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Alain Aspect
Alain Aspect
(French: [aspɛ] ( listen); born 15 June 1947) is a French physicist noted for his experimental work on quantum entanglement.[2][3][4]

Contents

1 Education 2 Research 3 Awards and honors 4 References 5 External links

Education[edit] Aspect is a graduate of the École Normale Supérieure de Cachan
École Normale Supérieure de Cachan
(ENS Cachan). He passed the 'agrégation' in physics in 1969 and received his master's degree from Université d'Orsay. He then did his national service, teaching for three years in Cameroon. In the early 1980s, while working on his PhD thesis[5] from the lesser academic rank of lecturer, he performed the elusive "Bell test experiments" that showed that Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen's reductio ad absurdum of quantum mechanics, namely that it implied 'ghostly action at a distance', did in fact appear to be realised when two particles were separated by an arbitrarily large distance (see EPR paradox). A correlation between their wave functions remained, as they were once part of the same wave-function that was not disturbed before one of the child particles was measured. Aspect also received an Honorary Doctorate from Heriot-Watt University in 2008 [6] Research[edit] If quantum theory is correct, the determination of an axis direction for the polarization measurement of one photon, forcing the wave function to 'collapse' onto that axis, will influence the measurement of its twin. This influence occurs despite any experimenters not knowing which axes have been chosen by their distant colleagues, and at distances that disallow any communication between the two photons, even at the speed of light. Aspect's experiments, following the first experiment of Stuart Freedman and John Clauser
John Clauser
in 1972, were considered to provide further support to the thesis that Bell's inequalities are violated in its CHSH version, in particular by closing a form of the locality loophole. However, his results were not completely conclusive, since there were so-called loopholes that allowed for alternative explanations that comply with local realism. See local hidden variable theory. Stated more simply, the experiment provides strong evidence that a quantum event at one location can affect an event at another location without any obvious mechanism for communication between the two locations. This has been called "spooky action at a distance" by Einstein (who doubted the physical reality of this effect). However, these experiments do not allow faster-than-light communication, as the events themselves appear to be inherently random. After his works on Bell's inequalities, he turned toward studies of laser cooling of neutral atoms and is now mostly involved in Bose–Einstein condensates related experiments.

Alain Aspect
Alain Aspect
at the École Polytechnique.

Aspect was deputy director of the French "grande école" SupOptique until 1994. He is a member of the French Academy of Sciences
French Academy of Sciences
and French Academy of Technologies, and professor at the École Polytechnique. In 2005 he was awarded the gold medal of the Centre national de la recherche scientifique, where he is currently Research Director. The 2010 Wolf Prize in physics was awarded to Aspect, Anton Zeilinger and John Clauser. In 2013 Aspect was awarded both the Danish Niels Bohr International Gold Medal and the UNESCO Niels Bohr Medal. In 2013 he was also awarded the Balzan Prize
Balzan Prize
for Quantum Information Processing and Communication.

Alain Aspect
Alain Aspect
in Budapest, 2013

Alain Aspect
Alain Aspect
on a visit to Tel Aviv University in 2010

Awards and honors[edit] Aspect was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(ForMemRS) in 2015.[7] His certificate of election reads

“ For his fundamental experiments in quantum optics and atomic physics. Alain Aspect
Alain Aspect
was the first to exclude subluminal communication between the measurement stations in experimental demonstrations that quantum mechanics invalidates separable hidden-variable theories and the first to demonstrate experimentally the wave–particle duality of single photons. He co-invented the technique of velocity-selective coherent population trapping, was the first to compare the Hanbury Brown-Twiss correlations of fermions and bosons under the same conditions, and the first to demonstrate Anderson localization in an ultra-cold atom system. His experiments illuminate fundamental aspects of the quantum-mechanical behaviour of single photons, photon pairs and atoms.[1] ”

References[edit]

^ a b "Certificate of Election: EC/2015/48: Aspect, Alain". London: The Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-09-16.  ^ Experimental Realization of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm Gedankenexperiment: A New Violation of Bell's Inequalities, A. Aspect, P. Grangier, and G. Roger, Physical Review Letters, Vol. 49, Iss. 2, pp. 91–94 (1982) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.49.91 ^ Experimental Test of Bell's Inequalities Using Time-Varying Analyzers, A. Aspect, J. Dalibard and G. Roger, Physical Review Letters, Vol. 49, Iss. 25, pp. 1804–1807 (1982) doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.49.1804 ^ Aspect, Alain (2007). "Quantum mechanics: To be or not to be local". Nature. 446 (7138): 866–867. Bibcode:2007Natur.446..866A. doi:10.1038/446866a. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 17443174.  ^ CV ^ "Annual Review 2008: Principal's Review". www1.hw.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2016-04-12. Retrieved 2016-03-29.  ^ https://royalsociety.org/people/alain-aspect-11012/

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Alain Aspect

Aspect's homepage Atom Optics group[permanent dead link], Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d'Optique Biography at CNRS http://www.lcf.institutoptique.fr/Groupes-de-recherche/Optique-atomique/Membres/Membres-permanents/Alain-Aspect http://www.academie-sciences.fr/academie/membre/Aspect_Alain.htm Lévy Statistics and Laser Cooling: http://www.cambridge.org/us/knowledge/isbn/item1169242/?site_locale=en_US Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics: http://www.cambridge.org/us/knowledge/isbn/item1149699/?site_locale=en_US Introduction to Quantum Optics: http://www.cambridge.org/us/knowledge/isbn/item2712310/Introduction%20to%20Quantum%20Optics/?site_locale=en_US Alain Aspect
Alain Aspect
International Balzan Prize
Balzan Prize
Foundation Videos of Alain Aspect
Alain Aspect
in the AV- Portal
Portal
of the German National Library of Science and Technology

v t e

Laureates of the Wolf Prize in Physics

1970s

Chien-Shiung Wu
Chien-Shiung Wu
(1978) George Uhlenbeck / Giuseppe Occhialini
Giuseppe Occhialini
(1979)

1980s

Michael Fisher / Leo Kadanoff
Leo Kadanoff
/ Kenneth G. Wilson (1980) Freeman Dyson
Freeman Dyson
/ Gerardus 't Hooft / Victor Weisskopf (1981) Leon M. Lederman
Leon M. Lederman
/ Martin Lewis Perl (1982) Erwin Hahn / Peter Hirsch / Theodore Maiman
Theodore Maiman
(1983–84) Conyers Herring / Philippe Nozières (1984–85) Mitchell Feigenbaum
Mitchell Feigenbaum
/ Albert J. Libchaber (1986) Herbert Friedman / Bruno Rossi
Bruno Rossi
/ Riccardo Giacconi
Riccardo Giacconi
(1987) Roger Penrose
Roger Penrose
/ Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking
(1988)

1990s

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes / David J. Thouless
David J. Thouless
(1990) Maurice Goldhaber
Maurice Goldhaber
/ Valentine Telegdi (1991) Joseph H. Taylor Jr. (1992) Benoît Mandelbrot (1993) Vitaly Ginzburg
Vitaly Ginzburg
/ Yoichiro Nambu
Yoichiro Nambu
(1994–95) John Wheeler (1996–97) Yakir Aharonov
Yakir Aharonov
/ Michael Berry (1998) Dan Shechtman
Dan Shechtman
(1999)

2000s

Raymond Davis Jr.
Raymond Davis Jr.
/ Masatoshi Koshiba
Masatoshi Koshiba
(2000) Bertrand Halperin
Bertrand Halperin
/ Anthony Leggett (2002–03) Robert Brout
Robert Brout
/ François Englert
François Englert
/ Peter Higgs
Peter Higgs
(2004) Daniel Kleppner (2005) Albert Fert
Albert Fert
/ Peter Grünberg
Peter Grünberg
(2006–07)

2010s

John F. Clauser / Alain Aspect
Alain Aspect
/ Anton Zeilinger
Anton Zeilinger
(2010) Maximilian Haider / Harald Rose
Harald Rose
/ Knut Urban (2011) Jacob Bekenstein
Jacob Bekenstein
(2012) Peter Zoller
Peter Zoller
/ Juan Ignacio Cirac (2013) James D. Bjorken / Robert P. Kirshner (2015) Yoseph Imry
Yoseph Imry
(2016) Michel Mayor
Michel Mayor
/ Didier Queloz
Didier Queloz
(2017) Charles H. Bennett / Gilles Brassard (2018)

Agriculture Arts Chemistry Mathematics Medicine Physics

v t e

Fellows of the Royal Society
Royal Society
elected in 2015

Fellows

Mark Achtman Ali Alavi Allan Balmain Kamal Bawa Stephen Brown Jane Clarke Clifford Cocks Rory Collins Andy Cooper Stephen Cusack Anne Cutler Ben Davis Annette Dolphin Philip Donoghue Daniel Drucker James Dyson A. W. F. Edwards Yvonne Elsworth Alison Etheridge Jeremy Farrar Zoubin Ghahramani Mike Goddard Michael Hausser Laurence Hurst Jane Langdale Andy Mackenzie Philip Maini Jens Marklof Gero Miesenböck Ketan Patel David Phillips Jonathan Pila Roger Powell John Rarity Andrew Read Alan Roberts John Robertson Roger Sheldon Julia Slingo Scott Sloan Henry Snaith Ajay Sood Natalie Strynadka Richard Thomas Bryan Turner Frank Uhlmann Colin Wilson

Honorary

Lisa Jardine Robin Saxby

Foreign

Alain Aspect Zdeněk Bažant Linda Buck Andrew Knoll John Kuriyan Jiayang Li Sue Lindquist Gail Martin William Miller John Spence

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 25790958 LCCN: no97026870 ISNI: 0000 0001 2124 9428 GND: 133391388 SUDOC: 033194645 BNF:

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