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Alan Lee Keyes (born August 7, 1950) is an American conservative political activist, pundit, author, former diplomat, and perennial candidate for public office.[1][2] A doctoral graduate of Harvard University, Keyes began his diplomatic career in the U.S. Foreign Service in 1979 at the United States consulate in Bombay, India, and later in the American embassy in Zimbabwe. Keyes was appointed Ambassador
Ambassador
to the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations
United Nations
by President Ronald Reagan, and served as Reagan's Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs from 1985 to 1987; in his capacities as a UN ambassador, among Keyes's accomplishments was contributing to the Mexico City
Mexico City
Policy. Keyes ran for President of the United States
United States
in 1996, 2000, and 2008. He was the Republican nominee for the U.S. Senate
U.S. Senate
in Maryland
Maryland
against Paul Sarbanes
Paul Sarbanes
in 1988 and Barbara Mikulski
Barbara Mikulski
in 1992, as well as in Illinois
Illinois
against Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2004. Keyes lost all three elections by wide margins. Keyes hosted a radio call-in show, The Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
Show: America's Wake-Up Call, from 1994 until 1998 on WCBM. The show was briefly simulcast by National Empowerment Television.[3] In 2002, he briefly hosted a television commentary show on the MSNBC
MSNBC
cable network, Alan Keyes Is Making Sense. Since 1998, Keyes has served as a columnist for World Net Daily.[4]

Contents

1 Personal life and family 2 Diplomat 3 Role in the Reagan Administration 4 Political campaigns

4.1 1988 Senate election 4.2 1992 Senate election 4.3 1996 Presidential election 4.4 2000 Presidential election 4.5 2004 Senate election 4.6 2008 Presidential election

4.6.1 Republican candidate 4.6.2 Constitution Party 4.6.3 America's Independent Party

5 Obama citizenship lawsuit 6 Media and advocacy 7 Subsequent activities 8 References 9 External links

Personal life and family[edit] Born in a naval hospital on Long Island, New York,[5] Keyes is the fifth child of mother Gerthina (Quick) and father Allison L. Keyes, a U.S. Army sergeant and a teacher.[6] Due to his father's tours of duty, the Keyes family traveled frequently. Keyes lived in Georgia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Texas, Virginia
Virginia
and overseas in Italy.[7] After high school, Keyes attended Cornell University, where he was a member of the Cornell University
Cornell University
Glee Club and The Hangovers. He studied political philosophy with American philosopher and essayist Allan Bloom and has said that Bloom was the professor who influenced him most in his undergraduate studies.[5] Keyes has stated that he received death threats for opposing Vietnam war protesters who seized a campus building.[8] Keyes has stated that a passage of Bloom's book, The Closing of the American Mind, refers to this incident,[9] speaking of an African-American student "whose life had been threatened by a black faculty member when the student refused to participate in a demonstration" at Cornell.[10] Shortly thereafter, he left the school and spent a year in Paris under a Cornell study abroad program connected with Bloom.[11] Keyes continued his studies at Harvard University, where he resided in Winthrop House, and completed his Bachelor of Arts degree, in government affairs in 1972, graduating magna cum laude. During his first year of graduate school, Keyes's roommate was William Kristol. In 1988, Kristol ran Keyes's unsuccessful U.S. Senate
U.S. Senate
campaign in Maryland.[12] Keyes earned his Ph.D. in government affairs from Harvard University in 1979, having written a dissertation on Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
and constitutional theory, under Harvey C. Mansfield.[13] Due to student deferments and a high draft number, Keyes was not drafted to serve in the Vietnam War. Keyes and his family were staunch supporters of the war, in which his father served two tours of duty.[6] Keyes was criticized by opponents of the war in Vietnam, but he says he was supporting his father and his brothers, who were also fighting in the war.[14] Keyes is married to Jocelyn Marcel Keyes, of East Indian descent, from Calcutta. The couple has three children, Francis, Maya, and Andrew. Keyes is a traditional Catholic and a third-degree Knight of Columbus.[15][16] He is also a close friend of Brazilian conservative philosopher and journalist Olavo de Carvalho. In 2005, when Maya Keyes was 20 years old, she came out as a lesbian. There were reports her family threw her out of the house and stopped talking to her.[17] In an interview with Metro Weekly, a Washington, D.C., LGBT
LGBT
newspaper, Maya confirmed that her father "cut off all financial support." In the same report Maya said, "It doesn't make much sense for him to be [financially] supporting someone who is working against what he believes in."[18] Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
contradicted reports about his having disowned his daughter in October 2007. Keyes said that he loves his daughter and that she knows she has a home with him. He asserted that he never cut her off and never would, because it would be "wrong in the eyes of God." He also said he would not be coerced into "approving of that which destroys the soul" of his daughter. He contended that he must "stand for the truth [Jesus Christ] represents" even if it breaks his heart.[19] Diplomat[edit] A year before completing his doctoral studies, Keyes joined the United States Department of State as a protégé of Jeane Kirkpatrick.[20] In 1979, he was assigned to the consulate in Mumbai, India.[21] The following year, Keyes was sent to serve at the embassy in Zimbabwe.[21] In 1983, President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
appointed Keyes as Ambassador
Ambassador
to the United Nations
United Nations
Economic and Social Council. In 1985, he was appointed Assistant Secretary of State for International Organizations, a position he held until 1987. His stay at the UN provoked some controversy, leading Newsday
Newsday
to say "he has propounded the more unpopular aspects of US policy with all the diplomatic subtlety of the cannon burst in Tchaikovsky's 1812 Overture."[22] He also served on the staff of the National Security Council.[23] At a fundraiser for Keyes's senate campaign, President Reagan spoke of Keyes's time as an ambassador, saying that he "did such an extraordinary job ... defending our country against the forces of anti-Americanism." Reagan continued, "I've never known a more stout-hearted defender of a strong America than Alan Keyes."[24] In 1987 Keyes was appointed a resident scholar for the American Enterprise Institute. His principal research for AEI was diplomacy, international relations, and self-government.[25] Following government service, Ambassador
Ambassador
Keyes was President of Citizens Against Government Waste
Citizens Against Government Waste
(CAGW) from 1989 to 1991, and founded CAGW's National Taxpayers' Action Day. In 1991, he served as Interim President of Alabama
Alabama
A&M University, in Huntsville, Alabama.[26] Role in the Reagan Administration[edit] Among the U.S. delegation to the 1984 World Population Conference in Mexico City, Keyes was selected by Reagan as deputy chairman. In that capacity, Keyes negotiated the language of the Mexico City Policy
Mexico City Policy
to withhold federal funds from international organizations that support abortion.[27][28] Additionally, Keyes fought against an Arab-backed UN resolution calling for investigation of Israeli settlements. The measure passed, 83–2, with 15 abstentions and only Israel
Israel
and the U.S. voting against it.[29] Reagan again appointed Keyes to represent the U.S. at the 1985 Women's Conference in Nairobi.[28] During his time at the United States
United States
Department of State, Keyes defended the Reagan policy of not imposing economic sanctions on South Africa as punishment for apartheid.[30] Stated Keyes, "I see the black people in South Africa as the most critical positive factor for eliminating apartheid and building the future of that country ... And that is not something you do with rhetoric, slogans and noninvolvement. It's not something you will achieve through disinvestment."[22] Political campaigns[edit] See also: Electoral history of Alan Keyes 1988 Senate election[edit] Main article: United States
United States
Senate election in Maryland, 1988 In 1988, Keyes was drafted by the Maryland
Maryland
Republican Party to run for the United States
United States
Senate, and received 38 percent of the vote against victorious incumbent Democrat Paul Sarbanes.[31] 1992 Senate election[edit] Main article: United States
United States
Senate election in Maryland, 1992 Four years later, he ran again for the Senate from Maryland, coming in first in a field of 13 candidates in the Republican primary. Against Democrat Barbara Mikulski, he received 29 percent in the general election.[32] During the 1992 election, Keyes attracted controversy when he took a $8,463/month salary from his campaign fund.[33] 1996 Presidential election[edit] See also: United States
United States
presidential election, 1996 Keyes sought the Republican presidential nomination in 1996,[34] and asked other candidates about abortion in those debates in which he participated. Many Republican leaders saw this as unnecessary and divisive.[35] Keyes was particularly critical of Clinton during his campaign, saying, "This guy lies, but he lies with passion." He questioned whether a Republican candidate who is truthful, yet cold and heartless, had a chance to win against the incumbent.[36] Keyes was also especially critical of Pat Buchanan, once saying during an interview on the Talk
Talk
from the Heart program with Al Kresta (simulcast on KJSL St. Louis and WMUZ Detroit) that Buchanan had a "black heart." Keyes's entry into the Republican race after Buchanan had secured victories in New Hampshire and Louisiana led many to believe that Keyes was a stalking horse for neoconservative elements in the Republican Party, since Buchanan had been a well-known ardent foe of abortion and had suffered political fallout for bringing abortion and "cultural war" to the center of the public policy debate. Later during the primaries, Keyes was briefly detained by Atlanta police when he tried to force his way into a debate to which he had been invited, and then uninvited. He was never formally arrested and was eventually picked up 20 minutes later by Atlanta's mayor at the time, Bill Campbell.[37][38] 2000 Presidential election[edit] Main article: Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
presidential campaign, 2000 See also: United States
United States
presidential election, 2000

Keyes campaign logo

Keyes again campaigned for the Republican nomination in the 2000 primaries on a pro-life, family values, tax reform plank.[39] In Iowa, he finished 3rd, drawing 14 percent[40] in a crowded field. He stayed in the race after the early rounds and debated the two remaining candidates, John McCain
John McCain
and George W. Bush, in a number of nationally televised debates. He finished second in 8 primaries. His best showing in the presidential primaries was in Utah, where he received 20 percent of the vote.[41] He was also noted for jumping into a mosh pit during a Rage Against the Machine
Rage Against the Machine
song during the Iowa caucus
Iowa caucus
as part of a segment on Michael Moore's TV series The Awful Truth.[42] 2004 Senate election[edit] Main article: Illinois
Illinois
United States
United States
Senate election, 2004

2004 campaign logo

The results of the 2004 Illinois
Illinois
Senate Election-counties won by Obama are in blue, and counties won by Keyes are in red.

On August 8, 2004—with 86 days to go before the general election—the Illinois
Illinois
Republican Party drafted Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
to run against Democratic state senator Barack Obama
Barack Obama
for the U.S. Senate, after the Republican nominee, Jack Ryan, withdrew due to a sex scandal, and other potential draftees (most notably former Illinois governor Jim Edgar
Jim Edgar
and former Chicago Bears
Chicago Bears
coach Mike Ditka) declined to run. The Washington Post
Washington Post
called Keyes a "carpetbagger"[43] since he "had never lived in Illinois."[44][45] When asked to answer charges of carpetbagging in the context of his earlier criticism of Hillary Clinton, he called her campaign "pure and planned selfish ambition", but stated that in his case he felt a moral obligation to run after being asked to by the Illinois
Illinois
Republican Party. "You are doing what you believe to be required by your respect for God's will, and I think that that's what I'm doing in Illinois".[46] Keyes, who opposes abortion in all cases "except as an inadvertent result of efforts to save the mother's life",[47] said in a September 7, 2004 news conference that Jesus
Jesus
Christ would not vote for Obama[48][49] because of votes that Obama—then a member of the Illinois
Illinois
Senate Judiciary committee and a lecturer in constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School—cast in 2001 against a package of three anti-abortion bills that Obama argued were too broad and unconstitutional. The legislation, which provided "that a live child born as a result of an abortion shall be fully recognized as a human person,"[50] passed the Republican-controlled Illinois
Illinois
Senate, but failed to pass out of the Democratic-controlled Illinois
Illinois
House Judiciary committee.[51][52][53] After the election, Keyes declined to congratulate Obama, explaining that his refusal to congratulate Obama was "not anything personal", but was meant to make a statement against "extend[ing] false congratulations to the triumph of what we have declared to be across the line" of reasonable propriety. He said that Obama's position on moral issues regarding life and the family had crossed that line. "I'm supposed to make a call that represents the congratulations toward the triumph of that which I believe ultimately stands for ... a culture evil enough to destroy the very soul and heart of my country? I cannot do this. And I will not make a false gesture," Keyes said.[54] Keyes was also criticized for his views on homosexuality. In an interview with Michelangelo Signorile, a gay radio host, Keyes defined homosexuality as centering in the pursuit of pleasure, literally "selfish hedonism". When Signorile asked if Mary Cheney, Vice President Dick Cheney's lesbian daughter, fit the description and was therefore a "selfish hedonist", Keyes replied, "Of course she is. That goes by definition."[55] Media sources picked up on the exchange, reporting that Keyes had "trashed", "attacked," and "lashed out at" Mary Cheney, and had called her a "sinner"—provoking condemnation of Keyes by LGBT
LGBT
Republicans and several GOP leaders.[56][57] Keyes noted that it was an interviewer, not he, who brought up Mary Cheney's name in the above incident, and he told reporters, "You have tried to personalize the discussion of an issue that I did not personalize. The people asking me the question did so, and if that's inappropriate, blame the media. Do not blame me."[58][59][60] During the campaign, Keyes outlined an alternative to reparations for slavery. His specific suggestion was that, for a period of one or two generations, African-Americans who were descended from slaves would be exempt from the federal income tax (though not from the FICA tax that supports Social Security).[61] Keyes said the experiment "would become a demonstration project for what I believe needs to be done for the whole country, which is to get rid of the income tax."[62] He also called for the repeal of the 17th Amendment in order to require that U.S. Senators be appointed by state legislatures, rather than being directly elected.[63] Keyes finished with 27% of the vote[64] despite winning a small number of southern Illinois
Illinois
counties.[65]

2004 Illinois
Illinois
U.S. Senate
U.S. Senate
Election

Party Candidate Votes % ±

Democratic Barack Obama 3,597,456 70.0 +22.6

Republican Alan Keyes 1,390,690 27.0 -23.3

Independent Al Franzen 81,164 1.6

Libertarian Jerry Kohn 69,253 1.3

Write-ins

2,957 0.1

Majority 2,206,766 43.0 +40.1

Turnout 5,350,493 71.3

Democratic gain from Republican Swing

2008 Presidential election[edit] Republican candidate[edit] Main article: Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
presidential campaign, 2008 See also: United States
United States
presidential election, 2008 and Republican Party presidential primaries, 2008

We Need Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
for President booth in Iowa, August 2007

On June 5, 2007, We Need Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
for President was formed as a political action committee to encourage Keyes to enter the 2008 presidential election.[66] On September 14, 2007, Keyes officially announced his candidacy in an interview with radio show host Janet Parshall.[67] On September 17, 2007, Keyes participated in the Values Voter Debate streamed live on Sky Angel, the Values Voter website, and radio. In a straw poll of the attending audience, Keyes placed third among the invited candidates, after Mike Huckabee
Mike Huckabee
and Ron Paul.[68] Keyes was excluded from the Republican CNN/ YouTube
YouTube
debate on November 28, 2007. Keyes's campaign called the exclusion "arbitrary, unfair, and presumptuous," arguing that CNN
CNN
was playing the role of "gatekeeper" for the presidential election.[69]

Keyes at a 2008 presidential campaign rally

On December 12, 2007, Keyes participated in the Des Moines Register's Republican presidential debate, televised nationwide by PBS and the cable news networks. This was the first major presidential debate in which Keyes participated during the 2008 election season and the last Republican debate before the Iowa Caucuses.[70][71] Although Keyes was not listed on the latest national CNN
CNN
poll leading up to the debate,[72] he registered with at least 1 percent of the Iowa vote in order to participate.[73] During the debate, after the moderator began to ask a question of Texas
Texas
Congressman Ron Paul, Keyes insisted he was not getting fair treatment. He interrupted the debate moderator at one point, saying that she had not called on him in several rounds and that he had to make an issue of it.[74] He went on the offensive against his opponents during the debate, criticizing Rudy Giuliani's pro-choice position, as well as Mitt Romney's recent change in position on the same subject. In answering a question about global warming, he continued his criticisms of other candidates, saying, "I'm in favor of reducing global warming, because I think the most important emission we need to control is the hot air emission of politicians who pretend one thing and don't deliver".[71] He also advocated ending the income tax, establishing state-sanctioned prayer in public schools, and abolishing abortion.[74] Toward the end of the debate, Keyes stated he could not support Giuliani if he were to win the nomination due to the former New York mayor's position on abortion.[75] In the Iowa caucuses, Keyes did not appear on any of the election totals.[76] Keyes stated that many of the caucus locations he visited did not list him as a choice. His campaign CEO, Stephen Stone blamed much of this on the media and on Keyes's decision to enter the race late. Stone explained that the media would not acknowledge Keyes's candidacy, making it difficult to run an effective campaign.[76] Keyes supports an amendment to the Constitution barring same-sex marriage.[77] He stated he would not have gone to war in Iraq,[78] but also said that the war was justified[79] and defended President George W. Bush's decision in one of his 2004 debates.[80] Keyes has stated that troops should stay in Iraq,[81] but also said that he would have turned over operations to the United Nations.[82] However, Keyes has also stated that even while he was an ambassador there he was not a supporter of the United Nations.[83] After the early states, Keyes exclusively campaigned in Texas,[84] where he finished with 0.60 percent of all votes cast.[85] Following Texas, the Keyes campaign moved to seeking the Constitution Party presidential nomination, but he continued to appear on several Republican ballots. On May 6, Keyes scored his best showing of the campaign by winning 2.7% for fourth place in North Carolina, earning him two delegates to the Republican National Convention. Constitution Party[edit] Keyes first stated that he was considering leaving the Republican Party during a January 2008 appearance on The Weekly Filibuster radio show.[86] He did not withdraw his candidacy after John McCain
John McCain
won the necessary 1,191 delegates to the Republican National Convention, even though he was no longer campaigning for the Republican nomination.[84] On March 27, 2008, Keyes's campaign website began displaying the Constitution Party's logo, along with a parody of the trademarked GOP logo in the form of a dead elephant.[87] This appeared to be an indication of Keyes's intentions to quit the Republican party and to begin officially seeking the Constitution Party's presidential nomination. On April 15, Keyes confirmed his split from the Republican Party and his intention to explore the candidacy of the Constitution Party.[88][89] He lost his bid for the party's nomination, however, coming in second to 2004 CP vice presidential candidate Chuck Baldwin at the party's national convention in Kansas City, Missouri, on April 26, 2008.[90] During the convention, the party's founder, Howard Phillips, gave a controversial speech in which he referred to Keyes as "the Neocon
Neocon
candidate" who "lingered in the Republican Party until a week ago."[91] Following the defeat, Keyes held an interview with Mike Ferguson[92] in which he compared his defeat to an abortion.[93] Later, Keyes told a group of his supporters that he was "prayerfully considering" making a continued bid for the presidency as an independent candidate,[94] and asserted his refusal to endorse Baldwin's candidacy.[95] America's Independent Party[edit] Keyes' supporters formed a new third party, America's Independent Party, for his presidential candidacy. America's Independent Party gained the affiliation of a faction of California's American Independent Party. However, the AIP ticket, which had Brian Rohrbough, father of a victim of the Columbine High School massacre, of Colorado as its vice presidential candidate, was only on the ballot in California, Colorado, and Florida. In the federal election held on November 4, 2008, Keyes received 47,694 votes nationally to finish seventh.[96] About 86% (40,673) of the votes he received were cast in California. Obama citizenship lawsuit[edit] Main article: Barack Obama
Barack Obama
presidential eligibility litigation § Keyes v. Bowen On November 14, 2008, Keyes filed a lawsuit—naming as defendants California
California
Secretary of State Deborah Bowen, President-elect Barack Obama, Vice President-elect Joe Biden, and California's 55 Democratic electors[97][98]—challenging Obama's eligibility for the U.S. Presidency. The suit requested that Obama provide documentation that he is a natural born citizen of the United States.[99][100] Following the inauguration, Keyes alleged that President Obama had not been constitutionally inaugurated, refused to call him president, and called him a "usurper" and a "radical communist".[101][102] Keyes also claimed that President Obama's birth certificate had been forged and he was not qualified to be president.[103] Media and advocacy[edit] Keyes has worked as a media commentator and talk show personality. In 1994, he began hosting a syndicated radio show called The Alan Keyes Show: America's Wake-Up Call for Radio America from Arlington, Virginia. The show became simulcast on cable's National Empowerment Television in 1997.[104] Keyes also launched various web-based organizations—notably Renew America and the Declaration Foundation, both headquartered in Washington, D.C. Keyes has served on the board of advisors for the Catholic League, a non-profit, Catholic advocacy group headed by William A. Donohue. In 1997, he was quoted as calling in that capacity the ABC television show Nothing Sacred "propaganda dressed up as entertainment, the way the Nazis used to make movies. The entertainment elite's belief that there are no moral absolutes deeply contradicts the religious view of Christianity."[105] In 2002, he hosted a live television commentary show, Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
Is Making Sense, on the MSNBC
MSNBC
cable news channel.[106] The network canceled the show in July, citing poor ratings. The cancellation triggered a currently ongoing boycott led by Jewish education website Mesora.org whose reach numbers more than 72,000 email subscribers.[107] The show was unsympathetic to supporters of the al-Aqsa Intifadah—whom Keyes frequently debated on the program—and supported the Israeli crackdown on Palestinians. The show also featured critical discussion of homosexuality and of priests accused in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
sex abuse scandals. The last episode was broadcast on June 27, 2002. As a result of Keyes's strong advocacy of Israel
Israel
on his MSNBC
MSNBC
show, in July 2002 the state of Israel
Israel
awarded him a special honor "in appreciation of his journalistic endeavors and his integrity in reporting" and flew him in to meet Prime Minister Ariel Sharon.[108] In August 2003, Keyes came out in defense of Alabama
Alabama
Chief Justice Roy Moore, citing both the U.S. Constitution
U.S. Constitution
and the Alabama
Alabama
constitution as sanctioning Moore's (and Alabama's) authority to publicly display the Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
in the state's judicial building, in defiance of a court order from U.S. District Judge Myron Thompson.[109][110] Although the monument was ultimately removed by state authorities, the issue impelled Keyes to spend the next year advocating his understanding of the Constitution's protection of the right of states to display monuments that reflect the religious sentiments of the people in their states. As a result, he published an essay describing his rationale titled "On the establishment of religion: What the Constitution really says."[111] In early 2005, Keyes sought to intervene in the Terri Schiavo case, arguing that Schiavo's life was protected by the Florida
Florida
constitution, and that Governor Jeb Bush
Jeb Bush
had final authority to determine the outcome of the case under state provisions. He attempted to meet with Bush to discuss the provisions of Florida
Florida
law that authorized the governor to order Schiavo's feeding tubes reinserted—something Bush claimed he wished to do, but for which he said he lacked authority—but the governor declined to meet with Keyes. Keyes subsequently wrote an essay directed openly at Governor Bush titled "Judicial review and executive responsibility",[112] days after Schiavo's feeding tube had been removed. In November 2006, Keyes criticized Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney for instituting gay marriage entirely on his own—according to Keyes—with no requirement or authority to do so under Massachusetts law. Keyes said Romney's actions, which he suggested were due to a complete misunderstanding of his role as governor and of the limitations of the judicial branch of government, were not necessitated by a ruling of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court in November 2003 that directed the state legislature to institute same-sex marriage. The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial court had ruled that the state law banning same-sex marriage was not constitutional.[113] The court gave the Massachusetts Legislature 180 days to modify the law; after it failed to do so, Romney ordered town clerks to begin issuing marriage licenses on May 17, 2004, in compliance with the court ruling.[114] Commenting on the issue, Keyes asked rhetorically, "Since the legislature has not acted on the subject, you might be wondering how it is that homosexuals are being married in Massachusetts. It's because Mitt Romney, who is telling people he's an opponent of same-sex marriage, forced the justices of the peace and others to perform same-sex marriage, all on his own, with no authorization or requirement from the court. Tells you how twisted our politicians have become."[115] Keyes, Olavo de Carvalho, author of a dozen books on philosophical and political matters, and Alejandro Peña Esclusa, president of UnoAmerica, met on 3 March 2009 in Washington D.C.
Washington D.C.
for an informal and friendly talk.[116] In July 2010, Olavo de Carvalho
Olavo de Carvalho
denounced a plot against Alejandro Peña Esclusa, who was arrested on terrorism-related charges.[117] According to the website of the Venezuelan Ministry of Communications & Information, Alejandro Peña Esclusa was the head of a plan to murder Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
during a visit to Venezuela
Venezuela
on 13 November 1984. On May 8, 2009, Keyes and 21 others were arrested while protesting President Barack Obama's commencement speech at the University of Notre Dame. Keyes was charged with trespassing and released on $250 bond.[118] He was arrested a second time on May 16.[119] In December 2009, Keyes authored a column for the World Net Daily critical of evolution and in support of Intelligent Design.[120] Keyes also made a widely discussed appearance in the 2006 film Borat.[121][122][123][124][125][126] In 2010, About.com, owned by The New York Times Company, named Keyes one of the top 20 conservatives to follow on Twitter.[127] Subsequent activities[edit] Days after its release, Keyes criticized the 2015 papal encyclical Laudato si', stating that its demands amount to "...global penal colony under the totalitarian control of a government with unprecedented global powers." In the same article Keyes likened the encyclical's author, Pope Francis, to "Marx, Stalin
Stalin
or Mao Zedong."[128] During the time of the 2016 presidential election, Keyes emerged as a strong critic of Donald Trump. He criticized many conservative Christians for supporting "a candidate whose life could be used to illustrate the deceitfully seductive quality of sin summarized in the phrase 'the glamour of evil.'"[129] References[edit]

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Alan Keyes
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Alan Keyes
Learned at Harvard". The Harvard Crimson. Archived from the original on 24 January 2008. Retrieved 2007-12-13.  ^ Bloom, Allan (Simon & Schuster, 1987). The Closing of the American Mind ISBN 0-671-65715-1 p. 316 ^ Wilson, John (12 August 2004). "Keyes to victory? The Illinois Republican Party goes to extremes to find a Senate candidate". Illinois
Illinois
Times.  ^ America's wake-up call? Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
strikes a chord with Iowa voters Archived October 17, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Jan. 25, 2000 ^ "The Declaration of Independence and the Spirit of American Law". Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
Archives. 1997-02-21. Retrieved 2009-08-08.  ^ "WGN "News at 9" segment on Alan Keyes". Renew America. 2004-09-20. Archived from the original on February 16, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-31.  ^ "Alan Keyes, Previously Candidate for U.S. President & Vice President, November 4, 2008 California
California
General Election". Vote-usa.org. 2008-11-04. Retrieved 2009-09-13.  ^ "2008 Presidential Candidates". The Washington Post. 2008. Archived from the original on 29 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-03.  ^ "Alan Keyes' Daughter Coming Out". CBS News. 2005-02-13.  ^ O'Bryan, William; Shulman, Randy (2005-02-24). "Maya Keyes: Her Father's Daughter". Metro Weekly. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-23.  ^ " Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
on the Bill Haft show WBOB 1320 AM". Alan Keyes.com. 2007-10-02. Archived from the original on 2008-01-09. Retrieved 2007-12-12.  ^ " Ambassador
Ambassador
Jeane Kirkpatrick
Jeane Kirkpatrick
endorses Alan Keyes". Alan Keyes Archives. 2004-10-14. Retrieved 2009-08-08.  ^ a b "Keyes, Alan L. (1950- )". BlackPast.org. University of Washington. Retrieved January 28, 2011.  ^ a b "Undiplomatic Diplomat: Outspoken Black Ambassador
Ambassador
May Get Top State Department Post". The Post-Standard. 1985-06-18. Retrieved 2007-10-03. [permanent dead link] ^ Smiley, Tavis. " Special
Special
Feature: All-American Presidential Forums. Republican Candidates: Alan Keyes". PBS. Archived from the original on 2007-10-17. Retrieved 2007-10-04.  ^ "Ronald Reagan's Remarks at a Fundraising Luncheon for Senatorial Candidate Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
in Baltimore, Maryland". 1988-10-26. Retrieved 2007-07-31.  ^ "Alan Keyes, Resident Scholar in Foreign Policy Studies, American Enterprise Institute".  ^ " Ambassador
Ambassador
Alan Keyes". Ambassador
Ambassador
Speakers Bureau. Retrieved 2007-07-31.  ^ Keyes, Alan (2007-09-17). "Values Voter Presidential Debate, September 17, 2007, Fort Lauderdale, Florida". Renew America. Archived from the original on October 17, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-03.  ^ a b "Major Issues Lecture: The United Nations
United Nations
and American Foreign Policy". 1989-03-09. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-03.  ^ "Panel Issues Slap Against Israel". The Capital. 1984-08-14. Retrieved 2007-10-04.  ^ Lowry, Rich (1995-05-01). "Word of mouth – Republican presidential hopeful Alan Keyes". National Review. Retrieved 2007-07-31. [dead link] ^ Dendy Jr., Dallas L. (1989-04-20). Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 8, 1988 (PDF). Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives. p. 19.  ^ Dendy Jr., Dallas L. (1995-05-31). Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 3, 1992 (PDF). Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives. p. 31.  ^ "The Buying of the President 2008 : Archives : The Buying of the President 2000 – Alan Keyes". Buyingofthepresident.org. Archived from the original on 2009-02-04. Retrieved 2009-08-08.  ^ Lacayo, Richard. "Bottoming out in the presidential race can still pay off big time for the losing candidates". CNN. Archived from the original on 9 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-04.  ^ "The Republicans". The Washington Post. 1998-01-24. Retrieved 2007-10-04.  ^ Sack, Kevin (1996-01-28). "3 Republicans Seek a Boost in Louisiana". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. Retrieved 2007-12-14.  ^ " Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
joins GOP '08 field". United Press International. 2007-09-15. Archived from the original on 19 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-30.  ^ "Presidential Candidate Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
Restrained, Barred From Debate". Democracy Now! Radio Program. 1996-03-03. Archived from the original on 12 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-14.  ^ "'We Need Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
for President' Website Launched". Christian Newswire. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-10.  ^ "Dem. & GOP Caucuses: Iowa". CNN. Archived from the original on October 1, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-04.  ^ " CNN
CNN
Dem. & GOP Presidential Primaries: Utah". CNN. Archived from the original on September 17, 2005. Retrieved 2007-12-11.  ^ Video on YouTube ^ "Mr. Keyes the Carpetbagger". The Washington Post. 2004-08-09. Retrieved 2007-10-04.  ^ "Ill. GOP Watches Take-No-Prisoners Campaign". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2007-10-03.  ^ "In Illinois, Obama defeats Keyes in race called 1 of the strangest in state's history". Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-03.  ^ Keyes had strongly accused Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
in 2000 for carpetbagging in New York. " Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
on the Tavis Smiley Show (NPR)". Renew America. Archived from the original on December 30, 2006.  ^ "Senate debate gets personal in battle over moral issues". Herald & Review (Decatur, Illinois). Associated Press. October 22, 2004. p. A10. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  ^ Ford, Liam; Mendell, David (September 8, 2004). " Jesus
Jesus
wouldn't vote for Obama, Keyes says". Chicago Tribune. p. 3. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  ^ Erickson, Kurt (September 9, 2004). "Obama wants to focus on issues, not theology". Pantagraph. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  ^ "92nd General Assembly Status of SB1093". Illinois
Illinois
General Assembly. Archived from the original on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-12.  ^ Koranda, Jeannie (March 31, 2001). "Senate OKs limits on abortion". Herald & Review. Decatur, Illinois. p. A1. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  ^ Chesley, Nancy (May 10, 2001). "Committee rejects birth bill; Opponents brand it as abortion curb". Herald & Review. Decatur, Illinois. p. A3. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  ^ " Illinois
Illinois
House panel defeats abortion legislation OK'd by Senate". St. Louis Post-Dispatch
St. Louis Post-Dispatch
(paid archive). Associated Press. May 10, 2001. p. C5. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  ^ " Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
on the Scott Thomas Show, WYLL". Renew America. 2004-11-04. Archived from the original on June 10, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-31.  ^ "Interview on homosexuality with Sirius OutQ". Renew America. Archived from the original on 2006-08-22.  ^ "Keyes: Cheney's gay daughter practicing 'selfish hedonism'". Associated Press. 2004-09-02. Archived from the original on 14 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-31 – via MSNBC.  ^ Skalka, Jennifer; Casillas, Ofelia (2004-08-31). "Keyes Defends Comments About Cheney's Daughter". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2007-09-20. [dead link] ^ Pallasch, Abdon (2004-09-02). "Topinka says he should apologize for 'idiotic' comment". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2007-07-31. [dead link] ^ Keyes, Alan (2004-08-31). " Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
Discusses Homosexuality". Renew America. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28.  ^ Mostert, Mary (2004-09-04). " Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
teaches sex education lesson to homosexual interviewer". Renew America. Archived from the original on 4 July 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-31.  ^ Benedikt, Allison; Mendell, David (August 17, 2004). "Keyes has plan for reparations". Chicago Tribune.  ^ Kresta, Al (2004-09-09). " Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
on Kresta in the Afternoon (audio)".  ^ Gould, Lewis. "Alan Keyes's Daffy Idea to Repeal the 17th Amendment". HNN.us. Archived from the original on 24 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-08.  ^ "Elections 2004". Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-02-09.  ^ "Election 2004". CNN. 1970-04-13. Retrieved 2009-08-08.  ^ "'We Need Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
for President' Website Launched". ChristianNewswire.com.  ^ " Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
announces for President!". Renew America. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11.  ^ Luo, Michael (2007-09-18). "Values Voters Pick Huckabee". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-23.  ^ Klein, Jonathan (2007-11-27). " CNN
CNN
poised to exclude Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
from Florida
Florida
debate". America's Revival: Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
for President. Archived from the original on January 9, 2008. Retrieved 2007-12-13.  ^ " CNN
CNN
Student News Transcript, December 13, 2007". CNN. 2007-12-12. Archived from the original on 15 January 2008. Retrieved 2007-12-13.  ^ a b Pearson, Rick; Chase, John (2007-12-12). "Republicans Debate in Iowa". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-13.  ^ " CNN
CNN
Opinion Research Poll, December 6–9, 2007" (PDF). CNN. 2007-12-10. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-13.  ^ "Keyes makes major debate debut". CNN. 2007-12-12. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-13.  ^ a b Abcarian, Robin (2007-12-13). "Hardly seen Keyes shows up for GOP debate". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 8, 2008. Retrieved 2007-12-13.  ^ " CNN
CNN
Transcripts: Des Moines Register
Des Moines Register
Presidential Debate: The Republicans". CNN. 2007-12-12. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-13.  ^ a b Birch, Tommy (2008-01-03). "Keyes garners little support in Iowa". Iowa State Daily. Archived from the original on January 26, 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-21.  ^ " Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
on Civil Rights". Ontheissues.org. Archived from the original on 26 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-08.  ^ " Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
on War & Peace". Ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2009-08-08.  ^ " Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
on War & Peace". Ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2009-08-08.  ^ " Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
on War & Peace". Ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2009-08-08.  ^ " Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
on War & Peace". Ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2009-08-08.  ^ " Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
on War & Peace". Ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2009-08-08.  ^ " Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
on Foreign Policy". Ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2009-08-08.  ^ a b Noodoo, Jemimah. Enterprise Q&A: Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
discusses chances of his third shot at U.S. presidency Archived April 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. The Beaumont Enterprise. 2008-02-08. Retrieved 2008-04-08. ^ "2008 Republican Party Primary Election, Election Night Returns". Office of the Secretary of State of Texas. 2008-03-07. Archived from the original on January 9, 2014. Retrieved 2008-04-08.  ^ "Keyes Hints at Third Party Run" Archived 2008-11-27 at the Wayback Machine., Politics1.com. January 28, 2008 ^ Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
for President. We Need Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
for President, Inc. ^ "Keyes leaves GOP, looks at Constitution Party", USA Today.com. April 15, 2008 ^ "At Hazleton event, Keyes announces bid for president"[permanent dead link], standardspeaker.com. April 15, 2008 ^ "Constitution Party stunner: Chuck Baldwin
Chuck Baldwin
KOs firebrand Alan Keyes", KansasCity Star. April 26, 2008 ^ "Howard Phillips endorses Chuck Baldwin
Chuck Baldwin
at Constitution Party Convention". Video.google.com. 2008-05-19. Retrieved 2009-08-08.  ^ "Mike Ferguson Online". Mike Ferguson Online. Archived from the original on 2009-08-06. Retrieved 2009-08-08.  ^ "A Post-Convention Interview with Alan Keyes" Archived May 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., ConservativePulse.com. April 26, 2008 ^ Hill, Trent "Keyes's Continuing Candidacy" Archived July 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., Third Party Watch.com. April 27, 2008 ^ Kraske, Steve "Constitution Party stunner II: Keyes won't back Chuck Baldwin for president, suggests party used him", KansasCity Star. April 30, 2008 ^ "2008 official presidential general election results" (PDF). FEC. 2008-11-04. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-03.  ^ " Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
Doubts Obama's Citizenship" Archived 2011-09-29 at the Wayback Machine., Courthouse News Service (2008-11-17). ^ Rogers, Rich. "Former Obama opponent now suing to prove President-Elect's citizenship" Archived 2010-06-12 at the Wayback Machine., NBC Augusta (WAGT) (2008-11-17) ^ "Petition for Writ of Mandate" Archived November 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. (2008-11-12) ^ "Alan Keyes, AIP leaders sue in CA court to obtain Obama citizenship proof", The Sacramento Union
The Sacramento Union
(2008-11-15). ^ Brown, Wayne (2009-03-01). "In Obama's America, racism fights back". Trinidad Express. Archived from the original on 2009-06-08. Retrieved 2009-08-08.  ^ " Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
stokes Obama birth certificate controversy". Los Angeles Times. 2009-02-21. Retrieved 2009-08-08.  ^ " Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
email Claiming Forgery". [dead link] ^ "AlanKeyes.com – Media figure". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27.  ^ Dowd, Maureen, "Liberties; The Devil in Prime Time", The New York Times, September 24, 1997. Retrieved 2010-11-10. ^ "Transcripts of " Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
is Making Sense"". Archived from the original on 2005-03-08.  ^ "Keyes vs. MSNBC
MSNBC
over Israel". US News & World Report. 2002-07-13. Archived from the original on 9 January 2008. Retrieved 2007-12-10.  ^ "Keyes in Israel". Archived from the original on 2007-07-16.  ^ " Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
rally in Alabama". Archived from the original on 2007-06-11.  ^ "Montgomery Advertiser – Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
Case". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27.  ^ "On the establishment of religion: What the Constitution really says". Archived from the original on 2007-09-30.  ^ "Judicial review and executive responsibility". Archived from the original on 2007-07-15.  ^ "Hillary GOODRIDGE & others vs. DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH & another. SJC-08860". Massachusetts Government. 2003-11-18.  ^ See Same-sex marriage in Massachusetts for further details. ^ "A God & Country Day Address". Archived from the original on 2007-09-30.  ^ Mídia Sem Máscara (9 April 2014). "Alan Keyes, Olavo de Carvalho, and Alejandro Peña-Esclusa". YouTube.  ^ Urgent appeal – Olavo de Carvalho
Olavo de Carvalho
UnoAmerica, 15 July 2010. ^ "Activist Keyes has May 28 court date following ND arrest". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved 2009-08-08. [permanent dead link] ^ "Keyes back in jail after Notre Dame protest". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved 2009-08-08. [permanent dead link] ^ "The evolutionist's comical dogma". WorldNetDaily. Archived from the original on 22 January 2010. Retrieved 2009-12-18.  ^ "Sacha Baron Cohen – the Real Borat
Borat
– Finally Speaks". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 2007-10-01. Retrieved 2007-10-04.  ^ "'Borat' is one fine make good movie, yes?". Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-04.  ^ "In Your Face"Borat" and "Volver."". Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-04.  ^ Rohan, Virginia. "'Borat': Is he hilarious, or just offensive?". Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-04.  ^ Hoberman, J. "Fallow Traveler". Archived from the original on 11 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-04.  ^ Corliss, Richard (2006-09-13). " Borat
Borat
Takes Toronto". Time Magazine. Archived from the original on 12 January 2008. Retrieved 2007-12-10.  ^ "Top Conservatives on Twitter", About.com, The New York Times Company, March 7, 2010. ^ Keyes, Alan (June 18, 2015). "Pope's Climate Agenda could bring Genocide". WorldNetDaily. Retrieved August 14, 2017.  ^ Smith, Samuel (May 13, 2016). " Donald Trump
Donald Trump
Illustrates 'Glamour of Evil,' Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
Says in Defense of Russell Moore". The Christian Post. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 

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Preceded by Jack Ryan Withdrew Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Illinois (Class 3) 2004 Succeeded by Mark Kirk

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