity of language and traditions.[20] Only from the 1870s and onwards did a movement of 'national awakening' (Rilindja) evolve—greatly delayed, compared to the Greeks and the Serbs.[1] The 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War
War
dealt a decisive blow to Ottoman power in the Balkan Peninsula. The Albanians' fear that the lands they inhabited would be partitioned among Montenegro, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Greece
Greece
fueled the rise of the Albanian national movement.[21][22] The first postwar treaty, the abortive Treaty of San Stefano
Treaty of San Stefano
signed on March 3, 1878, assigned Albanian-populated lands to Serbia, Montenegro, and Bulgaria.[22] Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and the United Kingdom blocked the arrangement because it awarded Russia
Russia
a predominant position in the Balkans and thereby upset the European balance of power.[23] A peace conference to settle the dispute was held later in the year in Berlin.[24][25][26] The Treaty of San Stefano
Treaty of San Stefano
triggered profound anxiety among the Albanians
Albanians
meanwhile, and it spurred their leaders to organize a defense of the lands they inhabited.[24][27] In the spring of 1878, influential Albanians
Albanians
in Constantinople—including Abdyl Frashëri, one of the first political ideologues[28] of the National Revival-organized a secret committee to direct the Albanians' resistance.[29][27] In May the group called for a general meeting of representatives from all the Albanian-populated lands.[29][30] On June 10, 1878, about eighty delegates, mostly Muslim
Muslim
religious leaders, clan chiefs, and other influential people from the four Albanian-populated Ottoman vilayets, met in Prizren.[31] The delegates declared the formation of the League of Prizren
League of Prizren
which consisted of two branches: the Prizren
Prizren
branch and the southern branch.[32] The Prizren branch was led by Iljas Dibra and it had representatives from the areas of Kirçova (Kicevo), Kalkandelen (Tetovo), Pristine (Pristina), Mitroviça (Kosovska Mitrovica), Viçitirin (Vucitrn), Üsküp (Skopje), Gilan (Gnjilane), Manastir (Bitola), Debar
Debar
(Debar) and Gostivar. The southern branch, led by Abdyl Frashëri
Abdyl Frashëri
consisted of sixteen representatives from the areas of Kolonjë, Korçë, Arta, Berat, Parga, Gjirokastër, Përmet, Paramythia, Filiates, Margariti, Vlorë, Tepelenë
Tepelenë
and Delvinë.[33] The League of Prizren
League of Prizren
was set under the direction of a central committee that had the power to impose taxes and raise an army. The League of Prizren
League of Prizren
worked to gain autonomy for the Albanians
Albanians
and to thwart implementation of the Treaty of San Stefano, but not to create an independent Albania.[34] Among other things the League requested an official status for the Albanian language in the Albanian-inhabited territories and the foundation of Albanian schools.[35] At first the Ottoman authorities supported the League of Prizren, but the Sublime Porte
Sublime Porte
pressed the delegates to declare themselves to be first and foremost Ottomans rather than Albanians.[36] Some delegates supported this position and advocated emphasizing Muslim
Muslim
solidarity and the defense of Muslim
Muslim
lands, including present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. Other representatives, under Frashëri's leadership, focused on working toward Albanian autonomy and creating a sense of Albanian identity that would cut across religious and tribal lines.[37][38] Because conservative Muslims constituted a majority of the representatives, the League of Prizren
League of Prizren
supported maintenance of Ottoman suzerainty.[39] In July 1878, the league sent a memorandum to the Great Powers at the Congress of Berlin, which was called to settle the unresolved problems of Turkish War, demanding that all Albanians
Albanians
be united in a single autonomous Ottoman province.[40]

League of Prizren, group photo, 1878

The Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin
ignored the league's memorandum.[41] The congress ceded to Montenegro
Montenegro
the cities of Bar and Podgorica
Podgorica
and areas around the mountain towns of Gusinje
Gusinje
and Plav, which Albanian leaders considered Albanian territory.[42][43] Serbia
Serbia
also gained some Albanian-inhabited lands.[44] The Albanians, the vast majority loyal to the empire, vehemently opposed the territorial losses.[45] Albanians
Albanians
also feared the possible loss of Epirus
Epirus
to Greece.[46][47] The League of Prizren
League of Prizren
organized armed resistance efforts in Gusinje, Plav, Scutari, Prizren, Preveza, and Ioannina.[48][49] A border tribesman at the time described the frontier as "floating on blood."[39]

Flag used during the Albanian National Awakening
Albanian National Awakening
and by early 20th-century Albanian rebels.[50]

In August 1878, the Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin
ordered a commission to trace a border between the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Montenegro.[51] The congress also directed Greece
Greece
and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
to negotiate a solution to their border dispute.[52][53] The Great Powers expected the Ottomans to ensure that the Albanians
Albanians
would respect the new borders, ignoring that the sultan's military forces were too weak to enforce any settlement and that the Ottomans could only benefit by the Albanians' resistance. The Sublime Porte, in fact, armed the Albanians
Albanians
and allowed them to levy taxes, and when the Ottoman army withdrew from areas awarded to Montenegro
Montenegro
under the Treaty of Berlin, Roman Catholic Albanian tribesmen simply took control. The Albanians' successful resistance to the treaty forced the Great Powers to alter the border, returning Gusinje
Gusinje
and Plav to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and granting Montenegro
Montenegro
the Albanian-populated coastal town of Ulcinj.[54][55] There the Albanians
Albanians
refused to surrender as well. Finally, the Great Powers blockaded Ulcinj
Ulcinj
by sea and pressured the Ottoman authorities to bring the Albanians
Albanians
under control.[56][57] The Great Powers decided in 1881 to cede Greece
Greece
only Thessaly
Thessaly
and the district of Arta.[58][59] [60] Faced with growing international pressure "to pacify" the refractory Albanians, the sultan dispatched a large army under Dervish Turgut Pasha to suppress the League of Prizren
League of Prizren
and deliver Ulcinj
Ulcinj
to Montenegro.[61][62] Albanians
Albanians
loyal to the empire supported the Sublime Porte's military intervention. In April 1881, Dervish Pasha's 10,000 men captured Prizren
Prizren
and later crushed the resistance at Ulcinj.[63][62] The League of Prizren's leaders and their families were arrested and deported.[64][65] Frashëri, who originally received a death sentence, was imprisoned until 1885 and exiled until his death seven years later.[64][66] In the three years it survived, the League of Prizren
Prizren
effectively made the Great Powers aware of the Albanian people and their national interests. Montenegro
Montenegro
and Greece
Greece
received much less Albanian-populated territory than they would have won without the league's resistance.[67] Formidable barriers frustrated Albanian leaders' efforts to instill in their people an Albanian rather than an Ottoman identity.[68] Divided into four vilayets, Albanians
Albanians
had no common geographical or political nerve center.[68][69] The Albanians' religious differences forced nationalist leaders to give the national movement a purely secular character that alienated religious leaders. The most significant factor uniting the Albanians, their spoken language, lacked a standard literary form and even a standard alphabet. Each of the three available choices, the Latin, Cyrillic, and Arabic scripts, implied different political and religious orientations opposed by one or another element of the population. In 1878 there were no Albanian-language schools in the most developed of the Albanian-inhabited areas and the choice for education was between Orthodox Church schools, where education was in Greek and Ottoman government schools where education was in Turkish.[70]

Ethnic distribution of Albanians
Albanians
1898.

The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
continued to crumble after the Congress of Berlin and Sultan Abdül Hamid II
Abdül Hamid II
resorted to repression to maintain order.[71] The authorities strove without success to control the political situation in the empire's Albanian-populated lands, arresting suspected nationalist activists.[64] When the sultan refused Albanian demands for unification of the four Albanian-populated vilayets, Albanian leaders reorganized the League of Prizren
League of Prizren
and incited uprisings that brought the Albanian-populated lands, especially Kosovo, to near anarchy. The imperial authorities disbanded a successor organisation Besa-Besë (League of Peja) founded in 1897, executed its president Haxhi Zeka
Haxhi Zeka
in 1902, and banned Albanian-language books and correspondence.[72][73] In Macedonia, where Bulgarian-, Greek-, and Serbian-backed guerrillas were fighting Ottoman authorities and one another for control, Muslim
Muslim
Albanians suffered attacks, and Albanian guerrilla groups retaliated.[74][75] Albanian leaders meeting in Bitola
Bitola
during 1905 established the Secret Committee for the Liberation of Albania.[76][77] In 1905, priest Kristo Negovani who had attained Albanian national sentiments abroad returned to his native village of Negovan and introduced the Albanian language for the first time in Orthodox liturgy.[78][79][80] For his efforts Negovani was killed by a Greek guerilla band on orders from Bishop Karavangelis of Kastoria
Kastoria
that aroused a nationalist response with the Albanian guerilla band of Bajo Topulli
Bajo Topulli
killing the Metropolitan of Korçë, Photios.[81][79][78][80][82] In 1906 opposition groups in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
emerged, one of which evolved into the Committee of Union and Progress, more commonly known as the Young Turks, which proposed restoring constitutional government in Constantinople, by revolution if necessary.[83][84] In July 1908, a month after a Young Turk
Young Turk
rebellion in Macedonia supported by an Albanian uprising in Kosovo and Macedonia escalated into widespread insurrection and mutiny within the imperial army, Sultan Abdül Hamid II agreed to demands by the Young Turks to restore constitutional rule.[85][86] Many Albanians
Albanians
participated in the Young Turks uprising, hoping that it would gain their people autonomy within the empire.[85][87] The Young Turks lifted the Ottoman ban on Albanian-language schools and on writing the Albanian language. As a consequence, Albanian intellectuals meeting in Bitola
Bitola
in 1908 chose the Latin
Latin
alphabet as a standard script.[88][89] The Young Turks, however, were set on maintaining the empire and not interested in making concessions to the myriad nationalist groups within its borders.[90][91] After securing the abdication of Abdül Hamid II
Abdül Hamid II
in April 1909, the new authorities levied taxes, outlawed guerrilla groups and nationalist societies, and attempted to extend Constantinople's control over the northern Albanian mountain men.[92][93] In addition, the Young Turks legalized the bastinado, or beating with a stick, even for misdemeanors, banned carrying rifles, and denied the existence of an Albanian nationality. The new government also appealed for Islamic solidarity to break the Albanians' unity and used the Muslim
Muslim
clergy to try to impose the Arabic alphabet.[94][95] The Albanians
Albanians
refused to submit to the Young Turks' campaign to "Ottomanize" them by force. New Albanian uprisings began in Kosovo and the northern mountains in early April 1910.[96] Ottoman forces quashed these rebellions after three months, outlawed Albanian organizations, disarmed entire regions, and closed down schools and publications.[97] Montenegro
Montenegro
held ambitions of future expansion into neighbouring Albanian-populated lands and supported a 1911 uprising by the mountain tribes against the Young Turks regime that grew into a widespread revolt.[98] Unable to control the Albanians
Albanians
by force, the Ottoman government granted concessions on schools, military recruitment, and taxation and sanctioned the use of the Latin
Latin
script for the Albanian language.[99] The government refused, however, to unite the four Albanian-inhabited vilayets.[99] Literary revival[edit] Main articles: Albanian language
Albanian language
and Albanian nationalism

Albanezul, the newspaper of the Albanian minority in Romania from 1889.

Naum Veqilharxhi's Vithkuqi script was the first Albanian alphabet published in 1845.

Albanian intellectuals in the late nineteenth century began devising a single, standard Albanian literary language and making demands that it be used in schools.[100] In Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1879, Sami Frashëri founded a cultural and educational organization, the Society for the Printing of Albanian Writings, whose membership comprised Muslim, Catholic, and Orthodox Albanians.[101] Naim Frashëri, the most-renowned Albanian poet, joined the society and wrote and edited textbooks.[101] Albanian émigrés in Bulgaria, Egypt, Italy, Romania, and the United States supported the society's work.[102] The Greeks, who dominated the education of Orthodox Albanians, joined the Turks in suppressing the Albanians' culture, especially Albanian-language education.[103] In 1886 the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople threatened to excommunicate anyone found reading or writing Albanian, and priests taught that God would not understand prayers uttered in Albanian.[104] In 1844-5 however, Albanian intellectual Naum Veqilharxhi published his work Evëtori Shqip Fort i Shkurtër (English: The short Albanian Evëtor) which was an alphabet that included thirty three letters which were invented by himself.[105][106] He avoided the use of Latin, Greek or Arabic alphabets and characters because of their religious associations and divisions.[107] In November 1869, a Commission for the Alphabet of the Albanian Language was gathered in Istanbul.[106][108]

The Commission of the Manastir Congress in a rare photo (1908).

One of its members was Kostandin Kristoforidhi
Kostandin Kristoforidhi
and the main purpose of the Commission was the creation of a unique alphabet for all the Albanians.[108] In January 1870 the Commission ended its work of the standardization of the alphabet, which was mainly in Latin letters.[109] A plan on the creation of textbooks and spread of Albanian schools was drafted.[110] However this plan was not realized, because the Ottoman Government wouldn't finance the expenses for the establishment of such schools.[110] Although this commission had gathered and delivered an alphabet in 1870, the writers from the North still used the Latin-based alphabet, whereas in Southern Albania writers used mostly the Greek letters.[111] The turning point was the aftermath of the League of Prizren
League of Prizren
(1878) events when in 1879 Sami Frashëri and Naim Frashëri
Naim Frashëri
formed the Society for the Publication of Albanian Writings.[101] Members of the society Sami Frashëri, Naim Frashëri and Jani Vreto
Jani Vreto
published the Primer of the Albanian language and other works in Albanian that dealt with the humanities, natural sciences and so on.[112] After a long time struggling with obstacles coming from the Ottoman authorities, the first secular school of Albanian language
Albanian language
was opened on the initiative of individual teachers and other intellectuals on 7 March 1887 in Korce. Diamanti Tërpo, a citizen of the city, offered her house to serve as a school building. The first director and teacher of the school was Pandeli Sotiri.[113]

Naum Veqilharxhi (1797–1854)

Parashqevi Qiriazi (1880–1970)

Gjergj Fishta (1871–1940)

Ndre Mjeda (1866–1937)

One year earlier, the Albanian dictionary (Fjalori i Gjuhës Shqipe) by Kostandin Kristoforidhi
Kostandin Kristoforidhi
had been published in 1904.[114] The dictionary had been drafted 25 years before its publication and was written in the Greek alphabet.[114] In 1908, the Congress of Monastir was held by Albanian intellectuals in Bitola, (modern-day Republic of Macedonia).[115] The Congress was hosted by the Bashkimi (unity) club, and prominent delegates included Gjergj Fishta, Ndre Mjeda, Mit'hat Frashëri, Sotir Peçi, Shahin Kolonja, and Gjergj D. Qiriazi.[115] There was much debate and the contending alphabets were Istanbul, Bashkimi and Agimi.[116] However, the Congress was unable to make a clear decision and opted for a compromise solution of using both the widely used Istanbul, with minor changes, and a modified version of the Bashkimi alphabet.[117] Usage of the alphabet of Istanbul
Istanbul
declined rapidly and it was essentially extinct over the following decades. The Bashkimi alphabet is at the origin of the official alphabet of the Albanian language
Albanian language
in use today.[118] A major role during the Albanian National Awakening
Albanian National Awakening
was played by literature, which served to many Rilindas as a way to express their ideas.[119] It was imbued with the spirit of national liberation, with the nostalgia of the émigré and the rhetorical pathos of past heroic wars.[119] This literary school developed the poetry most. Regarding the motifs and poetical forms, its hero was the ethical man, the fighting Albanian, and to a lesser degree the tragic man. Because its major purpose was to awaken national consciousness it was closely linked with the folklore tradition.[119] 1910 and 1911 uprisings[edit] Main articles: Albanian Revolt of 1910
Albanian Revolt of 1910
and Albanian Revolt of 1911 Further information: Battle of Deçiq

Guerrilla fighter Isa Boletini.

Idriz Seferi
Idriz Seferi
with his rebels entering Ferizaj
Ferizaj
in 1910

In 1910 due to the new centralization policies of the Young Turk Ottoman government towards Albanians[120] Albanian nationalists Isa Boletini and Idriz Seferi
Idriz Seferi
started an uprising against the Ottomans in the Kosovo vilayet.[96] After subduing the Ottoman garrisons in towns such as Prishtina and Ferizaj, the Ottoman government declared martial law and sent a military expedition of 16,000 men led by Shefqet Turgut Pasha[121][96] Simultaneously forces under Idriz Seferi
Idriz Seferi
captured the Kaçanik pass.[96] They successfully defended the pass from the Ottoman expeditionary force thus, forcing them to send a force of 40,000 men.[121][96] After two weeks the pass was lost to the Ottomans[122] After fierce fighting, the rebels retreated to Drenica and the Ottomans seized control of Prizren, Gjakova and Peja[123] Afterwards Ottoman forces incurred into Northern Albania
Albania
and Macedonia.[96] Ottoman forces were stopped for more than 20 days in the Agri Pass, from the Albanian forces of Shalë, Shoshë, Nikaj and Mërtur areas, led by Prel Tuli, Mehmet Shpendi, and Marash Delia. Unable to repress their resistance, this column took another way to Scutari, passing from the Pukë
Pukë
region.[123] On July 24, 1910, Ottoman forces entered the city of Scutari. During this period martial courts were put in action and summary executions took place. A large number of firearms were collected and many villages and properties were burned by the Ottoman army.[124] In 1911, the Albanian National Committee was formed. In a meeting of the committee held in Podgorica
Podgorica
from 2 to 4 February 1911, under the leadership of Nikolla bey Ivanaj and Sokol Baci
Sokol Baci
Ivezaj, it was decided to organize an Albanian uprising.[125] Terenzio Tocci gathered the Mirditë
Mirditë
chieftains on 26/27 April 1911 in Orosh, proclaimed the independence of Albania, raised the flag of Albania
Albania
(according to Robert Elsie
Robert Elsie
it was raised for the first time after Skanderbeg's death) and established the provisional government.[126][127][128] Shefqet Turgut Pasha wanted to meet this threat and returned to the region with 8.000 soldiers. As soon as he reached Shkodër
Shkodër
on 11 May, he issued a general proclamation which declared martial law and offered an amnesty for all rebels (except for Malësor chieftains) if they immediately return to their homes.[127] After Ottoman troops entered the area Tocci fled the empire abandoning his activities.[128] After months of intense fighting, the rebels were trapped and decided to escape to Montenegro.[129] On 23 June 1911 in the village of Gerče in Montenegro
Montenegro
an assembly of the tribal leaders of the revolt was held to adopt the "Greçë Memorandum".[130] This memorandum was signed by 22 Albanian chieftains, four from each tribe of Hoti, Grudë and Skrel, five from Kastrati, three from Klemendi and two from Shalë.[131]

Sokol Baci Ivezaj
Sokol Baci Ivezaj
— one of the leaders of the 1911 revolt

Requests of the memorandum included:[132][133]

general amnesty for all participants in the revolt demand for recognition of the Albanian ethnicity election of the deputies of Albanian ethnicity for the Ottoman Parliament according to the proportional system Albanian language
Albanian language
in schools governor and other appointed high officials have to know Albanian language and all other positions in the administration have to be reserved only for people of Albanian ethnicity men who are ethnic Albanians
Albanians
to serve army only in Albania
Albania
during the peacetime confiscated arms to be returned all Albanian property damaged by Ottoman troops to be compensated

The Memorandum was submitted to the representatives of Great Powers in Cetinje, Montenegro.[134] Ottoman representatives managed to deal with the leaders of Albanian rebels in Kosovo Vilayet
Kosovo Vilayet
and Scutari Vilayet
Scutari Vilayet
separately, because they were not united and lacked central control. The Ottomans promised to meet most Albanian demands, limited mainly to Catholic highlanders like general amnesty, the opening of Albanian language
Albanian language
schools, and the restriction that military service was to be performed only in the territory of the vilayets with substantial Albanian population.[135] Other demands included requiring administrative officers to learn the Albanian language, and that the possession of weapons would be permitted.[136][135] Revolt of 1912[edit] Further information: Albanian Revolt of 1912

Skopje
Skopje
after being captured by Albanian revolutionaries in August, 1912 who defeated the Ottoman forces holding the city.

The Albanian Revolt of 1912
Albanian Revolt of 1912
was one of many Albanian revolts in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and lasted from January until August 1912.[137] Albanian soldiers and officers deserted the Ottoman military service and joined the insurgents.[138][139] After a series of successes, Albanian revolutionaries managed to capture the city of Skopje, the administrative centre of Kosovo vilayet
Kosovo vilayet
within the Ottoman rule.[140][141][142][143] On August 9, 1912, Albanian rebels presented a new list of demands (the so-called list of Fourteen Points), related to the Albanian vilayet, that can be summarized as follows:[144][145]

autonomous system of administration and justice of four vilayets populated with Albanians
Albanians
(Albanian vilayet) Albanians
Albanians
to perform military service only in territory of four vilayets populated with Albanians, except in time of war employing officials who know local language and customs, but not necessarily Albanians, establishment of new licees and agricultural schools in the bigger districts reorganization and modernization of the religious schools and use of Albanian language
Albanian language
in secular schools freedom to establish private schools and societies the development of trade, agriculture and public works general amnesty for all Albanians
Albanians
involved in revolt court martial for those Ottoman officers who attempted to suppress the revolt

The revolt ended when the Ottoman government agreed to fulfill the rebels' demands, except of the last one, on September 4, 1912.[140][146] The autonomous system of administration and justice of the four vilayets with the substantial Albanian population, accepted by Ottoman Empire,[145] as autonomous Albanian vilayet
Albanian vilayet
was included in the agenda of the Albanian National Awakening
Albanian National Awakening
during League of Prizren.[147] Declaration of Independence[edit] Main articles: Albanian Declaration of Independence, Albania
Albania
during the Balkan Wars, and Massacres of Albanians
Albanians
in the Balkan Wars

Members of the Assembly of Vlorë
Vlorë
photographed in November 1912.

The First Balkan War, however, erupted before a final settlement could be worked out. The Balkan allies—Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro
Montenegro
and Greece—quickly drove the Ottomans to the walls of Constantinople. The Montenegrins surrounded Scutari. An assembly of Muslim
Muslim
and Christian leaders meeting in Vlorë
Vlorë
in November 1912 declared Albania
Albania
an independent country.[148] The complete text of the declaration[149] was:

In Vlora, on the 15th/28th of November. That time the President was Ismail Kemal Bey, in which he spoke of the great perils facing Albania today, the delegates have all decided unanimously that Albania, as of today, should be on her own, free and independent.

A second session of the Assembly of Vlorë
Vlorë
was held on December 4, 1912. During that session members of the assembly established the Provisional Government of Albania. It was a government that consisted of ten members, led by Ismail Qemali
Ismail Qemali
until his resignation on 22 January 1914.[150] The Assembly established the Senate (Albanian: Pleqësi) with an advisory role to the government, consisting of 18 members of the Assembly.[151] An ambassadorial conference that opened in London in December decided the major questions concerning the Albanians
Albanians
after the First Balkan War
War
in its concluding Treaty of London of May 1913. The Albanian delegation in London was assisted by Aubrey Herbert, MP, a passionate advocate of their cause.[152]

Ismail Qemali
Ismail Qemali
and his cabinet during the celebration of the first anniversary of independence in Vlorë
Vlorë
on 28 November 1913.

The recognized borders of Albania.

One of Serbia's primary war aims was to gain an Adriatic port, preferably Durrës. Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and Italy opposed giving Serbia
Serbia
an outlet to the Adriatic, which they feared would become a Russian port. They instead supported the creation of an autonomous Albania. Russia backed Serbia's and Montenegro's claims to Albanian-inhabited lands. Britain and Germany remained neutral. Chaired by Britain's foreign secretary, Sir Edward Grey, the ambassadors' conference initially decided to create an autonomous Albania
Albania
under continued Ottoman rule, but with the protection of the Great Powers. This solution, as detailed in the Treaty of London, was abandoned in the summer of 1913 when it became obvious that the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
would, in the Second Balkan War, lose Macedonia and hence its overland connection with the Albanian-inhabited lands.[153] In July 1913, the Great Powers opted to recognize an independent, neutral Albanian state ruled by a constitutional monarchy and under the protection of the Great Powers. The August 1913 Treaty of Bucharest established that independent Albania
Albania
was a country with borders that gave the new state about 28,000 square kilometers of territory and a population of 800,000. Montenegro
Montenegro
had to surrender Scutari after having lost 10,000 men in the process of taking the town. Serbia
Serbia
reluctantly succumbed to an ultimatum from Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy to withdraw from northern Albania. The treaty, however, left large areas with majority Albanian populations, notably Kosovo and western Macedonia, outside the new state and failed to solve the region's nationality problems.[citation needed] See also[edit]

History of Albania Albanian Declaration of Independence Albanian nationalism Albanophobia Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire

References[edit]

^ a b c Karl Kaser, Frank Kressing. Albania
Albania
– A country in transition Aspects of changing identities in a south-east European country Archived June 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.. Baden-Baden: Nomos-Verlag Extracts, 2002, p. 15 ^ Hurst, Michael. "7. The Albanian National Awakening, 1878–1912. By Stavro Skendi. Princeton and London: Princeton University Press, 1968. Pp. 498. 110s". The Historical Journal. 12 (02): 380. doi:10.1017/S0018246X00004416. Retrieved 10 June 2012.  ^ Sabrina P. Ramet, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia at peace and at war: selected writings, 1983 – 2007 ^ Richard C. Hall, The Balkan Wars, 1912–1913: prelude to the First World War ^ a b c Tozer, Henry Fanshawe (2009). Researches in the highlands of Turkey; including visits to mounts Ida, Athos, Olympus, and Pelion. pp. 167–169. ISBN 1-115-99203-1.  ^ Vickers, Miranda (1999-01-01). The Albanians: A Modern History. I.B.Tauris. p. 24. ISBN 9781860645419.  ^ Vickers, Miranda (1999). The Albanians: a modern history. New York: I. B. Tauris. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-86064-541-9.  ^ Jelavich, Barbara (1999) [1983]. History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Cambridge: Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. p. 349. ISBN 978-0-521-27458-6.  ^ Frashëri, Kristo (1983). Historia e Shqipërise II. Albania: Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, Instituti i Historisë. p. 110.  ^ Frashëri, Kristo; Pollo, Stefanaq (1983-01-01). Historia e Shqipërisë (in Albanian). Shtëpia Botuese e Librit Shkollor. p. 116.  ^ Pollo, Stefanaq (1983-01-01). Historia e Shqipërisë: Vitet 30 të shek. XIX-1912 (in Albanian). Albania: Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, Instituti i Historisë. p. 116.  ^ Pollo, Stefanaq (1983-01-01). Historia e Shqipërisë: Vitet 30 të shek. XIX-1912 (in Albanian). Albania: Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, Instituti i Historisë. p. 117.  ^ Pollo, Stefanaq (1983-01-01). Historia e Shqipërisë: Vitet 30 të shek. XIX-1912 (in Albanian). Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, Instituti i Historisë. p. 127.  ^ Frashëri, Kristo (1962). Rilindja Kombëtare Shqiptare (PDF). Tirana, Albania: Ndërmarrja shtetërore e botimeve "Naim Frashëri". p. 16.  ^ Robert Elsie
Robert Elsie
(2010). Historical Dictionary of Albania. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 56.  ^ Piro TASE (2010). Te huajt per shqiperine dhe shqiptaret. Edicioni 2. Lulu. p. 299.  ^ Petrika Thëngjilli (1999). Historia e popullit shqiptar, 395-1875. Shtëpia Botuese e Librit Universitar. p. 427.  ^ Stavro Skendi (2015). The Albanian National Awakening. Princeton University Press. p. 139.  ^ Raka, Fadil (2005). Historia e shqipes letrare. Grafikos. p. 180.  ^ Viorica Moisuc; Ion Calafeteanu (1980). Assertion of unitary, independent national states in Central and Southeast Europe (1821-1923). Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste România. p. 171.  ^ Gawrych 2006, p. 38. ^ a b Skendi 1967, pp. 33-34. ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 43. ^ a b Gawrych 2006, p. 45. ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 43-44. ^ Arthur Bullard,The Diplomacy of the Great War, BiblioBazaar 2009 ISBN 1-110-00529-6, ISBN 978-1-110-00529-1. Length 360 pages ^ a b Skendi 1967, pp. 35-38, 47. ^ Kopeček, Michal; Ersoy, Ahmed; Gorni, Maciej; Kechriotis, Vangelis; Manchev, Boyan; Trencsenyi, Balazs; Turda, Marius (2006), Discourses of collective identity in Central and Southeast Europe (1770–1945), 1, Budapest, Hungary: Central European University Press, p. 348, ISBN 963-7326-52-9, the first political ideologue of the Albanian Revival..  ^ a b Gawrych 2006, p. 44. ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 36-37. ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 45-46. ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 43-44, 54. ^ Skendi, Stavro. "Beginnings of Albanian Nationalist and Autonomous Trends: The Albanian League, 1878-1881Author". American Slavic and East European Review. American Slavic and East European Review. 12: 4. JSTOR 2491677. The southern branch of the League was formed at Gjinokastër (Argyrokastro), where;Albanian leaders held a meeting at which the districts of Janina, Gjinokastër, Delvina, Përmet, Berat, Vlora (Valona), Filat, Margariti, Ajdonat, Parga, Preveza, Arta, Tepelena, Kolonja, and Korca were represented.  ^ Leften Stavros Stavrianos, Traian Stoianovich, The Balkans since 1453, Edition 2, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2000 ISBN 1-85065-551-0, ISBN 978-1-85065-551-0 Length 970 pages. page 502 ^ Selçuk Akşin Somel (2001). The Modernization of Public Education in the Ottoman Empire, 1839-1908: Islamization, Autocracy, and Discipline. BRILL. p. 210. ISBN 90-04-11903-5. This organization appealed for the administrative unification of the Albanian vilayets into a single province, the introduction of Albanian as an official language in Albanian regions and the foundation of Albanian schools.  ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 45, 60-61, 65, 67. ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 53-60. ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 89-92, 94-95. ^ a b Helga Turku, Isolationist States in an Interdependent World, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2009 ISBN 0-7546-7932-2, ISBN 978-0-7546-7932-5 Length 182, page 63 ^ Helga Turku, Isolationist States in an Interdependent World, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2009 ISBN 0-7546-7932-2, ISBN 978-0-7546-7932-5 Length 182 pages, page 63 ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 48-49. ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 49, 61-63. ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 38-39, 51. ^ Gawrych 2006, p. 49. ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 47-48. ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 46-47, 63-64. ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 69-70. ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 60-65. ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 55-82. ^ Elsie 2010, "Flag, Albanian", p. 140: "The eagle was a common heraldic symbol for many Albanian dynasties in the Late Middle Ages and came to be a symbol of the Albanians
Albanians
in general. It is also said to have been the flag of Skanderbeg.... As a symbol of modern Albania, the flag began to be seen during the years of the national awakening and was in common use during the uprisings of 1909–1912." ^ Gawrych 2006, p. 61. ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 60, 68. ^ Skendi 1967, p. 52. ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 61-62. ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 61-64. ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 62-63. ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 65-68. ^ Gawrych 2006, p. 68. ^ Skendi 1967, p. 82. ^ Leften Stavros Stavrianos, Traian Stoianovich, The Balkans since 1453 Edition 2, illustrated Publisher C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2000 ISBN 1-85065-551-0, ISBN 978-1-85065-551-0. page 503. Length 970 pages ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 62-63, 66-68. ^ a b Skendi 1967, pp. 67-68, 99, 103-107. ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 62, 66, 68. ^ a b c Gawrych 2006, pp. 80-81. ^ Waller, Michael; Drezov, Kyril (2001). Kosovo: The politics of delusion. London: Psychology Press. p. 173. ISBN 9781135278533.  ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 105-106. ^ Helga Turku, Isolationist States in an Interdependent World, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2009 ISBN 0-7546-7932-2, ISBN 978-0-7546-7932-5, page 64 ^ a b Gawrych 2006, pp. 8, 21-23. ^ Skendi 1967, p. 89. ^ Leften Stavros Stavrianos, Traian Stoianovich, The Balkans since 1453 Edition 2, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2000 ISBN 1-85065-551-0, ISBN 978-1-85065-551-0. page 504-505 (Length 970 pages) ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 90-91, 104-105, 108-113, 139. ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 125-127. ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 195-198. ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 131, 135-136. ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 200-204, 206-212. ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 147. ^ Albania, general information. "8 Nëntori". 1984. p. 33. Retrieved 29 May 2012.  ^ a b Gawrych 2006, p. 91. "In one case, a guerilla band executed Father Kristo Negovani (1875-1905) on 12 February 1905, two days after he had performed a church service in Albanian. To avenge his death, a guerilla leader named Bajo Topulli
Bajo Topulli
(1868-1930) waylaid and murdered Phiotos, the bishop of Görice, in September 1906. ^ a b Ramet 1998, p. 206. "The nationalist cause was given impetus in 1905 when the Albanian priest and poet, Papa Kristo Negovani, was killed by Greek chauvinists after he had introduced the Albanian language
Albanian language
into Orthodox liturgy." ^ a b Clayer 2005. para. 7. "Negovani... Au début de l'année 1905, avec son frère lui aussi pope et trois autres villageois, il est victime d'une bande grecque et devient le premier « martyr » de la cause nationale albanaise"; para. 8, 26. ^ Blumi 2011, p. 167. "Negovani’s actions caused institutional responses that ultimately intensified the contradictions facing the church and its imperial patron. In the end, Papa Kristo Negovani was murdered for his acts of defiance of the explicit orders of Karavangjelis, the Metropolitan of Kastoria, who condemned the use of Toskërisht during mass. ^ History of the Balkans: Twentieth century Volume 2 of History of the Balkans, Barbara Jelavich History of the Balkans: Twentieth Century, Barbara Jelavich Volume 12 of Publication series, Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Cambridge
Cambridge
paperback library Author Barbara Jelavich Edition illustrated, reprint Publisher Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, 1983 ISBN 0-521-27459-1, ISBN 978-0-521-27459-3 Length 476 pages page 87 link [1] ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 335-339. ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 140-149. ^ a b Skendi 1967, pp. 339-344. ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 149-155. ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 150-155, 159-161. ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 370-372. ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 163-166, 169. ^ Skendi 1967, p. 362. ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 170-173, 183. ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 364-365, 392-404. ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 170-177, 183. ^ Isolationist States in an Interdependent World Author Helga Turku Publisher Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2009 ISBN 0-7546-7932-2, ISBN 978-0-7546-7932-5 Length 182 pages page 64 [2] ^ Gawrych 2006, pp. 179-182. ^ a b c d e f Skendi 1967, pp. 405-406. ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 405-408. ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 409-410, 413-415, 471. ^ a b History of the Balkans: Twentieth century Volume 2 of History of the Balkans, Barbara Jelavich History of the Balkans: Twentieth Century, Barbara Jelavich Volume 12 of Publication series, Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Cambridge
Cambridge
paperback library Author Barbara Jelavich Edition illustrated, reprint Publisher Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, 1983 ISBN 0-521-27459-1, ISBN 978-0-521-27459-3 Length 476 pages page 87-88 link [3] ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 119-120, 129, 140. ^ a b c Skendi 1967, p. 119. ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 119-121, 123, 145-147. ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 133-139, 147-148, 368. ^ Isolationist States in an Interdependent World Author Helga Turku Publisher Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2009 ISBN 0-7546-7932-2, ISBN 978-0-7546-7932-5 Length 182 pages page 64 [4] ^ Norris, H. T. (1993-01-01). Islam in the Balkans: Religion and Society Between Europe and the Arab World. Univ of South Carolina Press. p. 247. ISBN 9780872499775.  ^ a b Skendi 1967, p. 139. ^ Michelson, Paul E.; Treptow, Kurt W. (2002-01-01). National Development in Romania and Southeastern Europe: Papers in Honor of Cornelia Bodea. Center for Romanian Studies. p. 5. ISBN 9789739432375.  ^ a b Lloshi 2008, pp. 18-19, 240. ^ Lloshi 2008, pp. 257-258. ^ a b Lloshi 2008, pp. 255. ^ Lloshi 2008, pp. 256-262. ^ Thomas, J. (1983). Albania’s National Renaissance: Aspirations for Schooling. 12. Canadian and International Education. p. 16.  "Among the first published was the Primer of the Albanian language. Within a few years, grammar, geography, history readers, natural sciences, agriculture, and other books authored by Sami and Naim Frashëri, and by Jani Vreto
Jani Vreto
were published by the Society." ^ Professor John Eade; Mr Mario Katić (28 June 2014). Pilgrimage, Politics and Place-Making in Eastern Europe: Crossing the Borders. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 109–. ISBN 978-1-4724-1592-9.  ^ a b Lloshi, Xhevat (2008). Rreth alfabetit të shqipes: me rastin e 100-vjetorit të Kongresit të Manastirit. Logos-A. p. 9. ISBN 9789989582684.  ^ a b Skendi 1967, p. 370. ^ Skendi 1967, p. 371. ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 371-372. ^ Entangled Histories of the Balkans: Volume One: National Ideologies and Language Policies. BRILL. 13 June 2013. p. 504. ISBN 978-90-04-25076-5. At the initiative of the Bashkimi literary society, fifty Albanian intellectuals from across the country and the colonies abroad gathered in Manastir/ Bitola
Bitola
at the November 1908 “Congress of the Alphabet.” After long debates and the appointment smaller commission of eleven members (four Muslims, four Orthodox and three Catholics), it was decided that only two of the existing alphabets should remain in use—the Stamboul alphabet and the Bashkimi alphabet. In addition, some changes were made in both alphabets in order to reduce the differences between them. In the following years and after the creation of the Albanian state, the Bashkimi alphabet became the only one still in use.  ^ a b c Skendi 1967, pp. 111-128. ^ Akçam, Taner (2004-09-04). From Empire to Republic: Turkish Nationalism and the Armenian Genocide. Zed Books. p. 129. ISBN 9781842775271.  ^ a b Gawrych 2006, p. 177. ^ Pearson, Owen (2005-07-22). Albania
Albania
in the Twentieth Century, A History: Volume I: Albania
Albania
and King Zog, 1908-39. I.B.Tauris. p. 11. ISBN 9781845110130.  ^ a b Frashëri, Kristo (1984). Historia e popullit shqiptar në katër vëllime (in Albanian). Tiranë, Albania. pp. 440–441. OCLC 255273594.  ^ Gawrych 2006, p. 178. ^ "Historia e Malësisë". www.malesia.org. Retrieved 2016-09-20.  ^ Elsie, Robert (2010-03-19). Historical Dictionary of Albania. Scarecrow Press. p. 444. ISBN 9780810873803.  ^ a b Skendi 1967, p. 412, 440. ^ a b Gawrych 2006, p. 186. ^ Treadway, John D. (1998-01-01). The Falcon and the Eagle: Montenegro and Austria-Hungary, 1908-1914. Purdue University Press. p. 77. ISBN 9781557531469.  ^ Skendi 1967, p. 416. ^ Gawrych 2006, p. 187. ^ Gawrych, George (2006). The crescent and the eagle: Ottoman rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874–1913. London: IB Tauris. pp. 186–187. ISBN 9781845112875.  ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 416-417. ^ Mikić, Đorđe (1983-01-01). Austro-Ugarska i Mladoturci: 1908-1912 (in Serbian). Institut za istoriju u Banjaluci. p. 273.  ^ a b Skendi 1967, p. 419. ^ Abas, Ermenji. "Vendi që zë Skënderbeu në historinë e Shqipërisë". Por n'atë kohë u muarën vesh propozimet e reja që po iu bënte qeveria turke malësorëvet të Mbishkodrës t'arratisur në Podgoricë...Premtimet ishin pak më të gjera nga ato që iu qenë bërë malësorëvet të Mbishkodrës, sepse parashikohej një falje e përgjithshme, hapja e shkollave shqipe me ndihmën financiare të shtetit dhe mësimi i shqipes në shkollat turqishte. Taksat do të caktohëshin sipas gjendjes së popullit, shërbimi ushtarak do të kryhej në vilajetet shqiptare, nëpunësit e administratës duhej të dinin gjuhën dhe zakonet e vendit, armët mund të mbahëshin me lejë.  ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 427-437. ^ Zhelyazkova, Antonina (2000). " Albania
Albania
and Albanian Identities". International Center for Minority Studies and Intercultural Relations. Archived from the original on January 10, 2011. Retrieved January 10, 2011. In December 1911, a group of Albanian members of the Ottoman parliament, guided by Ismail Qemal, started a parliamentary debate in order to make Constantinople
Constantinople
grant the Albanians
Albanians
national rights in the cultural and administrative spheres.  ^ Bogdanović, Dimitrije (November 2000) [1984]. "Albanski pokreti 1908-1912.". In Antonije Isaković. Knjiga o Kosovu (in Serbian). 2. Belgrade: Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved January 9, 2011. ... ustanici su uspeli da ... ovladaju celim kosovskim vilajetom do polovine avgusta 1912, što znači da su tada imali u svojim rukama Prištinu, Novi Pazar, Sjenicu pa čak i Skoplje... U srednjoj i južnoj Albaniji ustanici su držali Permet, Leskoviku, Konicu, Elbasan, a u Makedoniji Debar...  ^ a b Skendi 1967, pp. 436-437. ^ Bogdanović, Dimitrije (November 2000) [1984]. "Albanski pokreti 1908–1912.". In Antonije Isaković. Knjiga o Kosovu (in Serbian). 2. Belgrade: Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Retrieved January 9, 2011. ustanici su uspeli da slomiju otpor turske armije, da ovladaju celim kosovskim vilajetom do polovine avgusta 1912, što znači da su tada imali u svojim rukama Prištinu, Novi Pazar, Sjenicu pa čak i Skoplje  ^ Phillips, John (2004). "The rise of Albanian nationalism". Macedonia: warlords and rebels in the Balkans. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 29. ISBN 1-86064-841-X. An Albanian uprising in Kosovo for independent schools in May 1912 led to capture of Skopje
Skopje
by rebels in August  ^ Bahl, Taru; M.H. Syed (2003). "The Balkan Wars and creation of Independent Albania". Encyclopaedia of the Muslim
Muslim
World. New Delhi: Anmol publications PVT. Ltd. p. 53. ISBN 81-261-1419-3. The Albanians
Albanians
once more raise against Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in May 1912 and took Macedonian capitol of Skopje
Skopje
by August  ^ Skendi 1967, pp. 435-436. ^ a b Shaw, Stanford J.; Ezel Kural Shaw (2002) [1977]. "Clearing the Decks: Ending the Tripolitanian War
War
and the Albanian Revolt". History of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and modern Turkey. 2. United Kingdom: The Press Syndicate of University of Cambridge. p. 293. ISBN 0-521-29166-6. Retrieved January 10, 2011.  ^ Shaw, Stanford J.; Ezel Kural Shaw (2002) [1977]. "Clearing the Decks: Ending the Tripolitanian War
War
and the Albanian Revolt". History of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and modern Turkey. 2. United Kingdom: The Press Syndicate of University of Cambridge. p. 293. ISBN 0-521-29166-6. Retrieved January 10, 2011. Therefore, with only final point being ignored, on September 4, 1912, the government accepted proposals and the Albanian revolt was over  ^ Kopeček, Michal, Discourses of collective identity in Central and Southeast Europe (1770–1945), 2, Budapest, Hungary: Central European University Press, ISBN 963-7326-60-X, retrieved January 18, 2011, Soon after this first meeting,....mainly under the influence of ... Abdyl Frashëri
Abdyl Frashëri
... new agenda included ... the fonding of an autonomous Albanian Vilayet  ^ Skendi, Stavro (1967). The Albanian national awakening. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 463. ISBN 9781400847761.  ^ Pollo, Stefanaq; Selami Pulaha (1978). "175". Akte të rilindjes kombëtare shqiptare 1878-1912 (Memorandume, vendime, protesta, thirrje). Tirana: Akademia e Shkencave të RPS të Shqipërisë. p. 261. Vendimi është hartuar shqip dhe turqisht ...  ^ Giaro, Tomasz (2007). "The Albanian legal and constitutional system between the World Wars". Modernisierung durch Transfer zwischen den Weltkriegen. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Vittorio Klosterman GmbH. p. 185. ISBN 978-3-465-04017-0. Retrieved January 24, 2011. ... a provisional government, consisting of ten members and led by Vlora, was formed on 4 December.  ^ Giaro, Tomasz (2007). "The Albanian legal and constitutional system between the World Wars". Modernisierung durch Transfer zwischen den Weltkriegen. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Vittorio Klosterman GmbH. p. 185. ISBN 978-3-465-04017-0. Retrieved January 24, 2011. From its own members congress elected a senate (Pleqësi), composed of 18 members, which assumed advisory role to the government.  ^ Elsie, Robert (2012-12-24). A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History. I.B.Tauris. p. 201. ISBN 9781780764313.  ^ History of the Balkans: Twentieth century Volume 2 of History of the Balkans, Barbara Jelavich History of the Balkans: Twentieth Century, Barbara Jelavich Volume 12 of Publication series, Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Cambridge
Cambridge
paperback library Author Barbara Jelavich Edition illustrated, reprint Publisher Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, 1983 ISBN 0-521-27459-1, ISBN 978-0-521-27459-3 Length 476 pages page 87 link

Literature[edit]

Library of Congress Country Study of Albania Elsie, Robert (2010). Historical Dictionary of Albania. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press (The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group Incorporated). ISBN 0-8108-6188-7.  Mazower, Mark (2000). The Balkans: A Short History. Modern Library Chronicles. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-679-64087-8.  Schwandner-Sievers and Fischer (eds.), Albanian Identities: Myth and History, Indiana University Press (2002), ISBN 0-253-21570-6. Skendi, Stavro (1967). The Albanian national awakening, 1878–1912. Princeton University Press. 

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Security

Military Police Organized crime Prisons Border crossings

Economy

Finance

Banking Lek (currency) Taxation Trade unions State Supreme Audit

Retail

Shopping malls Supermarkets

Industry

Agriculture Healthcare Companies

Energy

Operators

KESH OST OSHEE ERE

Hydropower plants Wind farms Solar power

Natural resources

Oil and gas Mining

Infrastructure

Highways Aviation Maritime Railways Bridges Tunnels Highrises Telecommunications Postal services

Tourism

Riviera National parks Castles Museums Monuments Lighthouses Photographs of Albania

Society

People

Demographics Clans Noble families Diaspora

Culture

Art (galleries)

Architecture Photography

Education

Alphabet

scripts

Language Literature Libraries Universities Proverbs Albanology

Tradition

Mythology Besa Religion Sworn virgins

Costumes

Qeleshe Fustanella Xhubleta Brez Opinga Xhamadan

Cuisine

Gjellë Tavë kosi Kabuni Raki Beer Wine Cognac Skënderbeu

Sports

Football

National team Clubs Players Stadiums

Other sports

Weightlifting Athletics Cycling Basketball Volleyball Swimming Olympics

Entertainment

Music Television Radio Cinema

Symbols

Heraldry Flag Coat of arms Gestures Sign language Awards .al

Other

Public holidays Smoking Secularism

Outline Index Bibliography

Book Category Portal

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National revivals during the 19th century

Albanian Arab Armenian Asturian Basque Belarusian Bulgarian Catalan Celtic (incl. Irish) Croatian Czech Estonian Finnish Flemish German Vormärz Galician Greek Hungarian Icelandic Italian Jewish Latvian Lithuanian Macedonian Norwegian Polish Romanian Serbian Turkish Ukrainian

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