HOME
The Info List - Alans


--- Advertisement ---



The Alans
Alans
(or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.[1][2][3][4][5] The name Alan is an Iranian dialectical form of Aryan, a common self-designation of the Indo-Iranians.[2] Possibly related to the Massagetae, the Alans
Alans
have been connected by modern historians with the Central Asian
Central Asian
Yancai
Yancai
and Aorsi
Aorsi
of Chinese and Roman sources, respectively.[6] Having migrated westwards and become dominant among the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
on the Pontic Steppe, they are mentioned by Roman sources in the 1st century AD.[1] At the time, they had settled the region north of the Black Sea
Black Sea
and frequently raided the Parthian Empire and the Caucasian provinces of the Roman Empire.[1] In 215–250 AD, their power on the Pontic Steppe
Pontic Steppe
was broken by the Goths.[4] Upon the Hunnic defeat of the Goths
Goths
on the Pontic Steppe
Pontic Steppe
around 375 AD, many of the Alans
Alans
migrated westwards along with various Germanic tribes. They crossed the Rhine
Rhine
in 406 AD along with the Vandals
Vandals
and Suebi, settling in Orléans
Orléans
and Valence. Around 409 AD, they joined the Vandals
Vandals
and Suebi
Suebi
in the crossing of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
into the Iberian Peninsula, settling in Lusitania
Lusitania
and Carthaginensis.[7] The Iberian Alans
Alans
were soundly defeated by the Visigoths
Visigoths
418 AD and subsequently surrendered their authority to the Hasdingi Vandals.[8] In 428 AD, the Vandals
Vandals
and Alans
Alans
crossed the Strait of Gibraltar into North Africa, where they founded a powerful kingdom which lasted until its conquest by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
in the 6th century AD.[8] The Alans
Alans
who remained under Hunnic rule founded a powerful kingdom in the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
in the Middle Ages, which ended with the Mongol invasions in the 13th century AD. These Alans
Alans
are said to be the ancestors of the modern Ossetians.[1] The Alans
Alans
spoke an Eastern Iranian language which derived from Scytho-Sarmatian
Scytho-Sarmatian
and which in turn evolved into modern Ossetian.[2][9][10]

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Timeline 2.2 Early Alans 2.3 Link to Yancai/Alanliao 2.4 Migration to Gaul 2.5 Hispania
Hispania
and Africa 2.6 Medieval Alania 2.7 Later history

3 Physical appearance 4 Genetics 5 Archaeology 6 Language 7 Religion 8 See also 9 References

9.1 Citations 9.2 Sources

10 External links

Name[edit] The various forms of Alan – Greek: Ἀλανοί Alanoi; Chinese: 阿蘭聊 Alanliao (Pinyin) in the 2nd century,[11] 阿蘭 Alan in the 3rd century[12] and later Alanguo (阿蘭國)[13] –  are derived from Iranian dialectal forms of Aryan.[2][14] This word was preserved in modern Ossetian language in form of Allon.[15][16] These and other variants of Aryan (such as Iran) were common self-designations of the Indo-Iranians, the common ancestors of the Indo-Aryans
Indo-Aryans
and Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
to whom the Alans
Alans
belonged. Scarcer spellings include Alauni or Halani. The Alans
Alans
were also known over the course of their history by another group of related names including the variations Asi, As, and Os (Romanian Iasi or Olani, Bulgarian Uzi, Hungarian Jász, Russian Jasy, Georgian Osi).[17] It is this name that is the root of the modern Ossetian.[18] History[edit] Timeline[edit]

Early Alans[edit]

Europe, AD 117-138. The Alani at the time were concentrated north of the Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains (centre right).

The first mentions of names that historians link with the Alani appear at almost the same time in texts from the Mediterranean, Middle East and China.[9] In the 1st century AD, the Alans
Alans
migrated westwards from Central Asia, achieving a dominant position among the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
living between the Don River and the Caspian Sea.[4][5] The Alans
Alans
are mentioned in the Vologeses inscription which reads that Vologeses I, the Parthian king c. 51–78 AD, in the 11th year of his reign, battled Kuluk, king of the Alani.[19] The contemporary Jewish historian, Josephus (37–100) supplements this inscription. Josephus
Josephus
reports in the Jewish Wars (book 7, ch. 7.4) how Alans
Alans
(whom he calls a "Scythian" tribe) living near the Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
crossed the Iron Gates for plunder (72 AD) and defeated the armies of Pacorus, king of Media, and Tiridates, King of Armenia, two brothers of Vologeses I (for whom the above-mentioned inscription was made):

4. Now there was a nation of the Alans, which we have formerly mentioned somewhere as being Scythians, and living around Tanais
Tanais
and Lake Maeotis. This nation about this time laid a design of falling upon Media, and the parts beyond it, in order to plunder them; with which intention they treated with the king of Hyrcania; for he was master of that passage which king Alexander shut up with iron gates. This king gave them leave to come through them; so they came in great multitudes, and fell upon the Medes
Medes
unexpectedly, and plundered their country, which they found full of people, and replenished with abundance of cattle, while nobody dared make any resistance against them; for Pacorus, the king of the country, had fled away for fear into places where they could not easily come at him, and had yielded up everything he had to them, and had only saved his wife and his concubines from them, and that with difficulty also, after they had been made captives, by giving a hundred talents for their ransom. These Alans
Alans
therefore plundered the country without opposition, and with great ease, and proceeded as far as Armenia, laying waste all before them. Now, Tiridates was king of that country, who met them and fought them but was lucky not to have been taken alive in the battle; for a certain man threw a noose over him and would soon have drawn him in, had he not immediately cut the cord with his sword and escaped. So the Alans, being still more provoked by this sight, laid waste the country, and drove a great multitude of the men, and a great quantity of the other booty from both kingdoms, along with them, and then retreated back to their own country.

The fact that the Alans
Alans
invaded Parthia through Hyrcania
Hyrcania
shows that at the time many Alans
Alans
were still based north-east of the Caspian Sea.[4] By the early 2nd century AD the Alans
Alans
were in firm control of the Lower Volga and Kuban.[4] These lands had earlier been occupied by the Aorsi
Aorsi
and the Siraces, whom the Alans
Alans
apparently absorbed, dispersed and/or destroyed, since they were no longer mentioned in contemporaneous accounts.[4] It is likely that the Alans' influence stretched further westwards, encompassing most of the Sarmatian world, which by then possessed a relatively homogenous culture.[4] In 135 AD, the Alans
Alans
made a huge raid into Asia Minor
Asia Minor
via the Caucasus, ravaging Media and Armenia.[4] They were eventually driven back by Arrian, the governor of Cappadocia, who wrote a detailed report (Ektaxis kata Alanoon or 'War Against the Alans') that is a major source for studying Roman military tactics. In 215–250 AD, the Germanic Goths
Goths
expanded south-eastwards and broke the Alan dominance on the Pontic Steppe.[4] The Alans
Alans
however seem to have had a significant influence on Gothic culture, who became excellent horsemen and adopted the Alanic animal style art.[4] (The Roman Empire, during the chaos of the 3rd century civil wars, suffered damaging raids by the Gothic armies with their heavy cavalry before the Illyrian Emperors
Illyrian Emperors
adapted to the Gothic tactics, reorganized and expanded the Roman heavy cavalry, and defeated the Goths
Goths
under Gallienus, Claudius II
Claudius II
and Aurelian). After the Gothic entry to the steppe, many of the Alans
Alans
seem to have retreated eastwards towards the Don, where they seem to have established contacts with the Huns.[4] Ammianus writes that the Alans were "somewhat like the Huns, but in their manner of life and their habits they are less savage."[4] Jordanes
Jordanes
contrasted them with the Huns, noting that the Alans
Alans
"were their equals in battle, but unlike them in their civilisation, manners and appearance".[4] In the late 4th century, Vegetius conflates Alans
Alans
and Huns
Huns
in his military treatise –  Hunnorum Alannorumque natio, the "nation of Huns
Huns
and Alans" – and collocates Goths, Huns
Huns
and Alans, exemplo Gothorum et Alannorum Hunnorumque.[20] The 4th century Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus
considered the Alans
Alans
were "formerly called Massagetae,"[21] while Dio Cassius wrote that "they are Massagetae."[4] It is likely that the Alans
Alans
were an amalgamation of various Iranian peoples, including Sarmatians, Massagetae
Massagetae
and Sakas.[4] Scholars have connected the Alans
Alans
to the nomadic state of Yancai
Yancai
mentioned in Chinese sources.[6] Yancai
Yancai
is first mentioned in connection with late 2nd century BC diplomat Zhang Qian's travels in Chapter 123 of Shiji
Shiji
(whose author, Sima Qian, died c. 90 BC).[6][22] Yancai
Yancai
of Chinese records has again been equated with the Aorsi, a powerful Sarmatian tribe living between the Don River and the Aral Sea, mentioned in Roman records, in particular Strabo.[6] Link to Yancai/Alanliao[edit] The Later Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
Chinese chronicle, the Hou Hanshu, 88 (covering the period 25–220 and completed in the 5th century), mentioned a report that the steppe land Yancai
Yancai
had become vassals of the Kangju and was now known as Alanliao (阿蘭聊)[23] Y. A. Zadneprovskiy suggests that the Kangju
Kangju
subjugation of Yancai occurred in the 1st century BC, and that this subjugation caused various Sarmatian tribes, including the Aorsi, to migrate westwards, which played a major role in starting the Migration Period.[6][24] The 3rd century Weilüe also notes that Yancai
Yancai
was then known as being Alan, although they were no longer vassals of the Kangju.[25] Migration to Gaul[edit] Around 370, according to Ammianus, the peaceful relations between the Alans
Alans
and Huns
Huns
were broken, after the Huns
Huns
attacked the Don Alans, killing many of them and establishing an alliance with the survivors.[4][26] These Alans
Alans
successfully invaded the Goths
Goths
in 375 together with the Huns.[4] They subsequently accompanied the Huns
Huns
in their westward expansion.[4] Following the Hunnic invasion in 370, other Alans, along with other Sarmatians, migrated westward.[4] One of these Alan groups fought together with the Goths
Goths
in the decisive Battle of Adrianople
Battle of Adrianople
in 378 AD, in which emperor Valens
Valens
was killed.[4] As the Roman Empire continued to decline, the Alans
Alans
split into various groups; some fought for the Romans while other joined the Huns, Visigoths
Visigoths
or Ostrogoths.[4] A portion of the western Alans
Alans
joined the Vandals
Vandals
and the Suebi
Suebi
in their invasion of Roman Gaul. Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours
mentions in his Liber historiae Francorum ("Book of Frankish History") that the Alan king Respendial saved the day for the Vandals
Vandals
in an armed encounter with the Franks
Franks
at the crossing of the Rhine
Rhine
on December 31, 406). According to Gregory, another group of Alans, led by Goar, crossed the Rhine
Rhine
at the same time, but immediately joined the Romans and settled in Gaul. Under Beorgor (Beorgor rex Alanorum), they infested Gallia round about, till the reign of Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
and then they passed the Alps
Alps
in winter, and came into Liguria, but were there beaten, and Biorgor slain, by Ricimer
Ricimer
commander of the Emperor's forces (year 464).[27][28] In 442, after it became clear to Aetius that he could no longer rely upon the Huns
Huns
for support, he turned to Goar and convinced him to move some of his people to settlements in the Orleanais in order to control the bacaudae of Armorica
Armorica
and to keep the Visigoths
Visigoths
from expanding their territories northward across the Loire. Goar settled a substantial number of his followers in the Orleanais and the area to the north and personally moved his own capital to the city of Orleans. [29] Under Goar, they allied with the Burgundians
Burgundians
led by Gundaharius, with whom they installed the usurping Emperor Jovinus. Under Goar's successor Sangiban, the Alans
Alans
of Orléans
Orléans
played a critical role in repelling the invasion of Attila the Hun
Attila the Hun
at the Battle of Châlons. In 463 the Alans
Alans
defeated the Goths
Goths
at the battle of Orléans, and they later defeated the Franks
Franks
led by Childeric in 466.[30] Around 502-503 Clovis attacked Armorica
Armorica
and but he was defeated by the Alans, however the Alans, who, like Clovis, were Christians, desired cordial relations with him to counterbalance the hostile Arian Visigoths
Visigoths
who coveted the land north of the Loire. Therefore, an accord was arranged by which Clovis came to rule the various peoples of Armorica
Armorica
and the military strength of the area was integrated into the Merovingian military. [31] The Alans
Alans
left numerous toponymical evidences in Gaul
Gaul
such as: Alains (Eure), Alaincourt (Eure), Les Allains (Eure), Allainville- en-Drouais (Eure-et-Loir), Allainville aux Bois (Seine et-Oise), Allainville-en-Beuce (Loiret), Courtalain (Eure-et- Loir), and Allaines (Eure-et-Loir). The major areas of settlement were Valence[disambiguation needed] and their capital Orleans.[31] It seems that the personal name Alan, which originated in Armorica, derives from these people.[32]

Coat of arms of Alenquer, Portugal. According to a folk etymology, the name was previously Alan-kerk, meaning "Alans' stronghold" or "Alans' church" in Germanic languages (such as those of the Visigoths, Suebi and Vandals). The design includes an Alaunt, a breed of dog associated with the Alans.

Hispania
Hispania
and Africa[edit]

Kingdom of the Alans
Alans
in Hispania
Hispania
(409–426 AD).

Following the fortunes of the Vandals
Vandals
and Suebi
Suebi
into the Iberian peninsula (Hispania, comprising modern Portugal and Spain) in 409,[33] the Alans
Alans
led by Respendial settled in the provinces of Lusitania
Lusitania
and Carthaginiensis.[34] The Kingdom of the Alans
Alans
was among the first Barbarian kingdoms
Barbarian kingdoms
to be founded. The Siling Vandals
Vandals
settled in Baetica, the Suebi
Suebi
in coastal Gallaecia, and the Asding Vandals
Vandals
in the rest of Gallaecia. Although the newcomers controlled Hispania
Hispania
they were still a tiny minority among a larger Hispano-Roman population, approximately 200,000 out of 6,000,000.[7] In 418 (or 426 according to some authors[35]), the Alan king, Attaces, was killed in battle against the Visigoths, and this branch of the Alans
Alans
subsequently appealed to the Asding Vandal king Gunderic to accept the Alan crown. The separate ethnic identity of Respendial's Alans
Alans
dissolved.[36] Although some of these Alans
Alans
are thought to have remained in Iberia, most went to North Africa
North Africa
with the Vandals
Vandals
in 429. Later the rulers of the Vandal Kingdom
Vandal Kingdom
in North Africa
North Africa
styled themselves Rex Wandalorum et Alanorum ("King of the Vandals
Vandals
and Alans").

Kingdom of the Vandals
Vandals
and Alans
Alans
in North Africa
North Africa
(526 AD).

There are some vestiges of the Alans
Alans
in Portugal,[37] namely in Alenquer (whose name may be Germanic for the Temple of the Alans, from "Alan Kerk",[38] and whose castle may have been established by them; the Alaunt
Alaunt
is still represented in that city's coat of arms), in the construction of the castles of Torres Vedras and Almourol, and in the city walls of Lisbon, where vestiges of their presence may be found under the foundations of the Church of Santa Luzia. In the Iberian peninsula
Iberian peninsula
the Alans
Alans
settled in Lusitania
Lusitania
(Alentejo) and the Cartaginense provinces. They became known in retrospect for their massive hunting and fighting dog of Molosser
Molosser
type, the Alaunt, which they apparently introduced to Europe. The breed is extinct, but its name is carried by a Spanish breed of dog still called Alano, traditionally used in boar hunting and cattle herding. The Alano name, however, has historically been used for a number of dog breeds in a few European countries thought to descend from the original dog of the Alans, such as the German mastiff (Great Dane) and the French Dogue de Bordeaux, among others. Medieval Alania[edit] Main article: Alania The Alans
Alans
who remained in their original area of settlement north of the Caucasus
Caucasus
(and for a time east of the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
as well), came into contact and conflict with the Bulgars, the Gökturks, and the Khazars, who drove most of them from the plains and into the mountains.[39] The Alans
Alans
converted to Byzantine Orthodoxy in the first quarter of the 10th century, during the patriarchate of Nicholas I Mystikos. Al-Mas'udi
Al-Mas'udi
reports that they apostasized in 932, but this seems to have been short-lived. The Alans
Alans
are collectively mentioned as Byzantine-rite Christians in the 13th century.[39] The Caucasian Alans were the ancestors of the modern Ossetians, whose ethnonym derives from the name Ās (very probably the ancient Aorsi; al-Ma'sudi mentions al-Arsiyya as guards among the Khazars, and the Rus' called the Alans
Alans
Yasi), a sister tribe of the Alans. The Armenian Geography uses the name Ashtigor for the most westerly located Alans, a name which survives as Digor and still refers to the western division of the Ossetians. Furthermore, in Ossetian, Asi refers to the region around Mount Elbrus, where they probably formerly lived.[39] Some of the other Alans
Alans
remained under the rule of the Huns. Those of the eastern division, though dispersed about the steppes until late medieval times, were forced by the Mongols
Mongols
into the Caucasus, where they remain as the Ossetians. Between the 9th and 12th centuries, they formed a network of tribal alliances that gradually evolved into the Christian kingdom of Alania. Most Alans
Alans
submitted to the Mongol
Mongol
Empire in 1239–1277. They participated in Mongol
Mongol
invasions of Europe and the Song Dynasty in Southern China, and the Battle of Kulikovo
Battle of Kulikovo
under Mamai of the Golden Horde.[40][better source needed] In 1253, the Franciscan monk William of Rubruck
William of Rubruck
reported numerous Europeans in Central Asia. It is also known that 30,000 Alans
Alans
formed the royal guard (Asud) of the Yuan court in Dadu (Beijing). Marco Polo later reported their role in the Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
in his book Il Milione. It's said that those Alans
Alans
contributed to a modern Mongol
Mongol
clan, Asud. John of Montecorvino, archbishop of Dadu (Khanbaliq), reportedly converted many Alans
Alans
to Roman Catholic Christianity in addition to Armenians in China.[41][42] In Poland and Lithuania, Alans
Alans
were also part of the powerful Clan of Ostoja. Against the Alans
Alans
and the Cumans (Kipchaks), the Mongols
Mongols
used divide and conquer tactics by first telling the Cumans to stop allying with the Alans
Alans
and after the Cumans followed their suggestion the Mongols then attacked the Cumans[43] after defeating the Alans.[44] Alans
Alans
were recruited into the Mongol
Mongol
forces with one unit called "Right Alan Guard" which was combined with "recently surrendered" soldiers, Mongols, and Chinese soldiers stationed in the area of the former Kingdom of Qocho
Kingdom of Qocho
and in Besh Balikh the Mongols
Mongols
established a Chinese military colony led by Chinese general Qi Kongzhi (Ch'i Kung-chih).[45] Alan and Kipchak guards were used by Kublai Khan.[46] In 1368 at the end of the Yuan dynasty in China
China
Toghan Temür was accompanied by his faithful Alan guards.[47] Mangu enlisted in his bodyguard half the troops of the Alan prince, Arslan, whose younger son Nicholas took a part in the expedition of the Mongols
Mongols
against Karajang (Yunnan). This Alan imperial guard was still in existence in 1272, 1286 and 1309, and it was divided into two corps with headquarters in the Ling pei province (Karakorúm).[48] In 1254 Rubruquis found a Russian deacon amongst the other Christians at Karakoram. The reason why the earlier Persian word tersa was gradually abandoned by the Mongols
Mongols
in favour of the Syro - Greek word arkon, when speaking of Christians, manifestly is that no specifically Greek Church was ever heard of in China
China
until the Russians had been conquered; besides, there were large bodies of Russian and Alan guards at Peking throughout the last half of the thirteenth and first half of the fourteenth century, and the Catholics there would not be likely to encourage the use of a Persian word which was most probably applicable in the first instance to the Nestorians they found so degenerated.[49] The Alan guards converted to Catholicism as reported by Odorico.[50] They were a "Russian guard".[51] It is believed that some Alans
Alans
resettled to the North (Barsils), merging with Volga Bulgars
Bulgars
and Burtas, eventually transforming to Volga Tatars.[52][not specific enough to verify] It is supposed that Iasi, a group of Alans
Alans
have founded a town in north east of Romania (about 1200–1300), near Prut river, called Iași. The latter became the capital of ancient Moldavia
Moldavia
in Middle Ages.[53] Alan mercenaries were involved in the affair with the Catalan Company.[54][55] Later history[edit] Descendants of the Alans, who live in the autonomous republics of Russia and Georgia, speak the Ossetian language
Ossetian language
which belongs to the Northeastern Iranian language group and is the only remnant of the Scytho-Sarmatian
Scytho-Sarmatian
dialect continuum, which once stretched over much of the Pontic steppe
Pontic steppe
and Central Asia. Modern Ossetian has two major dialects: Digor, spoken in the western part of North Ossetia; and Iron, spoken in the rest of Ossetia. A third branch of Ossetian, Jassic (Jász), was formerly spoken in Hungary. The literary language, based on the Iron dialect, was fixed by the national poet, Kosta Khetagurov (1859–1906). Physical appearance[edit] The fourth-century Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus
wrote that the Alans
Alans
were tall, and blond:

Nearly all the Alani are men of great stature and beauty; their hair is somewhat yellow, their eyes are terribly fierce.[56]

Genetics[edit] In a study conducted in 2014 by V.V. Ilyinskyon on bone fragments from 10 Alanic burials on the Don River, DNA could be abstracted from a total of 7. 4 of them turned out as belonging to yDNA Haplogroup G2 and 6 of them had mtDNA I. The fact that many of the samples share the same y- and mtDNA raises the possibility that the tested individuals belonged to the same tribe or even were close relatives. Nevertheless, this is a strong argument for direct Alan ancestry of Ossetians
Ossetians
and against the hypothesis that Ossetians
Ossetians
are alanized Caucasic Speakers, since the major Haplogroup among Ossetians
Ossetians
is G2 also.[57] In 2015 the Institute of Archaeology in Moscow conducted researches on various Sarmato-Alan and Saltovo-Mayaki culture Kurgan burials. In this analyses, the two Alan samples from 4th to 6th century AD turned out with yDNAs G2a-P15 and R1a-z94, while from the three Sarmatian samples from 2nd to 3rd century AD two turned out both with yDNA J1-M267 and one with R1a.[58] And the three Saltovo-Mayaki samples from 8th to 9th century AD turned out with yDNAs G, J2a-M410 and R1a-z94 respectively[59] Archaeology[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Archaeological finds support the written sources. P. D. Rau (1927) first identified late Sarmatian sites with the historical Alans. Based on the archaeological material, they were one of the Iranian-speaking nomadic tribes that began to enter the Sarmatian area between the middle of the 1st and the 2nd centuries. Language[edit] The ancient language of the Alans
Alans
was a Northeastern-Iranian dialect either identical, or at least closely related, to Proto-Ossetic, which is confirmed by evidence left by John Tzetzes, a Byzantine poet and grammarian who lived at Constantinople during the 12th century and who was related to Maria of Alania. Tzetzes gave a few sentences in the Alanic language, along with Greek translation, in his 'Theogony', and most of the words in the sample have modern Ossetic counterparts including the greeting "Da ban xas" ("Good day") known from the Jász word list of 1422 as well ("Da ban horz", and comparable to the Digor "Da bōn xwārz" and Iron "Da bōn xōrz", the most common Ossetic greetings to this day. Most linguists regard the language of Tzetze's sample as Proto-Ossetic. Religion[edit] In the 4th–5th centuries the Alans
Alans
were at least partially Christianized by Byzantine missionaries of the Arian church. In the 13th century, invading Mongol
Mongol
hordes pushed the eastern Alans
Alans
further south into the Caucasus, where they mixed with native Caucasian groups and successively formed three territorial entities each with different developments. Around 1395 Timur's army invaded Northern Caucasus
Caucasus
and massacred much of the Alanian population. As the time went by, Digor in the west came under Kabard
Kabard
and Islamic influence. It was through the Kabardians (an East Circassian tribe) that Islam
Islam
was introduced into the region in the 17th century. After 1767, all of Alania
Alania
came under Russian rule, which strengthened Orthodox Christianity in that region considerably. A substantial minority of today's Ossetians
Ossetians
are followers of the traditional Ossetian religion.[citation needed] See also[edit]

List of ancient Iranian peoples History of Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
in Europe

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ a b c d "Alani". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2015.  ^ a b c d "ALANS". Encyclopædia Iranica. Bibliotheca Persica Press. 2015. Retrieved 16 May 2015.  ^ Waldman & Mason 2006, pp. 12–14 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Brzezinski & Mielczarek 2002, pp. 10–11 ^ a b Zadneprovskiy 1994, pp. 467–468 ^ a b c d e Zadneprovskiy, pp. 465–467 ^ a b "Spain: Visigothic Spain to c. 500". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
2015. Retrieved 1 January 2015.  ^ a b "Vandal". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2015.  ^ a b Alemany 2000, p. ?. ^ For ethnogenesis, see Walter Pohl, "Conceptions of Ethnicity in Early Medieval Studies" Debating the Middle Ages: Issues and Readings, ed. Lester K. Little and Barbara H. Rosenwein, (Blackwell), 1998, pp 13–24) (On-line text). ^ The Hou Hanshu ^ The Weilüe ^ Kozin, S.A., Sokrovennoe skazanie, M.-L., 1941. p.83-4 ^ Alemany 2000, p. 3. ^ Abayev V. I. Ossetian language
Ossetian language
and folklore. М.—Л., 1949. p. 156. ^ Abaev V. I. Historical-Etymological Dictionary of Ossetian Language. V. 1. М.—Л., 1958. p. 47-48. ^ Sergiu Bacalov, Medieval Alans
Alans
in Moldova / Consideraţii privind olanii (alanii) sau iaşii din Moldova medievală. Cu accent asupra acelor din regiunea Nistrului de Jos https://bacalovsergiu.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/download-sergiu-bacalov-considerac5a3ii-privind-olanii-alanii-sau-iac59fii-din-moldova-medievalc483.pdf) ^ Alemany 2000, pp. 5–7. ^ Vologeses inscription. ^ Vegetius 3.26, noted in passing by T.D. Barnes, "The Date of Vegetius" Phoenix 33.3 (Autumn 1979, pp. 254–257) p. 256. "The collocation of these three barbarian races does not recur a generation later", Barnes notes, in presenting a case for a late 4th-century origin for Vegetius' treatise. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus. Roman History. Book XXXI. II. 12 ^ Watson, Burton trans. 1993. Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian. Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
II. (Revised Edition), p. 234. Columbia University Press. New York. ISBN 0-231-08166-9; ISBN 0-231-08167-7 (pbk.) ^ Hill, John E. 2003. "Annotated Translation of the Chapter on the Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu." Revised Edition – to be published soon. ^ Zadneprovskiy 1994, pp. 463–464 ^ For an earlier version of this translation ^ Giovanni de Marignolli, "John De' Marignolli and His Recollections of Eastern Travel", in Cathay and the Way Thither: Being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China, Volume 2, ed. Henry Yule
Henry Yule
(London: The Hakluyt Society, 1866), 316–317. ^ Isaac Newton, Observations on Daniel and The Apocalypse of St. John (1733). ^ Paul the Deacon, Historia Romana, XV, 1. ^ Bachrach, Bernard S. (1973). A History of the Alans
Alans
in the West. U of Minnesota Press. p. 63. ISBN 9780816656998.  ^ Bachrach, Bernard S. (1973). A History of the Alans
Alans
in the West. U of Minnesota Press. p. 77. ISBN 9780816656998.  ^ a b Bachrach, Bernard S. (1972). Merovingian Military Organization, 481-751. U of Minnesota Press. p. 10. ISBN 9780816657001.  ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/alans-an-ancient-iranian-tribe-of-the-northern-scythian-saka-sarmatian-massagete-group-known-to-classical-writers-from ^ Historical Atlas of the Classical World, 500 BC–AD 600. Barnes & Noble Books. 2000. p. 2.16. ISBN 978-0-7607-1973-2.  ^ "Alani Lusitaniam et Carthaginiensem provincias, et Wandali cognomine Silingi
Silingi
Baeticam sortiuntur" (Hydatius) ^ Castritius, 2007 ^ For another rapid disintegration of an ethne in the Early Middle Ages, see Avars. (Pohl 1998:17f). ^ Milhazes, José. Os antepassados caucasianos dos portugueses Archived 2016-01-01 at the Wayback Machine. – Rádio e Televisão de Portugal in Portuguese. ^ Ivo Xavier Fernándes. Topónimos e gentílicos, Volume 1, 1941, p. 144. ^ a b c Barthold, W.; Minorsky, V. (1986). "Alān". The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume I: A–B. Leiden and New York: BRILL. p. 354. ISBN 90-04-08114-3.  ^ Handbuch Der Orientalistik By Agustí Alemany, Denis Sinor, Bertold Spuler, Hartwig Altenmüller, p. 400–410 ^ Roux, p.465 ^ Christian Europe and Mongol
Mongol
Asia: First Medieval Intercultural Contact Between East and West ^ Sinor, Denis. 1999. "The Mongols
Mongols
jn the West". Journal of Asian History 33 (1). Harrassowitz Verlag: 1–44. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41933117. ^ Halperin, Charles J.. 2000. “The Kipchak Connection: The Ilkhans, the Mamluks and Ayn Jalut”. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 63 (2). Cambridge University Press: 235. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1559539. ^ Morris Rossabi (1983). China
China
Among Equals: The Middle Kingdom and Its Neighbors, 10th-14th Centuries. University of California Press. pp. 255–. ISBN 978-0-520-04562-0.  ^ David Nicolle (January 2004). The Mongol
Mongol
Warlords: Genghis Khan, Kublai Khan, Hulegu, Tamerlane. Brockhampton Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-86019-407-8.  ^ Arthur Thomas Hatto (1991). Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi. Peter de Ridder Press. p. 36.  ^ Sir Henry Yule
Henry Yule
(1915). Cathay and the Way Thither, Being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China. Asian Educational Services. pp. 187–. ISBN 978-81-206-1966-1.  ^ Edward Harper Parker (1905). China
China
and religion. E.P. Dutton. pp. 232–.  ^ Lauren Arnold (1999). Princely Gifts and Papal Treasures: The Franciscan Mission to China
China
and Its Influence on the Art of the West, 1250-1350. Desiderata Press. pp. 79–. ISBN 978-0-9670628-0-8.  ^ John Makeham (2008). China: The World's Oldest Living Civilization Revealed. Thames & Hudson. p. 269. ISBN 978-0-500-25142-3.  ^ (in Russian) Тайная история татар ^ A. Boldur, Istoria Basarabiei, p. 20 ^ Jessee, Scott, and Anatoly Isaenko. 2013. “The Military Effectiveness of Alan Mercenaries in Byzantium, 1301–1306”. In Journal of Medieval Military History: Volume XI, edited by Clifford J. Rogers, Kelly DeVries, and John France, 11:107–32. Boydell & Brewer. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7722/j.ctt31njvf.9. ^ Rogers, Clifford J., Kelly DeVries, and John France, eds.. 2013. Journal of Medieval Military History: Volume XI. Edited by Clifford J. Rogers, Kelly DeVries, and John France. Vol. 11. Boydell & Brewer. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7722/j.ctt31njvf. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus. Roman History. Book XXXI. II. 21. ^ [1] ^ [2] ^ [3]

Sources[edit]

Alemany, Agustí (2000). Sources on the Alans: A Critical Compilation. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-11442-4.  Bernard S. Bachrach, A History of the Alans
Alans
in the West, from their first appearance in the sources of classical antiquity through the early Middle Ages, University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
Press, 1973 ISBN 0-8166-0678-1 Bachrach, Bernard S. "The Origin of Armorican Chivalry." Technology and Culture, Vol. 10, No. 2. (Apr., 1969), pp. 166–171. Brzezinski, Richard; Mielczarek, Mariusz (2002). The Sarmatians, 600 BC-AD 450. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 184176485X. Retrieved 7 June 2015.  Castritius, H. 2007. Die Vandalen. Kohlhammer Urban. Golb, Norman and Omeljan Pritsak, Khazarian Hebrew Documents of the Tenth Century. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1982. Hill, John E. 2003. "Annotated Translation of the Chapter on the Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu." 2nd Draft Edition. [4] Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilüe 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. [5] Yu, Taishan. 2004. A History of the Relationships between the Western and Eastern Han, Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Western Regions. Sino-Platonic Papers No. 131 March 2004. Dept. of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Pennsylvania. Waldman, Carl; Mason, Catherine (2006). Encyclopedia of European Peoples. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 1438129181. Retrieved January 16, 2015.  Zadneprovskiy, Y. A. (1 January 1994). "The Nomads of Northern Central Asia After The Invasion of Alexander". In Harmatta, János. History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The Development of Sedentary and Nomadic Civilizations, 700 B. C. to A. D. 250. UNESCO. pp. 457–472. ISBN 9231028464. Retrieved 29 May 2015. 

External links[edit]

Strabo
Strabo
and Hou Han Shureferences discussed Caucasus
Caucasus
Foundation: Cauc

.