As of 2010
* English 95.1% * Spanish 3.1%
LARGEST CITY Birmingham
LARGEST METRO Birmingham metropolitan area
AREA Ranked 30th
• TOTAL 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km2)
• WIDTH 190 miles (305 km)
• LENGTH 330 miles (531 km)
• % WATER 3.20
• LATITUDE 30° 11′ N to 35° N
• LONGITUDE 84° 53′ W to 88° 28′ W
POPULATION Ranked 24th
• TOTAL 4,863,300 (2016 est.)
• DENSITY 94.7 (2011 est.)/sq mi (36.5 (2011 est.)/km2) Ranked 27th
• MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME $44,509 (47th)
• HIGHEST POINT
• MEAN 500 ft (150 m)
• LOWEST POINT
Gulf of Mexico
ADMISSION TO UNION December 14, 1819 (22nd)
LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR _Vacant_
• UPPER HOUSE Senate R-25, D-8
• LOWER HOUSE House of Representatives R-72, D-33
U.S. HOUSE DELEGATION 6 Republicans, 1 Democrat (list )
• MOST OF STATE Central : UTC −6 /−5
• PHENIX CITY, ALABAMA AREA Eastern : UTC −5 /−4
ISO 3166 US-AL
ABBREVIATIONS AL , Ala.
ALABAMA STATE SYMBOLS
AMPHIBIAN Red Hills salamander
BIRD Yellowhammer , wild turkey
BUTTERFLY Eastern tiger swallowtail
REPTILE Alabama red-bellied turtle
TREE Longleaf pine
BEVERAGE Conecuh Ridge Whiskey
COLORS Red, white
GEMSTONE Star blue quartz
SHELL Johnstone\'s junonia
SONG " Alabama "
OTHER Racking horse
STATE ROUTE MARKER
Released in 2003
ALABAMA (/ˌæləˈbæmə/ ( listen )) is a state in the
southeastern region of the
Alabama is nicknamed the _Yellowhammer State_, after the state bird .
Alabama is also known as the "Heart of
American Civil War
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Pre-European settlement * 2.2 European settlement * 2.3 19th century * 2.4 20th century
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Climate
* 4 Demographics
* 4.1 Ancestry * 4.2 Population centers * 4.3 Language
* 4.4 Religion
* 4.4.1 Christianity * 4.4.2 Other faiths
* 4.5 Health
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Largest employers * 5.2 Agriculture * 5.3 Industry * 5.4 Tourism * 5.5 Healthcare * 5.6 Banking * 5.7 Electronics * 5.8 Construction
* 6 Law and government
* 6.1 State government * 6.2 Taxes * 6.3 County and local governments * 6.4 Politics
* 6.5 Elections
* 6.5.1 State elections * 6.5.2 Local elections * 6.5.3 Federal elections
* 7 Education
* 7.1 Primary and secondary education * 7.2 Colleges and universities
* 8 Media
* 9 Culture
* 9.1 Literature
* 10 Sports
* 10.1 College * 10.2 Professional
* 11 Transportation
* 11.1 Aviation * 11.2 Rail * 11.3 Roads * 11.4 Ports
* 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links
One of the entrances to Russell Cave in Jackson County. Charcoal from indigenous camp fires in the cave has been dated as early as 6550 to 6145 BC.
The European-American naming of the
The word _Alabama_ is believed to have come from the
; a suggestion that the name was borrowed from the
Sources disagree on the word's meaning. Some scholars suggest the
word comes from the
An 1842 article in the _Jacksonville Republican_ proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek . Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation.
History of Alabama
Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in
Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee
With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first
Europeans to reach Alabama. The expedition of
Hernando de Soto
After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years\' War , it
became part of British West
Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the
Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
outside Mobile. He settled in the
Tombigbee District during the early
1770s. The district's boundaries were roughly limited to the area
within a few miles of the
What is now the counties of Baldwin and Mobile became part of Spanish
With the exception of the area around Mobile and the Yazoo lands,
what is now the lower one-third
Alabama was made part of the
Before Mississippi\'s admission to statehood on December 10, 1817,
the more sparsely settled eastern half of the territory was separated
and named the
Alabama was admitted as the 22nd state on December 14, 1819 with Congress selecting Huntsville as the site for the first Constitutional Convention. From July 5 to August 2, 1819, delegates met to prepare the new state constitution. Huntsville served as temporary capital from 1819 to 1820, when the seat of government moved to Cahaba in Dallas County . The main house, built in 1833, at Thornhill in Greene County. It is a former Black Belt plantation.
Cahaba, now a ghost town, was the first permanent state capital from 1820 to 1825. Alabama Fever was underway when the state was admitted to the Union, with settlers and land speculators pouring into the state to take advantage of fertile land suitable for cotton cultivation. Part of the frontier in the 1820s and 1830s, its constitution provided for universal suffrage for white men.
Southeastern planters and traders from the
From 1826 to 1846, Tuscaloosa served as Alabama's capital. On January
30, 1846, the
Alabama legislature announced it had voted to move the
capital city from Tuscaloosa to Montgomery . The first legislative
session in the new capital met in December 1847. A new capitol
building was erected under the direction of
Stephen Decatur Button of
By 1860, the population had increased to 964,201 people, of which
nearly half, 435,080, were enslaved African Americans, and 2,690 were
free people of color . On January 11, 1861,
Alabama declared its
secession from the Union . After remaining an independent republic for
a few days, it joined the
Confederate States of America
A company of cavalry soldiers from
Alabama's slaves were freed by the 13th Amendment in 1865. Alabama
was under military rule from the end of the war in May 1865 until its
official restoration to the Union in 1868. From 1867 to 1874, with
most white citizens barred temporarily from voting and freedmen
Following the war, the state remained chiefly agricultural, with an
economy tied to cotton. During Reconstruction , state legislators
ratified a new state constitution in 1868 that created the state's
first public school system and expanded women's rights. Legislators
funded numerous public road and railroad projects, although these were
plagued with allegations of fraud and misappropriation. Organized
insurgent , resistance groups tried to suppress the freedmen and
Republicans. Besides the short-lived original
Ku Klux Klan
Alabama ended in 1874, when the Democrats regained
control of the legislature and governor's office through an election
dominated by fraud and violence. They wrote another constitution in
1875, and the legislature passed the
Blaine Amendment , prohibiting
public money from being used to finance religious-affiliated schools.
The same year, legislation was approved that called for racially
segregated schools. Railroad passenger cars were segregated in 1891.
After disfranchising most
The developing skyline of Birmingham in 1915
The new 1901
Constitution of Alabama included provisions for voter
registration that effectively disenfranchised large portions of the
population, including nearly all
While the planter class had persuaded poor whites to vote for this
legislative effort to suppress black voting, the new restrictions
resulted in their disenfranchisement as well, due mostly to the
imposition of a cumulative poll tax. By 1941, whites constituted a
slight majority of those disenfranchised by these laws: 600,000 whites
vs. 520,000 African-Americans. Nearly all
Alabama legislature consistently underfunded
schools and services for the disenfranchised African Americans, but it
did not relieve them of paying taxes. Partially as a response to
chronic underfunding of education for
Beginning in 1913, the first 80
Rosenwald Schools were built in
Alabama for African-American children. A total of 387 schools, seven
teachers' houses, and several vocational buildings were completed by
1937 in the state. Several of the surviving school buildings in the
state are now listed on the
National Register of Historic Places
Continued racial discrimination and lynchings , agricultural
depression, and the failure of the cotton crops due to boll weevil
infestation led tens of thousands of
At the same time, many rural people, both white and African American,
migrated to the city of Birmingham to work in new industrial jobs.
Birmingham experienced such rapid growth that it was called the "Magic
City". By the 1920s, Birmingham was the 19th-largest city in the
Beginning in the 1940s, when the courts started taking the first steps to recognize the voting rights of black voters, the Alabama legislature took several counter -steps designed to disfranchise black voters. The legislature passed, and the voters ratified , a state constitutional amendment that gave local registrars greater latitude to disqualify voter registration applicants. Black citizens in Mobile successfully challenged this amendment as a violation of the Fifteenth Amendment . The legislature also changed the boundaries of Tuskegee to a 28-sided figure designed to fence out blacks from the city limits. The Supreme Court unanimously held that this racial "gerrymandering " violated the Constitution. In 1961, ... the Alabama legislature also intentionally diluted the effect of the black vote by instituting numbered place requirements for local elections.
Industrial development related to the demands of
World War II
Despite massive population changes in the state from 1901 to 1961, the rural-dominated legislature refused to reapportion House and Senate seats based on population, as required by the state constitution to follow the results of decennial censuses. They held on to old representation to maintain political and economic power in agricultural areas. In addition, the state legislature gerrymandered the few Birmingham legislative seats to ensure election by persons living outside Birmingham.
One result was that Jefferson County , containing Birmingham's industrial and economic powerhouse, contributed more than one-third of all tax revenue to the state, but did not receive a proportional amount in services. Urban interests were consistently underrepresented in the legislature. A 1960 study noted that because of rural domination, "a minority of about 25 per cent of the total state population is in majority control of the Alabama legislature."
A class action suit initiated on behalf of plaintiffs in Lowndes
Alabama challenged the state legislature's lack of
redistricting for congressional seats. In 1962 _White v. Crook _,
Frank M. Johnson ordered the state to redistrict. United States
Supreme Court cases of _
Baker v. Carr
In 1972, for the first time since 1901, the legislature completed the first congressional redistricting based on the decennial census. This benefited the urban areas that had developed, as well as all in the population who had been underrepresented for more than 60 years. Other changes were made to implement representative state house and senate districts.
Legal segregation ended in the states in 1964, but
Despite recommendations of a 1973 Alabama Constitutional Commission, the state legislature did not approve an amendment to establish home rule for counties. There is very limited home rule, but the legislature is deeply involved in passing legislation that applies to county-level functions and policies. This both deprives local residents of the ability to govern themselves and distracts the legislature from statewide issues.
Alabama has made some changes since the late 20th century and has
used new types of voting to increase representation. In the 1980s, an
omnibus redistricting case, _Dillard v. Crenshaw County _, challenged
the at-large voting for representative seats of 180 Alabama
jurisdictions, including counties and school boards.
had diluted the votes of any minority in a county, as the majority
tended to take all seats. Despite
As part of settlement of this case, five
Alabama cites and counties,
including Chilton County , adopted a system of cumulative voting for
election of representatives in multi-seat jurisdictions. This has
resulted in more proportional representation for voters. In another
form of proportional representation, 23 jurisdictions use limited
voting, as in Conecuh County . In 1982, limited voting was first
tested in Conecuh County . Together use of these systems has increased
the number of
Alabama is the thirtieth-largest state in the
Alabama is bordered by the states of
The highest point is
Alabama administered by the
National Park Service
Additionally, Alabama has four National Forests : Conecuh , Talladega , Tuskegee , and William B. Bankhead . Alabama also contains the Natchez Trace Parkway , the Selma To Montgomery National Historic Trail , and the Trail Of Tears National Historic Trail . A notable natural wonder in Alabama is "Natural Bridge" rock, the longest natural bridge east of the Rockies , located just south of Haleyville .
A 5-mile (8 km)-wide meteorite impact crater is located in Elmore
County , just north of Montgomery. This is the
Wetumpka crater , the
site of "Alabama's greatest natural disaster." A 1,000-foot (300
m)-wide meteorite hit the area about 80 million years ago. The hills
just east of downtown
Main article: Climate of Alabama Autumn tree in Birmingham
The state is classified as humid subtropical (_Cfa_) under the Koppen
Climate Classification . The average annual temperature is 64 °F (18
°C). Temperatures tend to be warmer in the southern part of the state
with its proximity to the Gulf of Mexico, while the northern parts of
the state, especially in the
Summers in Alabama are among the hottest in the U.S., with high temperatures averaging over 90 °F (32 °C) throughout the summer in some parts of the state. Alabama is also prone to tropical storms and even hurricanes . Areas of the state far away from the Gulf are not immune to the effects of the storms, which often dump tremendous amounts of rain as they move inland and weaken.
South Alabama reports many thunderstorms . The Gulf Coast, around Mobile Bay, averages between 70 and 80 days per year with thunder reported. This activity decreases somewhat further north in the state, but even the far north of the state reports thunder on about 60 days per year. Occasionally, thunderstorms are severe with frequent lightning and large hail ; the central and northern parts of the state are most vulnerable to this type of storm. Alabama ranks ninth in the number of deaths from lightning and tenth in the number of deaths from lightning strikes per capita. Tornado damage in Phil Campbell following the statewide April 27, 2011, tornado outbreak .
Alabama, along with
The peak season for tornadoes varies from the northern to southern
parts of the state.
Alabama is one of the few places in the world that
has a secondary tornado season in November and December, along with
the spring severe weather season. The northern part of the
Winters are generally mild in Alabama, as they are throughout most of
the southeastern U.S., with average January low temperatures around 40
°F (4 °C) in Mobile and around 32 °F (0 °C) in Birmingham.
Although snow is a rare event in much of Alabama, areas of the state
north of Montgomery may receive a dusting of snow a few times every
winter, with an occasional moderately heavy snowfall every few years.
Historic snowfall events include New Year\'s Eve 1963 snowstorm and
1993 Storm of the Century
Alabama's highest temperature of 112 °F (44 °C) was recorded on September 5, 1925, in the unincorporated community of Centerville . The record low of −27 °F (−33 °C) occurred on January 30, 1966, in New Market .
MONTHLY NORMAL HIGH AND LOW TEMPERATURES FOR VARIOUS ALABAMA CITIES
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR Huntsville Birmingham Montgomery Mobile Cities in Alabama
HUNTSVILLE AVERAGE HIGH 48.9 (9.4) 54.6 (12.6) 63.4 (17.4) 72.3 (22.4) 79.6 (26.4) 86.5 (30.3) 89.4 (31.9) 89.0 (31.7) 83.0 (28.3) 72.9 (22.7) 61.6 (16.4) 52.4 (11.3) 71.1 (21.7)
AVERAGE LOW 30.7 (-0.7) 34.0 (1.1) 41.2 (5.1) 48.4 (9.1) 57.5 (14.2) 65.4 (18.6) 69.5 (20.8) 68.1 (20.1) 61.7 (16.5) 49.6 (9.8) 40.7 (4.8) 33.8 (1.0) 50.1 (10.1)
BIRMINGHAM AVERAGE HIGH 52.8 (11.6) 58.3 (14.6) 66.5 (19.2) 74.1 (23.4) 81.0 (27.2) 87.5 (30.8) 90.6 (32.6) 90.2 (32.3) 84.6 (29.2) 74.9 (23.8) 64.5 (18.1) 56.0 (13.3) 73.4 (23.0)
AVERAGE LOW 32.3 (0.2) 35.4 (1.9) 42.4 (5.8) 48.4 (9.1) 57.6 (14.2) 65.4 (18.6) 69.7 (20.9) 68.9 (20.5) 63.0 (17.2) 50.9 (10.5) 41.8 (5.4) 35.2 (1.8) 50.9 (10.5)
MONTGOMERY AVERAGE HIGH 57.6 (14.2) 62.4 (16.9) 70.5 (21.4) 77.5 (25.3) 84.6 (29.2) 90.6 (32.6) 92.7 (33.7) 92.2 (33.4) 87.7 (30.9) 78.7 (25.9) 68.7 (20.4) 60.3 (15.7) 77.0 (25.0)
AVERAGE LOW 35.5 (1.9) 38.6 (3.7) 45.4 (7.4) 52.1 (11.2) 60.1 (15.6) 67.3 (19.6) 70.9 (21.6) 70.1 (21.2) 64.9 (18.3) 52.2 (11.2) 43.5 (6.4) 37.6 (3.1) 53.2 (11.8)
MOBILE AVERAGE HIGH 60.7 (15.9) 64.5 (18.1) 71.2 (21.8) 77.4 (25.2) 84.2 (29.0) 89.4 (31.9) 91.2 (32.9) 90.8 (32.7) 86.8 (30.4) 79.2 (26.2) 70.1 (21.2) 62.9 (17.2) 77.4 (25.2)
AVERAGE LOW 39.5 (4.2) 42.4 (5.8) 49.2 (9.6) 54.8 (12.7) 62.8 (17.1) 69.2 (20.7) 71.8 (22.1) 71.7 (22.0) 67.6 (19.8) 56.3 (13.5) 47.8 (8.8) 41.6 (5.3) 56.2 (13.4)
FLORA AND FAUNA
_ A stand of Cahaba lilies (Hymenocallis coronaria_) in the Cahaba River , within the Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge . Main articles: List of amphibians of Alabama , List of mammals of Alabama , List of reptiles of Alabama , and Trees of Alabama
Alabama is home to a diverse array of flora and fauna , due largely
to a variety of habitats that range from the
Alabama is in the subtropical coniferous forest biome and once boasted huge expanses of pine forest, which still form the largest proportion of forests in the state. It currently ranks fifth in the nation for the diversity of its flora. It is home to nearly 4,000 pteridophyte and spermatophyte plant species.
Indigenous animal species in the state include 62 mammal species , 93 reptile species, 73 amphibian species, roughly 307 native freshwater fish species, and 420 bird species that spend at least part of their year within the state. Invertebrates include 97 crayfish species and 383 mollusk species. 113 of these mollusk species have never been collected outside the state.
Alabama's population density Main article: Demographics of Alabama
EST. 2016 4,863,300
Sources: 1910–2010 2015 estimate
Immigration from outside the U.S. resulted in a net increase of 31,180 people, and migration within the country produced a net gain of 73,811 people. The state had 108,000 foreign-born (2.4% of the state population), of which an estimated 22.2% were undocumented (24,000).
The center of population of Alabama is located in Chilton County , outside the town of Jemison .
According to the 2010 Census ,
Alabama had a population of 4,779,736.
The racial composition of the state was 68.5% White (67.0%
The largest reported ancestry groups in Alabama are: African (26.2%), English (23.6%), Irish (7.7%), German (5.7%), and Scots-Irish (2.0%). Those citing "American" ancestry in Alabama are generally of English or British ancestry; many Anglo-Americans identify as having American ancestry because their roots have been in North America for so long, in some cases since the 1600s. Demographers estimate that a minimum of 20–23% of people in Alabama are of predominantly English ancestry and that the figure is likely higher. In the 1980 census, 41% of the people in Alabama identified as being of English ancestry, making them the largest ethnic group at the time.
ALABAMA RACIAL BREAKDOWN OF POPULATION RACIAL COMPOSITION 1990 2000 2010
White 73.6% 71.1% 68.5%
Black 25.3% 26.0% 26.2%
Asian 0.5% 0.7% 1.1%
Native 0.4% 0.5% 0.6%
Other race 0.1% 0.6% 2.0%
Two or more races – 1.0% 1.5%
Based on historic migration and settlement patterns in the southern colonies and states, demographers estimated there are more people in Alabama of Scots-Irish origins than self-reported. Many people in Alabama claim Irish ancestry because of the term Scots-Irish but, based on historic immigration and settlement, their ancestors were more likely Protestant Scots-Irish coming from northern Ireland, where they had been for a few generations as part of the English colonization. The Scots-Irish were the largest non-English immigrant group from the British Isles before the American Revolution, and many settled in the South, later moving into the Deep South as it was developed.
In 1984, under the Davis–Strong Act, the state legislature established the Alabama Indian Affairs Commission . Native American groups within the state had increasingly been demanding recognition as ethnic groups and seeking an end to discrimination. Given the long history of slavery and associated racial segregation, the Native American peoples, who have sometimes been of mixed race, have insisted on having their cultural identification respected. In the past, their self-identification was often overlooked as the state tried to impose a binary breakdown of society into white and black.
The state has officially recognized nine American Indian tribes in
the state, descended mostly from the
Five Civilized Tribes
Poarch Band of Creek Indians (who also have federal recognition),
* MOWA Band of
The state government has promoted recognition of Native American contributions to the state, including the designation in 2000 for Columbus Day to be jointly celebrated as American Indian Heritage Day.
Birmingham , largest city and metropolitan area Huntsville , second-largest metropolitan area Mobile , third-largest metropolitan area Montgomery , fourth-largest metropolitan area Main articles: List of cities and towns in Alabama and List of metropolitan areas of Alabama
RANK METROPOLITAN AREA Population (2014 Census estimate) COUNTIES
1 Birmingham–Hoover 1,143,772 Bibb , Blount , Chilton , Jefferson , St. Clair , Shelby , Walker
2 Huntsville 441,086 Limestone , Madison
3 Mobile 415,123 Mobile
4 Montgomery 373,141 Autauga , Elmore , Lowndes , Montgomery
5 Tuscaloosa 237,761 Hale , Pickens , Tuscaloosa
6 Daphne– Fairhope 200,111 Baldwin
7 Auburn–Opelika 154,255 Lee
8 Decatur 153,084 Lawrence , Morgan
9 Dothan 148,095 Geneva , Henry , Houston
10 Florence–Muscle Shoals 147,639 Colbert , Lauderdale
11 Anniston–Oxford–Jacksonville 115,916 Calhoun
12 Gadsden 103,531 Etowah
RANK CITY Population (2015 census estimates) COUNTY
1 Birmingham 212,461 Jefferson
2 Montgomery 200,602 Montgomery
3 Mobile 194,288 Mobile
4 Huntsville 190,582 Madison Limestone
5 Tuscaloosa 98,332 Tuscaloosa
6 Hoover 84,848 Jefferson Shelby
7 Dothan 68,567 Houston
8 Auburn 62,059 Lee
9 Decatur 55,437 Morgan Limestone
10 Madison 46,492 Madison Limestone
11 Florence 40,026 Lauderdale
12 Phenix City 37,570 Russell
13 Gadsden 36,084 Etowah
14 Prattville 35,420 Autauga
15 Vestavia Hills 34,174 Jefferson
95.1% of all
Alabama residents five years old or older spoke only
English at home in 2010, a minor decrease from 96.1% in 2000. Alabama
English is predominantly Southern , and is related to South Midland
speech which was taken across the border from
TOP 10 NON-ENGLISH LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN ALABAMA LANGUAGE Percentage of population (as of 2010 )
French (incl. Patois, Cajun) 0.3%
Chinese, Vietnamese , Korean , Arabic , African languages , Japanese, and Italian (tied) 0.1%
Highlands United Methodist Church in Birmingham, part of the Five Points South Historic District Briarwood Presbyterian Church in Birmingham Temple B\'Nai Sholom in Huntsville, established in 1876. It is the oldest synagogue building in continuous use in the state. The Islamic Center of Tuscaloosa, one of the Islamic centers that contain a mosque and facilities for the cultural needs of Muslims in the state.
In the 2008 American Religious Identification Survey , 86% of Alabama respondents reported their religion as Christian, including 6% Catholic, and 11% as having no religion. The composition of other traditions is 0.5% Mormon, 0.5% Jewish, 0.5% Muslim, 0.5% Buddhist, and 0.5% Hindu.
Religious affiliation in Alabama (2014) AFFILIATION % OF POPULATION
Christian 86 86
Protestant 78 78
Evangelical Protestant 49 49
Mainline Protestant 13 13
Black church 16 16
Catholic 7 7
Mormon 1 1
Jehovah\'s Witnesses 0.1 0.1
Eastern Orthodox 0.1 0.1
Other Christian 0.1 0.1
Unaffiliated 12 12
Nothing in particular 9 9
Agnostic 1 1
Atheist 1 1
Non-Christian faiths 1 1
Jewish 0.2 0.2
Muslim 0.2 0.2
Buddhist 0.2 0.2
Hindu 0.2 0.2
Other Non-Christian faiths 0.2 0.2
Don't know/refused answer 1 1
TOTAL 100 100
For more details on Christianity in Alabama, see History of Baptists in Alabama , List of Baptist churches in Alabama , Episcopal Diocese of Alabama , Episcopal Diocese of the Central Gulf Coast , Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mobile , Roman Catholic Diocese of Birmingham in Alabama , and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Alabama .
Alabama is located in the middle of the Bible Belt , a region of numerous Protestant Christians. Alabama has been identified as one of the most religious states in the United States, with about 58% of the population attending church regularly. A majority of people in the state identify as Evangelical Protestant. As of 2010 , the three largest denominational groups in Alabama are the Southern Baptist Convention , The United Methodist Church , and non-denominational Evangelical Protestant.
In Alabama, the Southern Baptist Convention has the highest number of adherents with 1,380,121; this is followed by the United Methodist Church with 327,734 adherents, non-denominational Evangelical Protestant with 220,938 adherents, and the Catholic Church with 150,647 adherents. Many Baptist and Methodist congregations became established in the Great Awakening of the early 19th century, when preachers proselytized across the South. The Assemblies of God had almost 60,000 members, the Churches of Christ had nearly 120,000 members. The Presbyterian churches , strongly associated with Scots-Irish immigrants of the 18th century and their descendants, had a combined membership around 75,000 (PCA – 28,009 members in 108 congregations, PC(USA) – 26,247 members in 147 congregations, the Cumberland Presbyterian Church – 6,000 members in 59 congregations, the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America – 5,000 members and 50 congregations plus the EPC and Associate Reformed Presbyterians with 230 members and 9 congregations).
In a 2007 survey, nearly 70% of respondents could name all four of the Christian Gospels . Of those who indicated a religious preference, 59% said they possessed a "full understanding" of their faith and needed no further learning. In a 2007 poll, 92% of Alabamians reported having at least some confidence in churches in the state.
Although in much smaller numbers, many other religious faiths are represented in the state as well, including Judaism , Islam , Hinduism , Buddhism , Sikhism , the Bahá\'í Faith , and Unitarian Universalism .
Jews have been present in what is now Alabama since 1763, during the colonial era of Mobile, when Sephardic Jews immigrated from London. The oldest Jewish congregation in the state is Congregation Sha\'arai Shomayim in Mobile. It was formally recognized by the state legislature on January 25, 1844. Later immigrants in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries tended to be Ashkenazi Jews from eastern Europe. Jewish denominations in the state include two Orthodox , four Conservative , ten Reform , and one Humanistic synagogue.
Muslims have been increasing in Alabama, with 31 mosques built by 2011, many by African-American converts.
Hindu temples and cultural centers in the state have been
founded by Indian immigrants and their descendants, the best-known
being the Shri Swaminarayan Mandir in Birmingham , the
and Cultural Center of Birmingham in Pelham , the
There are six Dharma centers and organizations for Theravada Buddhists . Most monastic Buddhist temples are concentrated in southern Mobile County, near Bayou La Batre . This area has attracted an influx of refugees from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam during the 1970s and thereafter. The four temples within a ten-mile radius of Bayou La Batre, include Chua Chanh Giac, Wat Buddharaksa, and Wat Lao Phoutthavihan.
The first community of adherents of the Baha\'i Faith in
founded in 1896 by Paul K. Dealy, who moved from Chicago to
Baha'i Centers in
Alabama exist in
A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study in 2008 showed that obesity in Alabama was a problem, with most counties having over 29% of adults obese, except for ten which had a rate between 26% and 29%. Residents of the state, along with those in five other states, were least likely in the nation to be physically active during leisure time. Alabama, and the southeastern U.S. in general, has one of the highest incidences of adult onset diabetes in the country, exceeding 10% of adults.
See also: Alabama locations by per capita income
The state has invested in aerospace, education, health care, banking, and various heavy industries, including automobile manufacturing, mineral extraction, steel production and fabrication . By 2006, crop and animal production in Alabama was valued at $1.5 billion. In contrast to the primarily agricultural economy of the previous century, this was only about 1% of the state's gross domestic product. The number of private farms has declined at a steady rate since the 1960s, as land has been sold to developers, timber companies, and large farming conglomerates.
Non-agricultural employment in 2008 was 121,800 in management occupations; 71,750 in business and financial operations; 36,790 in computer-related and mathematical occupation; 44,200 in architecture and engineering; 12,410 in life, physical, and social sciences; 32,260 in community and social services; 12,770 in legal occupations; 116,250 in education, training, and library services; 27,840 in art, design and media occupations; 121,110 in healthcare; 44,750 in fire fighting, law enforcement, and security; 154,040 in food preparation and serving; 76,650 in building and grounds cleaning and maintenance; 53,230 in personal care and services; 244,510 in sales; 338,760 in office and administration support; 20,510 in farming, fishing, and forestry; 120,155 in construction and mining, gas, and oil extraction; 106,280 in installation, maintenance, and repair; 224,110 in production; and 167,160 in transportation and material moving.
According to the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis , the 2008 total gross state product was $170 billion, or $29,411 per capita. Alabama's 2012 GDP increased 1.2% from the previous year. The single largest increase came in the area of information. In 2010, per capita income for the state was $22,984.
The state's seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was 5.8% in April 2015. This compared to a nationwide seasonally adjusted rate of 5.4%.
Alabama has no state minimum wage and uses the federal minimum wage of $7.25. In February 2016, the state passed legislation that prevents Alabama municipalities from raising the minimum wage in their locality. The legislation voids a Birmingham city ordinance that was to raise the city's minimum wage to $10.10.
_ The Space Shuttle Enterprise_ being tested at Marshall Space Flight Center in 1978. Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama in Montgomery in 2010 Shelby Hall, School of Computing, at the University of South Alabama in Mobile
The five employers that employed the most employees in Alabama in April 2011 were:
Redstone Arsenal 25,373
Maxwell Air Force Base 12,280
State of Alabama 9,500
The next twenty largest employers, as of 2011 , included:
Anniston Army Depot Anniston
AT paper, lumber , and wood products; mining (mostly coal); plastic products; cars and trucks; and apparel . In addition, Alabama produces aerospace and electronic products, mostly in the Huntsville area, the location of NASA 's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and the U.S. Army Materiel Command , headquartered at Redstone Arsenal . Mercedes-Benz U.S. International in Tuscaloosa County was the first automotive facility to locate within the state.
A great deal of Alabama's economic growth since the 1990s has been due to the state's expanding automotive manufacturing industry. Located in the state are Honda Manufacturing of Alabama , Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama , Mercedes-Benz U.S. International , and Toyota Motor Manufacturing Alabama , as well as their various suppliers. Since 1993, the automobile industry has generated more than 67,800 new jobs in the state. Alabama currently ranks 4th in the nation for vehicle exports.
Automakers accounted for approximately a third of the industrial expansion in the state in 2012. The eight models produced at the state's auto factories totaled combined sales of 74,335 vehicles for 2012. The strongest model sales during this period were the Hyundai Elantra compact car, the Mercedes-Benz GL-Class sport utility vehicle and the Honda Ridgeline sport utility truck. Airbus Mobile Engineering Center at the Brookley Aeroplex in Mobile
Steel producers Outokumpu , Nucor , SSAB , ThyssenKrupp , and U.S. Steel have facilities in Alabama and employ over 10,000 people. In May 2007, German steelmaker ThyssenKrupp selected Calvert in Mobile County for a 4.65 billion combined stainless and carbon steel processing facility. ThyssenKrupp's stainless steel division, Inoxum, including the stainless portion of the Calvert plant, was sold to Finnish stainless steel company Outokumpu in 2012. The remaining portion of the ThyssenKrupp plant had final bids submitted by ArcelorMittal and Nippon Steel for $1.6 billion in March 2013. Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional submitted a combined bid for the mill at Calvert, plus a majority stake in the ThyssenKrupp mill in Brazil, for $3.8 billion. In July 2013, the plant was sold to ArcelorMittal and Nippon Steel.
The Hunt Refining Company , a subsidiary of Hunt Consolidated, Inc., is based in Tuscaloosa and operates a refinery there. The company also operates terminals in Mobile, Melvin, and Moundville . JVC America, Inc. operates an optical disc replication and packaging plant in Tuscaloosa.
The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company operates a large plant in Gadsden that employs about 1,400 people. It has been in operation since 1929.
Construction of an Airbus A320 family aircraft assembly plant in Mobile was formally announced by Airbus CEO Fabrice Brégier from the Mobile Convention Center on July 2, 2012. The plans include a $600 million factory at the Brookley Aeroplex for the assembly of the A319, A320 and A321 aircraft. Construction began in 2013, with plans for it to become operable by 2015 and produce up to 50 aircraft per year by 2017. The assembly plant is the company's first factory to be built within the United States. It was announced on February 1, 2013, that Airbus had hired Alabama-based Hoar Construction to oversee construction of the facility.
Alabama's beaches are one of the state's major tourist destinations.
An estimated 20 million tourists visit the state each year. Over 100,000 of these are from other countries, including from Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany and Japan. In 2006, 22.3 million tourists spent $8.3 billion providing an estimated 162,000 jobs in the state. Some of the most popular areas include the Rocket City of Huntsville, the beaches along the Gulf, and the state's capitol in Montgomery.
UAB Hospital is the only Level I trauma center in Alabama. UAB is the largest state government employer in Alabama, with a workforce of about 18,000.
Alabama has the headquarters of Regions Financial Corporation , BBVA Compass , Superior Bancorp and the former Colonial Bancgroup . Birmingham-based Compass Banchshares was acquired by Spanish-based BBVA in September 2007, although the headquarters of BBVA Compass remains in Birmingham. In November 2006, Regions Financial completed its merger with AmSouth Bancorporation , which was also headquartered in Birmingham. SouthTrust Corporation , another large bank headquartered in Birmingham, was acquired by Wachovia in 2004 for $14.3 billion.
The city still has major operations for Wachovia and its now post-operating bank Wells Fargo , which includes a regional headquarters, an operations center campus and a $400 million data center. Nearly a dozen smaller banks are also headquartered in the Birmingham, such as Superior Bancorp, ServisFirst and New South Federal Savings Bank. Birmingham also serves as the headquarters for several large investment management companies, including Harbert Management Corporation .
Telecommunications provider AT&T , formerly BellSouth , has a major presence in Alabama with several large offices in Birmingham. The company has over 6,000 employees and more than 1,200 contract employees.
Many commercial technology companies are headquartered in Huntsville, such as the network access company ADTRAN , computer graphics company Intergraph , design and manufacturer of IT infrastructure Avocent , and telecommunications provider Deltacom . Cinram manufactures and distributes 20th Century Fox DVDs and Blu-ray Discs out of their Huntsville plant.
Rust International has grown to include Brasfield & Gorrie , BE">
LAW AND GOVERNMENT
The State Capitol Building in Montgomery, completed in 1851 Main article: Government of Alabama
The foundational document for Alabama's government is the Alabama Constitution , which was ratified in 1901. At almost 800 amendments and 310,000 words, it is by some accounts the world's longest constitution and is roughly forty times the length of the United States Constitution .
There has been a significant movement to rewrite and modernize Alabama's constitution. Critics argue that Alabama's constitution maintains highly centralized power with the state legislature, leaving practically no power in local hands. Most counties do not have home rule. Any policy changes proposed in different areas of the state must be approved by the entire Alabama legislature and, frequently, by state referendum. One criticism of the current constitution claims that its complexity and length intentionally codify segregation and racism. The Alabama Judicial Building in Montgomery. It houses the Alabama Supreme Court , Alabama Court of Civil Appeals , and Alabama Court of Criminal Appeals .
Alabama's government is divided into three coequal branches. The
legislative branch is the
Until 1964, the state elected state senators on a geographic basis by
county, with one per county. It had not redistricted congressional
districts since passage of its constitution in 1901; as a result,
urbanized areas were grossly underrepresented. It had not changed
legislative districts to reflect the decennial censuses, either. In
Reynolds v. Sims
At that time, Alabama and many other states had to change their legislative districting, as many across the country had systems that underrepresented urban areas and districts. This had caused decades of underinvestment in such areas. For instance, Birmingham and Jefferson County taxes had supplied one-third of the state budget, but Jefferson County received only 1/67th of state services in funding. Through the legislative delegations, the Alabama legislature kept control of county governments.
The executive branch is responsible for the execution and oversight
of laws. It is headed by the
Governor of Alabama
The members of the
The judicial branch is responsible for interpreting the Constitution
and applying the law in state criminal and civil cases. The state\'s
highest court is the
Supreme Court of Alabama .
Alabama uses partisan
elections to select judges. Since the 1980s judicial campaigns have
become increasingly politicized. The current chief justice of the
Alabama Supreme Court is Republican
Some critics believe that the election of judges has contributed to an exceedingly high rate of executions. Alabama has the highest per capita death penalty rate in the country. In some years, it imposes more death sentences than does Texas , a state which has a population five times larger. Some of its cases have been highly controversial; the Supreme Court has overturned 24 convictions in death penalty cases. It is the only state that still allows judges to override jury decisions in whether or not to use a death sentence; in 10 cases judges overturned sentences of life imprisonment without parole (LWOP) that were voted unanimously by juries.
Alabama levies a 2, 4, or 5 percent personal income tax , depending upon the amount earned and filing status. Taxpayers are allowed to deduct their federal income tax from their Alabama state tax, and can do so even if taking the standard deduction . Taxpayers who file itemized deductions are also allowed to deduct the Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax (Social Security and Medicare tax).
The state's general sales tax rate is 4%. Sales tax rates for cities and counties are also added to purchases. For example, the total sales tax rate in Mobile is 10% and there is an additional restaurant tax of 1%, which means that a diner in Mobile would pay an 11% tax on a meal. As of 1999 , sales and excise taxes in Alabama account for 51% of all state and local revenue, compared with an average of about 36% nationwide. Alabama is one of seven states that levy a tax on food at the same rate as other goods, and one of two states (the other being neighboring Mississippi) which fully taxes groceries without any offsetting relief for low-income families. (Most states exempt groceries from sales tax or apply a lower tax rate.)
Alabama's income tax on poor working families is among the highest in the United States. Alabama is the only state that levies income tax on a family of four with income as low as $4,600, which is barely one-quarter of the federal poverty line. Alabama's threshold is the lowest among the 41 states and the District of Columbia with income taxes.
The corporate income tax rate is currently 6.5%. The overall federal, state, and local tax burden in Alabama ranks the state as the second least tax-burdened state in the country. Property taxes are the lowest in the U.S. The current state constitution requires a voter referendum to raise property taxes.
Since Alabama's tax structure largely depends on consumer spending, it is subject to high variable budget structure. For example, in 2003, Alabama had an annual budget deficit as high as $670 million.
COUNTY AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS
Alabama has 67 counties . Each county has its own elected legislative branch, usually called the county commission. It also has limited executive authority in the county. Because of the constraints of the Alabama Constitution , which centralizes power in the state legislature, only seven counties (Jefferson, Lee, Mobile, Madison, Montgomery, Shelby, and Tuscaloosa) in the state have limited home rule . Instead, most counties in the state must lobby the Local Legislation Committee of the state legislature to get simple local policies approved, ranging from waste disposal to land use zoning. The cumbersome process results in local jurisdictions being unable to manage their problems, and the state legislators being buried in local county issues.
The state legislature has retained power over local governments by
refusing to pass a constitutional amendment establishing home rule for
counties, as recommended by the 1973
Commission. Legislative delegations retain certain powers over each
"The lack of home rule for counties in Alabama has resulted in the proliferation of local legislation permitting counties to do things not authorized by the state constitution. Alabama's constitution has been amended more than 700 times, and almost one-third of the amendments are local in nature, applying to only one county or city. A significant part of each legislative session is spent on local legislation, taking away time and attention of legislators from issues of statewide importance."
Alabama is an alcoholic beverage control state , meaning that the state government holds a monopoly on the sale of alcohol. The Alabama Alcoholic Beverage Control Board controls the sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages in the state. Twenty-five of the 67 counties are "dry counties " which ban the sale of alcohol, and there are many dry municipalities even in counties which permit alcohol sales.
RANK COUNTY Population (2010 Census) SEAT LARGEST CITY
1 Jefferson 658,466 Birmingham Birmingham
2 Mobile 412,992 Mobile Mobile
3 Madison 334,811 Huntsville Huntsville
4 Montgomery 229,363 Montgomery Montgomery
5 Shelby 195,085 Columbiana Hoover (part) Alabaster
6 Tuscaloosa 194,656 Tuscaloosa Tuscaloosa
7 Baldwin 182,265 Bay Minette Daphne
8 Lee 140,247 Opelika Auburn
9 Morgan 119,490 Decatur Decatur
10 Calhoun 118,572 Anniston Anniston
11 Etowah 104,303 Gadsden Gadsden
12 Houston 101,547 Dothan Dothan
13 Marshall 93,019 Guntersville Albertville
14 Lauderdale 92,709 Florence Florence
During Reconstruction following the
American Civil War
After 1890, a coalition of White Democratic politicians passed laws
to segregate and disenfranchise
From 1901 through the 1960s, the state did not redraw election districts as population grew and shifted within the state during urbanization and industrialization of certain areas. As counties were the basis of election districts, the result was a rural minority that dominated state politics through nearly three-quarters of the century, until a series of federal court cases required redistricting in 1972 to meet equal representation.
Alabama state politics gained nationwide and international attention
in the 1950s and 1960s during the
Civil Rights Movement
In 2007, the
In 2010, Republicans won control of both houses of the legislature for the first time in 136 years, after a nearly complete realignment of political parties, who represent different visions in the 21st century.
Main article: Elections in Alabama
With the disfranchisement of
Members of the nine seats on the Alabama Supreme Court and all ten seats on the state appellate courts are elected to office. Until 1994, no Republicans held any of the court seats. In that general election, the then-incumbent Chief Justice of Alabama, Ernest C. Hornsby , refused to leave office after losing the election by approximately 3,000 votes to Republican Perry O. Hooper, Sr. . Hornsby sued Alabama and defiantly remained in office for nearly a year before finally giving up the seat after losing in court. This ultimately led to a collapse of support for Democrats at the ballot box in the next three or four election cycles. The Democrats lost the last of the nineteen court seats in August 2011 with the resignation of the last Democrat on the bench.
In the early 21st century, Republicans hold all seven of the statewide elected executive branch offices. Republicans hold six of the eight elected seats on the Alabama State Board of Education . In 2010, Republicans took large majorities of both chambers of the state legislature, giving them control of that body for the first time in 136 years. The last remaining statewide Democrat, who served on the Alabama Public Service Commission was defeated in 2012.
Only two Republican Lieutenant Governors have been elected since the
end of Reconstruction, when Republicans generally represented
Reconstruction government, including the newly emancipated freedmen
who had gained the franchise. The two GOP Lt. Governors were Steve
Windom (1999–2003) and the current Lt. Governor,
Many local offices (County Commissioners, Boards of Education, Tax Assessors, Tax Collectors, etc.) in the state are still held by Democrats. Many rural counties have voters who are majority Democrats, resulting in local elections being decided in the Democratic primary. Similarly many metropolitan and suburban counties are majority-Republican and elections are effectively decided in the Republican Primary, although there are exceptions.
Alabama's 67 County Sheriffs are elected in partisan, at-large races, and Democrats still retain the narrow majority of those posts. The current split is 35 Democrats , 31 Republicans , and one Independent Fayette. However, most of the Democratic sheriffs preside over rural and less populated counties. The majority of Republican sheriffs have been elected in the more urban/suburban and heavily populated counties. As of 2015 , the state of Alabama has one female sheriff, in Morgan County, Alabama , and ten African-American sheriffs.
PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS RESULTS YEAR REPUBLICAN DEMOCRATIC
2016 62.08% _1,318,255_ 34.36% 729,547
2012 60.55% _1,255,925_ 38.36% 795,696
2008 60.32% _1,266,546_ 38.80% 813,479
2004 62.46% _1,176,394_ 36.84% 693,933
2000 56.47% _944,409_ 41.59% 695,602
1996 50.12% _769,044_ 43.16% 662,165
1992 47.65% _804,283_ 40.88% 690,080
1988 59.17% _815,576_ 39.86% 549,506
1984 60.54% _872,849_ 38.28% 551,899
1980 48.75% _654,192_ 47.45% 636,730
1976 42.61% 504,070 55.73% _659,170_
1972 72.43% _728,701_ 25.54% 256,923
1968 * 13.99% 146,923 18.72% 196,579
1964 69.45% _479,085_ 30.55% 210,732
1960 42.16% 237,981 56.39% _318,303_
The state's two U.S. senators are Luther Strange and Richard C. Shelby , both Republicans. Shelby was originally elected to the Senate as a Democrat in 1986 and re-elected in 1992, but switched parties immediately following the November 1994 general election.
In the U.S. House of Representatives , the state is represented by seven members, six of whom are Republicans: ( Bradley Byrne , Mike D. Rogers , Robert Aderholt , Morris J. Brooks , Martha Roby , and Gary Palmer ) and one Democrat: Terri Sewell who represents the Black Belt as well as most of the predominantly black portions of Birmingham , Tuscaloosa and Montgomery . Further information: United States presidential election in Alabama, 2016
Main article: Education in Alabama
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION
Vestavia Hills High School in the suburbs of Birmingham
Public primary and secondary education in Alabama is under the purview of the Alabama State Board of Education as well as local oversight by 67 county school boards and 60 city boards of education. Together, 1,496 individual schools provide education for 744,637 elementary and secondary students.
Public school funding is appropriated through the Alabama Legislature through the Education Trust Fund. In FY 2006–2007, Alabama appropriated $3,775,163,578 for primary and secondary education. That represented an increase of $444,736,387 over the previous fiscal year. In 2007, over 82 percent of schools made adequate yearly progress (AYP) toward student proficiency under the National No Child Left Behind law, using measures determined by the state of Alabama.
While Alabama's public education system has improved in recent
decades, it lags behind in achievement compared to other states.
According to U.S. Census data, Alabama's high school graduation
rate—75%—is the fourth lowest in the U.S. (after
Although unusual in the West, school corporal punishment is not
uncommon in Alabama, with 27,260 public school students paddled at
least one time, according to government data for the 2011–2012
school year. The rate of school corporal punishment in
surpassed only by
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
List of colleges and universities in Alabama
Harrison Plaza at the University of
Alabama's programs of higher education include 14 four-year public universities, two-year community colleges, and 17 private, undergraduate and graduate universities. In the state are four medical schools (as of fall 2015) ( University of Alabama School of Medicine , University of South Alabama and Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine and The Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine – Auburn Campus), two veterinary colleges ( Auburn University and Tuskegee University ), a dental school ( University of Alabama School of Dentistry ), an optometry college ( University of Alabama at Birmingham ), two pharmacy schools ( Auburn University and Samford University ), and five law schools ( University of Alabama School of Law , Birmingham School of Law , Cumberland School of Law , Miles Law School , and the Thomas Goode Jones School of Law ). Public, post-secondary education in Alabama is overseen by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education and the Alabama Department of Postsecondary Education . Colleges and universities in Alabama offer degree programs from two-year associate degrees to a multitude of doctoral level programs. William J. Samford Hall at Auburn University in Auburn
The largest single campus is the
University of Alabama , located in
Tuscaloosa , with 37,665 enrolled for fall 2016.
Troy University was
the largest institution in the state in 2010, with an enrollment of
29,689 students across four
Alabama campuses (Troy , Dothan ,
Montgomery , and Phenix City ), as well as sixty learning sites in
seventeen other states and eleven other countries. The oldest
institutions are the public University of
Accreditation of academic programs is through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) as well as other subject-focused national and international accreditation agencies such as the Association for Biblical Higher Education (ABHE), the Council on Occupational Education (COE), and the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools (ACICS).
According to the 2011 _ U.S. News & World Report _, Alabama had three universities ranked in the top 100 Public Schools in America ( University of Alabama at 31, Auburn University at 36, and University of Alabama at Birmingham at 73).
College football is popular in Alabama, particularly the University of Alabama Crimson Tide and Auburn University Tigers , rivals in the Southeastern Conference . In the 2013 season, Alabama averaged over 100,000 fans per game and Auburn averaged over 80,000 fans, both numbers among the top 20 in the nation in average attendance. Bryant–Denny Stadium is the home of the Alabama football team, and has a seating capacity of 101,821, and is the fifth largest stadium in America. Jordan-Hare Stadium is the home field of the Auburn football team and seats up to 87,451.
Legion Field is home for the
UAB Blazers football program and the
Birmingham Bowl . It seats 80,601.
Ladd–Peebles Stadium in Mobile
is the home of the
University of South Alabama football team, and
serves as the home of the NCAA
Senior Bowl , Dollar General Bowl
(formerly GoDaddy.com Bowl), and Alabama-
Alabama has several professional and semi-professional sports teams, including three minor league baseball teams.
CLUB CITY SPORT LEAGUE VENUE
The Talladega Superspeedway motorsports complex hosts a series of NASCAR events. It has a seating capacity of 143,000 and is the thirteenth largest stadium in the world and sixth largest stadium in America. Also, the Barber Motorsports Park has hosted IndyCar Series and Rolex Sports Car Series races.
Alabama has hosted several professional golf tournaments, such as the
1984 and 1990
PGA Championship at Shoal Creek , the Barbasol
Terminal at the
Montgomery Regional Airport
Main article: Aviation in Alabama
Major airports with sustained commercial operations in Alabama
Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport
Alabama has six major interstate roads that cross the state:
Several U.S. Highways also pass through the state, such as U.S. Route 11 (US-11), US-29 , US-31 , US-43 , US-45 , US-72 , US-78 , US-80 , US-82 , US-84 , US-90 , US-98 , US-231 , US-278 , US-280 , US-331 , US-411 , and US-431 .
There are four toll roads in the state: Montgomery Expressway in
Montgomery ; Tuscaloosa Bypass in Tuscaloosa ; Emerald Mountain
Port of Mobile , Alabama's only saltwater port, is a large
seaport on the
Gulf of Mexico
Water ports of Alabama, listed from north to south:
PORT NAME LOCATION CONNECTED TO
Port of Birmingham _Birmingham _, on _ Black Warrior River _ Tenn-Tom Waterway
Port of Tuscaloosa _Tuscaloosa _, on _Black Warrior River_ Tenn-Tom Waterway
Port of Montgomery
_Montgomery _, on _Woodruff Lake _
* _ Alabama portal
* ^ Stephens, Challen (19 October 2015). "A look at the languages
Alabama and the drop in the Spanish speaking population".
_AL.com_. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
* ^ "State of Alabama". _The Battle of Gettysburg_. Retrieved July
* ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates".
U.S. Census Bureau .
June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
* ^ "Median Annual Household Income". _The Henry J. Kaiser Family
Foundation_. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
* ^ "Cheehahaw". _NGS data sheet_.
U.S. National Geodetic Survey .
Retrieved October 20, 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United
States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October
15, 2011. Retrieved October 21, 2011.
* ^ Elevation adjusted to
North American Vertical Datum of 1988 .
* ^ "
Alabama Transportation Overview" (PDF). Economic Development
Partnership of Alabama. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
* ^ "Alabama". _QuickFacts_.
* ^ Thomason, Michael (2001). _Mobile: The New History of Alabama's
First City_. Tuscaloosa:
University of Alabama Press. pp. 2–21. ISBN
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
Alabama Occupational Projections 2008-2018" (PDF).
Alabama Department of Industrial Relations_. State of Alabama.
Archived from the original (PDF) on January 17, 2013. Retrieved
September 22, 2012.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Read, William A. (1984). _Indian Place Names in
University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0231-X . OCLC
* ^ Sylestine, Cora; Hardy; Heather; and Montler, Timothy (1993).
_Dictionary of the
Alabama Language_. Austin: University of Texas
Press. ISBN 0-292-73077-2 .
OCLC 26590560 . CS1 maint: Uses authors
parameter (link )
* ^ "Alabama, n. and adj.". OED Online. March 2016. Oxford
April 22, 2016)
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ "Alabama: The State Name". _All
Alabama Department of Archives and History. Archived
from the original on June 28, 2007. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Wills, Charles A. (1995). _A Historical Album of
Alabama_. The Millbrook Press. ISBN 1-56294-591-2 .
OCLC 32242468 .
* ^ Griffith, Lucille (1972). _Alabama: A Documentary History to
University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0371-5 .
* ^ and possibly _Alabahmu_. The use of state names derived from
Native American languages is common in the US; an estimated 27 states
have names of Native American origin. Weiss, Sonia (1999). _The
Complete Idiot's Guide to Baby Names_. Mcmillan USA. ISBN
OCLC 222611214 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Rogers, William W.; Robert D. Ward; Leah R. Atkins;
Wayne Flynt (1994). _Alabama: the History of a Deep South State_.
University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0712-5 .
OCLC 28634588 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Swanton, John R. (1953). "The Indian Tribes of North
America". _Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin_. 145: 153–174. hdl
:2027/mdp.39015005395804 . Archived from the original on August 4,
2007. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Swanton, John R. (1937). "Review of Read, Indian Place
Names of Alabama". _American Speech_. 12 (12): 212–215.
. doi :10.2307/452431 .
* ^ William A. Read (1994). "Southeastern Indian Place Names in
what is now Alabama" (PDF). _Indian Place Names in Alabama_. Alabama
Department of Archives and History. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
* ^ Bright, William (2004). _Native American placenames of the
United States_. University of
* ^ "National Forests in Alabama". _USDA Forest Service_. United
States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on
October 7, 2008. Retrieved October 5, 2008.
* ^ "Wetumpka". _
Earth Impact Database _. University of New
Brunswick . Retrieved August 20, 2009.
* ^ "The
* ^ "Mammals". _Outdoor Alabama_.
Alabama Department of
Conservation and Natural Resources.
* ^ "Reptiles". _Outdoor Alabama_.
Alabama Department of
Conservation and Natural Resources.
* ^ "Amphibians". _Outdoor Alabama_.
Alabama Department of
Conservation and Natural Resources.
* ^ "Birds". _Outdoor Alabama_.
Alabama Department of Conservation
and Natural Resources.
* ^ "
Alabama Snails and Mussels". _Outdoor Alabama_. Alabama
Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.
* ^ "Crayfish". _Outdoor Alabama_.
Alabama Department of
Conservation and Natural Resources.
* ^ Resident Population Data. "Resident Population Data – 2010
Census". 2010.census.gov. Archived from the original on May 19, 2011.
Retrieved January 31, 2017.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population
for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010
to July 1, 2015".
U.S. Census Bureau . December 26, 2015. Archived
from the original (CSV) on December 23, 2015. Retrieved December 26,
* ^ "2010 Census Interactive Population Search". 2010.census.gov.
Retrieved December 29, 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Annual Estimates of the Population for the United
States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1,
2012". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (CSV ) on
February 5, 2009. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
* ^ "Population and Population Centers by State – 2000". United
States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008.
Retrieved December 3, 2008.
* ^ "American FactFinder". Factfinder2.census.gov. October 5, 2010.
Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved June 1, 2011.
* ^ Exner, Rich (June 3, 2012). "Americans under age 1 now mostly
minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". _The Plain
* ^ "Data on selected ancestry groups" (PDF). Google. Retrieved
June 1, 2011.
* ^ "1980
* ^ "State Highlights for 2004–2005" (PDF). _
Extension System_. USDA, NASS,
Alabama Statistical Office. 2005.
Archived (PDF) from the original on September 21, 2006. Retrieved
September 23, 2006.
* ^ "Vehicle Technologies Program: Fact #539: October 6, 2008,
Light Vehicle Production by State". .eere.energy.gov. October 6, 2008.
Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved October 24,
* ^ McCreless, Patrick (October 31, 2012). "Automakers account for
about a third of the state\'s industrial expansion". _The Anniston
Star_. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
* ^ Kent, Dawn (April 2, 2013). "U.S. auto sales see gains in
March, as Alabama-made models rise 4 percent". AL.com. Retrieved June
* ^ "ThyssenKrupp\'s
Alabama incentive package tops $811 million".
_Press-Register_. May 11, 2007. Archived from the original on July 26,
2011. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
* ^ "New owners of
ThyssenKrupp stainless steel division plan visit
in June". _Press-Register_. May 31, 2012. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
* ^ "Report:
ThyssenKrupp gets final bids for Steel Americas
plants". AL.com. March 1, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
* ^ "Alabama: Ende 2014 bei voller Kapazität - stahl-online.de".
_stahl-online.de_. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
* ^ "Hunt Refining Company." Linkedin.
* ^ "Company Overview."
JVC America, Inc.
* ^ Melissa Nelson-Gabriel (July 2, 2012). "
Airbus to Build 1st US
Assembly Plant in Alabama". Associated Press. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
* ^ "
Airbus confirms its first US factory to build A320 jet". _BBC
News_. July 2, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
* ^ Nicola Clark. "EADS to Build
* ^ "Planning Your Alabama Visit". _alabama.travel.com_. Sweet Home Alabama. Retrieved 16 September 2016. * ^ "Verified Trauma Centers". _American College of Surgeons, Verified Trauma Centers_. December 30, 2010. Retrieved January 9, 2011. * ^ "College Research Data". _University of Texas_. Archived from the original on April 4, 2012. Retrieved April 18, 2012. * ^ "UAB – Human Resources – Home". _uab.edu_. Retrieved July 21, 2015. * ^ Tim Lockette, Is the Alabama Constitution the longest constitution in the world?Truth Rating: 4 out of 5, _Anniston Star_. * ^ Campbell Robertson, Alabama Simmers Before Vote on Its Constitution\'s Racist Language, _New York Times_, October 10, 2012. * ^ Roig-Franzia, Manuel (November 28, 2004). " Alabama Vote Opens Old Racial Wounds". _The Washington Post_. Archived from the original on December 10, 2012. Retrieved September 22, 2006. * ^ " Constitution of Alabama – 1901". _The Alabama Legislative Information System_. Archived from the original on September 23, 2006. Retrieved September 22, 2006. * ^ " Alabama Citizens for Constitutional Reform". Constitutionalreform.org. Archived from the original on September 15, 2010. Retrieved October 24, 2010. * ^ Lee, McDowell (2009). "Alabama\'s Legislative Process". State of Alabama. Archived from the original on January 2, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ Judicial Selection in the States: Alabama Archived October 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine ., American Judicature Society. * ^ SARA RIMER, "Questions of Death Row Justice For Poor People in Alabama". _New York Times_, 1 March 2000. Accessed 11 March 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Rebecca Buckwalter-Poza (2014-07-27). "With Judges Overriding Death Penalty Cases, Alabama Is An Outlier". _NPR.org_. Retrieved 2016-07-21. * ^ "Supreme Court Reverses Another Alabama Death Penalty Case". _EJI_. 2016-06-21. Retrieved 2016-08-03. * ^ "Comparison of State and Local Retail Sales Taxes". Archived from the original on May 20, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-26. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ). taxadmin.org, July 2004, Retrieved December 18, 2013. * ^ Sales Tax Brochure. State of Alabama. Retrieved December 18, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Reducing Alabama\'s Income Tax on Working-Poor Families: Two Options". Cbpp.org. April 14, 1999. Retrieved October 24, 2010. * ^ Which States Tax the Sale of Food for Home Consumption in 2009?, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, November 4, 2009. * ^ " Alabama State Local Tax Burden Compared to U.S. Average (1970–2007)" (PDF). _Tax Foundation_. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 5, 2007. Retrieved May 30, 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ Albert P. Brewer, "Home Rule", _Encyclopedia of Alabama_, 2007, accessed February 3, 2015 * ^ Wet-Dry Map, Alabama Alcoholic Beverage Control Board. * ^ Rawls, Phillip (June 1, 2007). " Alabama offers an apology for slavery". _The Virginian Pilot_. Landmark Communications. * ^ "Sue Bell Cobb considering running for governor". _The Birmingham News_. May 2, 2009. Retrieved August 7, 2009. * ^ "Commissioners". Psc.state.al.us. Archived from the original on July 18, 2009. Retrieved August 7, 2009. * ^ Special (November 5, 2008). "Lucy Baxley wins Alabama Public Service Commission presidency, but recount possible". Birmingham News via al.com. Archived from the original on August 2, 2009. Retrieved August 7, 2009. * ^ Jeff Amy. "Public Service Commission: Twinkle Cavanaugh, Terry Dunn join GOP sweep". al.com. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved June 1, 2011. * ^ "2006 Gubernatorial Democratic Primary Election Results – Alabama". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved August 7, 2009. * ^ "2006 Gubernatorial Republican Primary Election Results – Alabama". Uselectionatlas.org. February 15, 2007. Retrieved August 7, 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ Alabama Sheriffs Association * ^ " Alabama Education Quick Facts 2012-13" (PDF). Retrieved April 29, 2014. * ^ "Educational Attainment : 2000 : Census 2000 Brief" (PDF). _Census.gov_. Retrieved 2016-12-29. * ^ Education Statistics. CensusScope.org * ^ This figure refers to only the number of students paddled, and does not refer to the number of instances of corporal punishment, which would be higher. * ^ _A_ _B_ Farrell, Colin (February 2016). "Corporal punishment in US schools". _World Corporal Punishment Research _. Retrieved April 4, 2016. * ^ "Directory of Alabama Colleges and Universities". Alabama Commission on Higher Education. Archived from the original on October 11, 2013. Retrieved July 28, 2013. * ^ https://www.ua.edu/about/quickfacts * ^ "History in the making". University of North Alabama. Archived from the original on August 21, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2011. * ^ "The Mission Statement of Spring Hill College: History". Spring Hill College. Archived from the original on August 21, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2011. * ^ "Members". Association for Biblical Higher Education. Archived from the original on August 21, 2011. Retrieved June 24, 2011. * ^ "Membership Directory" (PDF). Council on Operational Education. November 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 5, 2011. Retrieved August 5, 2011. * ^ "ACICS Website Directory" (PDF). Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools. July 20, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 5, 2011. Retrieved August 5, 2011. * ^ "Top Public Schools". _U.S. News & World Report_. Archived from the original on September 18, 2011. Retrieved September 17, 2011. * ^ National University Rankings Top National Universities US News Best Colleges. _U.S. News & World Report_. Retrieved on July 12, 2013. * ^ "Alabama". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Retrieved March 24, 2017. * ^ "APT - WGIQ Channel 43 Television". _www.stationindex.com_. Retrieved 2017-05-12. * ^ 2013 NATIONAL COLLEGE FOOTBALL ATTENDANCE, NCAA.org. Retrieved August 18, 2014. * ^ "Bryant–Denny Stadium". _RollTide.com_. University of Alabama. Retrieved July 28, 2013. * ^ "Stadium List: 100 000+ Stadiums". World Stadiums. Retrieved February 10, 2012. * ^ "Jordan-Hare Stadium". _Auburn Athletics_. Auburn University. Retrieved July 28, 2013. * ^ "Legion Field". _UABSports.com_. University of Alabama at Birmingham. Retrieved July 28, 2013. * ^ "Welcome to Ladd Peebles Stadium". Laddpeeblesstadium.com. January 23, 2012. Retrieved February 10, 2012. * ^ "Super 6 leaving Birmingham for Bryant-Denny, Jordan-Hare stadiums al.com". Blog.al.com. Retrieved February 10, 2012. * ^ "Table 1086. Top U.S. Ports by Tons of Traffic: 2009" (PDF). _U.S. Army Corps of Engineers_. Retrieved July 22, 2013. * ^ "U.S. Waterborne Container Traffic by Port/Waterway in 2011 (Loaded and Empty TEUS)". _U.S. Army Corps of Engineers_. Retrieved July 22, 2013.
* “ Alabama - History and Culture.” Adventure Tourism – Experiential Travel Guides. Accessed: March 31, 2017.
_For a detailed bibliography, see the
History of Alabama
* Atkins, Leah Rawls, Wayne Flynt, William Warren Rogers, and David Ward. _Alabama: The History of a Deep South State_ (1994) * Flynt, Wayne. _ Alabama in the Twentieth Century_ (2004) * Owen Thomas M. _