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Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī (Arabic: أبو القاسم خلف بن العباس الزهراوي‎;‎ 936–1013), popularly known as Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
(الزهراوي), Latinised as Abulcasis (from Arabic Abū al-Qāsim), was an Arab Muslim
Muslim
physician, surgeon and chemist who lived in Al-Andalus. He is considered the greatest medieval surgeon of the Islamic World and the Middle ages,[1][2] and has been described as the father of surgery.[3][4][5] His principal work is the Kitab al-Tasrif, a thirty-volume encyclopedia of medical practices.[6][7] The surgery volume in this encyclopedia was later translated into latin where it received a popularity and became the standard text book in Europe
Europe
for the next 500 years.[8] Al-Zahrawi's pioneering contributions to the field of surgical procedures and instruments had an enormous impact in the East and West well into the modern period, where some of his discoveries are still applied in medicine to this day.[9] He was the first physician to describe an Abdominal pregnancy
Abdominal pregnancy
a sub type of ectopic pregnancy, and the first physician to identify the hereditary nature of haemophilia.[9]

Contents

1 Biography 2 Kitab al-Tasrif

2.1 On Surgery
Surgery
and Instruments 2.2 Liber Servitoris 2.3 Tone

3 Legacy 4 De Chirurgia gallery 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Sources 8 External links

Biography[edit] Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
was born in the city of Azahara, 8 kilometers northwest of Cordova, Andalusia. The nisba (attributive title), Al-Ansari, suggests origin from the Medinian
Medinian
tribe of Al-Ansar.[10] He lived most of his life in Cordova. It is also where he studied, taught and practiced medicine and surgery until shortly before his death in about 1013, two years after the sacking of El-Zahra. Few details remain regarding his life, aside from his published work, due to the destruction of El-Zahra during later Castillian-Andalusian conflicts. His name first appears in the writings of Abu Muhammad bin Hazm (993 – 1064), who listed him among the greatest physicians of Moorish Spain. But we have the first detailed biography of al-Zahrawī from al-Ḥumaydī's Jadhwat al-Muqtabis (On Andalusian Savants), completed six decades after al-Zahrawi's death. Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
was a court physician to the Andalusian caliph Al-Hakam II. He devoted his entire life and genius to the advancement of medicine as a whole and surgery in particular. His best work was the Kitab al-Tasrif, discussed below. Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
specialized in curing disease by cauterization. He invented several devices used during surgery, for purposes such as inspection of the interior of the urethra, applying and removing foreign bodies from the throat, inspection of the ear, etc. He is also credited to be the first to describe ectopic pregnancy in 963, in those days a fatal affliction.[9] Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
was the first to illustrate the various cannulae and the first to treat a wart with an iron tube and caustic metal as a boring instrument. He was also the first to draw hooks with a double tip for use in surgery.[11] He was a contemporary of Andalusian chemists such as Ibn al-Wafid, Maslamah Ibn Ahmad al-Majriti
Maslamah Ibn Ahmad al-Majriti
and Artephius. Kitab al-Tasrif[edit] Main article: Al-Tasrif

Frontispiece of the Latin
Latin
translation of Al-Zahrawi's Kitab al-Tasrif.

Al-Zahrawi's thirty-volume medical encyclopedia, Kitab al-Tasrif, completed in the year 1000, covered a broad range of medical topics, including on surgery, medicine, orthopaedics, ophthalmology, pharmacology, nutrition, dentistry, childbirth, and pathology[12]. The first volume in the encyclopedia is concerned with general principles of medicine, the seconed with pathology, while much of the rest discuss topics regarding pharmacology and drugs. The last tretise and the most celebrated one is about surgery. Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
stated that he chose to discuss surgery in the last volume because surgery is the highest form of medicine, and one must not practice it until he becomes well-acquainted with all other branches of medicine. The work contained data that had accumulated during a career that spanned almost 50 years of training, teaching and practice. In it he also wrote of the importance of a positive doctor-patient relationship and wrote affectionately of his students, whom he referred to as "my children". He also emphasized the importance of treating patients irrespective of their social status. He encouraged the close observation of individual cases in order to make the most accurate diagnosis and the best possible treatment. Not always properly credited, modern evaluation of al-tasrif manuscripts has revealed on interesting descriptions of medical procedures that were ascribed to later scholars[13]. For example, Al-Zahrawi's al-Tasrif described both what would later become known as "Kocher's method" for treating a dislocated shoulder and "Walcher position" in obstetrics. Morover, Al-Tasrif
Al-Tasrif
described how to ligature blood vessels almost 600 years before Ambroise Paré, and was the first recorded book to explain the hereditary nature of haemophilia.[9] He was also the first to describe a surgical procedure for ligating the temporal artery for migraine, also almost 600 years before Pare recorded that he had ligated his own temporal artery for headache that conforms to current descriptions of migraine.[14] Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
was therefore the first to describe the migraine surgery procedure that is enjoying a revival in the 21st century, spearheaded by Elliot Shevel
Elliot Shevel
a South African surgeon. Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
also pionered neurosurgery and neurological diagnosis. He is known to have performed surgical treatments of head injuries, skull fractures, spinal injuries, hydrocephalus, subdural effusions and headache. He developed material and technical designs which are still used in neurosurgery. The first clinical description of an operative procedure for hydrocephalus appears in the Al-Tasrif
Al-Tasrif
which clearly describes the evacuation of superficial intracranial fluid in hydrocephalic children.[15] He described it in his chapter on neurosurgical disease, describing infantile hydrocephalus as being caused by mechanical compression. He wrote:[15]

The skull of a newborn baby is often full of liquid, either because the matron has compressed it excessively or for other, unknown reasons. The volume of the skull then increases daily, so that the bones of the skull fail to close. In this case, we must open the middle of the skull in three places, make the liquid flow out, then close the wound and tighten the skull with a bandage.

On Surgery
Surgery
and Instruments[edit]

Page from a 1531 Latin
Latin
translation by Peter Argellata of Al-Zahrawi's treatise on surgical and medical instruments.

On Surgery
Surgery
and Instruments is the thirteenth and last volume of Kitab al-Tasrif. It is without a doubt his most important volume and the one which established Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
authority in Europe
Europe
for centuries to come. On Surgery
Surgery
and Instruments is the first illustrated surgical guide ever written. Its contents and descriptions has contributed in many technological innovations in Medicine, notably which tools to use in specific surgeries. In his book, al-Zahrawi draws diagrams of each tool used in different procedures to clarify how to carry out the steps of each treatment. The full text consists of three books, intended for medical students looking forward to gaining more knowledge within the field of surgery regarding procedures and the necessary tools. The book was translated in the 12t century by Gerard of Cremona into Latin
Latin
under the title of "De chirurgia". It soon found popularity in Europe
Europe
and became a standard text in all major Medical universities like those of Salerno
Salerno
and Montpellier[16]. It remained the primary source on surgery in Europe
Europe
for the next 500 years, and as the historian of midicine, Arturo Castiglioni, has put it: al-Zahrawi's treatise "in surgery held the same authority as did the Canon of Avicenna
Avicenna
in medicine"[17]. Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
claims that his knowledge comes from careful reading of previous medical texts as well as his own experience: “…whatever skill I have, I have derived for myself by my long reading of the books of the Ancients and my thirst to understand them until I extracted the knowledge of it from them. Then through the whole of my life I have adhered to experience and practice…I have made it accessible for you and rescued it from the abyss of prolixity”.[18] In the beginning of his book, al-Zahrawi states that the reason for writing this treatise was the degree of underdevelopment surgery had reached in the Islamic world, and the low status it was held by the physicians at the time. Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
ascribed such decline to lack of anatomical knowledge and misunderstanding of the human phisiology.

He who devoted himself to surgery must be versed in the science of anatomy.[19] “ ”

al-Zahrawi, Kitab al-Tasrif.

Noting the importance of anatomy he wrote:[20]

"Before practicing surgery one should gain knowledge of anatomy and the function of organs so that he will understand their shape, connections and borders. He should become thoroughly familiar with nerves muscles bones arteries and veins. If one does not comprehend the anatomy and physiology one can commit a mistake which will result in the death of the patient. I have seen someone incise into a swelling in the neck thinking it was an abscess, when it was an aneurysm and the patient dying on the spot."

In Urology, Abulcasis wrote about taking stones out of the bladder. By inventing a new instrument, an early form of the lithotrite which he called "Michaab", he was able to crush the stone inside the bladder without the need for Surgical incision[21]. His technique was important for the development of lithotomy, and an improvement over the existing techniques in Europe
Europe
which caused severe pain for the patient, and came with high death rates. In dentistry and Orthodontics, Abulcasis had the most significant contribution out of all Muslim
Muslim
physicians, and his book contained the earliest illustrations of dental instruments. He was known to use gold and silver wires to ligate loosened teeth[22], and has been credited as the first to use replantation in the history of dentistry[23]. Abulcasis also invented instruments to scale the calculus from the teeth, a procedure he recommended as a prevention from periodontal disease[24].

Surgical instruments
Surgical instruments
described by al-Zahrawi.

Abulcasis introduced over 200 surgical instruments,[25] which include, among others, different kind of scalpels, Retractors, curette and also instruments designed for his favoured techniques of cauterization and ligature. Many of these instruments were never used before by any previous surgeons.[25] His use of catgut for internal stitching is still practised in modern surgery. The catgut appears to be the only natural substance capable of dissolving and is acceptable by the body. An observation Al-Zahrawi discovered after his monkey ate the strings of his Oud. Al-Zahrawi also invented the forceps for extracting a dead fetus, as illustrated in the Al-Tasrif.[26] Liber Servitoris[edit] In pharmacy and pharmacology, Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
pioneered the preparation of medicines by sublimation and distillation. His Liber Servitoris is of particular interest, as it provides the reader with recipes and explains how to prepare the "simples" from which were compounded the complex drugs then generally used.[27][28][29] Tone[edit]

Albucasis
Albucasis
blistering a patient in the hospital at Cordova.

Throughout the text, Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
uses an authoritative tone to declare his expertise on the topic. For example, when introducing topics or describing procedures, Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
often warns the reader of the skills necessary to complete the task. In chapter forty-eight, "On cauterization for numbness", he defines the required knowledge for the procedure in a commanding tone: “This should not be attempted except by one who has a good knowledge of the anatomy of the limbs and of the exits of the nerves that move the body”.[30] He invents a criterion to generate a standard of skill level, indicating that he himself has surpassed it due to training and experience. As such, he reiterates his preeminence by implying that he is part of an exclusive group of learned surgeons capable of correctly completing this cautery. In another instance, he states that the procedure should be avoided completely by incompetent surgeons: “However, no one should attempt this operation unless he has had long training and practice in the use of cautery”.[31] Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
was not afraid to depart from old practice, for example, he openly disparages the opinion that cauterization should only be used in the spring season: “…the Ancients…[affirmed] that spring was the best. Myself, I say that cautery is suitable at all times”.[32] Four pages later, he again opposes the opinion that gold is the best material for cauterization, stating that iron is actually his preferred metal: “therefore in our own opinion cauterization is swifter and more successful with iron”.[33] In chapter twenty-nine, "On cauterization for pleurisy", he states: “Now one of the Ancients mentioned that there were some people who used an iron cautery shaped like a probe, and introduced it red hot into the intercostal space until it reached the abscess itself and evacuated the pus…but in this perforation with the cautery there is a danger either that the patient may die on the spot or that an incurable fistula may rise in its place”.[34] Legacy[edit]

Calle Albucasis
Albucasis
street at Cordova.

Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
was the "most frequently cited surgical authority of the Middle Ages".[35] Donald Campbell, a historian of Arabic medicine, described Al-Zahrawi's influence on Europe
Europe
as follows:[36]

The chief influence of Albucasis
Albucasis
on the medical system of Europe
Europe
was that his lucidity and method of presentation awakened a prepossession in favour of Arabic literature among the scholars of the West: the methods of Albucasis
Albucasis
eclipsed those of Galen
Galen
and maintained a dominant position in medical Europe
Europe
for five hundred years, i.e long after it had passed its usefulness. He, however, helped to raise the status of surgery in Christian Europe; in his book on fractures and luxations, he states that ‘this part of surgery has passed into the hands of vulgar and uncultivated minds, for which reason it has fallen into contempt.’ The surgery of Albucasis
Albucasis
became firmly grafted on Europe after the time of Guy de Chauliac
Guy de Chauliac
(d.1368).

In the 14th century, the French surgeon Guy de Chauliac
Guy de Chauliac
quoted al-Tasrif over 200 times. Pietro Argallata (d. 1453) described Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
as "without doubt the chief of all surgeons". Al-Zahrawi's influence continued for at least five centuries, extending into the Renaissance, evidenced by al-Tasrif's frequent reference by French surgeon Jacques Daléchamps
Jacques Daléchamps
(1513–1588).[37] The street in Cordova where he lived is named in his honor as "Calle Albucasis". On this street he lived in house no. 6, which is preserved today by the Spanish Tourist Board with a bronze plaque (awarded in January 1977) which reads: "This was the house where Al-Zahrawi lived." De Chirurgia gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Abu-l-Qasim.

Islamic medicine Islamic science List of Arab
Arab
scientists and scholars Islamic Golden Age Islamic scholars Muslim
Muslim
inventions Timeline of historic inventions Avicenna

Notes[edit]

^ Meri, Josef W. (2005). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 9781135455965.  ^ Weinberg, Steven (2015). To Explain the World: The Discovery of Modern Science. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 9780241196656.  ^ Krebs, Robert E. (2004). Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Renaissance. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313324338.  ^ Klatt, Edward C.; Kumar, Vinay (2014). Robbins and Cotran Review of Pathology
Pathology
E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 9780323261982.  ^ Ahmad, Z. (St Thomas' Hospital) (2007), " Al-Zahrawi
Al-Zahrawi
- The Father of Surgery", ANZ Journal of Surgery, 77 (Suppl. 1): A83, doi:10.1111/j.1445-2197.2007.04130_8.x  ^ al-Zahrāwī, Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn ʻAbbās; Studies, Gustave E. von Grunebaum Center for Near Eastern (1973). Albucasis
Albucasis
on surgery and instruments. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-01532-6. Retrieved 16 May 2011.  ^ Gerli, E. Michael (2013). Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 9781136771613.  ^ Krebs, Robert E. (2004). Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Renaissance. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313324338.  ^ a b c d Cosman, Madeleine Pelner; Jones, Linda Gale (2008). Handbook to Life in the Medieval World. Handbook to Life Series. 2. Infobase Publishing. pp. 528–530. ISBN 0-8160-4887-8.  ^ Hamarneh, Sami Khalaf; Sonnedecker, Glenn (1963). A Pharmaceutical View of Abulcasis Al-Zahrāwī Moorish Spain: With a Special
Special
Reference to the "Adhān". Brill Archive. p. 15.  ^ Missori, Paolo; Brunetto, Giacoma M.; Domenicucci, Maurizio (7 February 2012). "Origin of the Cannula for Tracheotomy During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Renaissance". World Journal of Surgery. 36 (4): 928–934. doi:10.1007/s00268-012-1435-1.  ^ "Theoretical and Practical Book by Al-Zahrawi". 1519.  ^ Karagِzoğlu, Bahattin (2017). Science and Technology from Global and Historical Perspectives. Springer. ISBN 9783319528908.  ^ Shevel, E; Spierings, EH (April 2004). "Role of the extracranial arteries in migraine headache: a review". Cranio : the journal of craniomandibular practice. 22 (2): 132–6. doi:10.1179/crn.2004.017. PMID 15134413.  ^ a b Aschoff, A; Kremer, Paul; Hashemi, Bahram; Kunze, Stefan (1999). "The scientific history of hydrocephalus and its treatment". Neurosurgical Review. 22 (2–3): 67–93; discussion 94–5. doi:10.1007/s101430050035. PMID 10547004.  ^ Fleischer, Aylmer von. Moorish Europe. Aylmer von Fleischer.  ^ Castiglioni, Arturo (1958). A history of medicine. A. A. Knopf.  ^ Abū Al-Qāsim Khalaf Ibn ʾabbās Al-Zahrāwī. Albucasis
Albucasis
on Surgery
Surgery
and Instruments. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973. (676) ^ "Abulcasis, the pharmacist surgeon Hektoen International". hekint.org.  ^ Selin, Helaine (2008). Encyclopaedia of the History
History
of Science, Technology, and Medicine
Medicine
in Non-Western Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781402045592.  ^ Butt, Arthur J. (1956). Etiologic Factors in Renal Lithiasis. Thomas.  ^ Becker, Marshall Joseph; Turfa, Jean MacIntosh (2017). The Etruscans and the History
History
of Dentistry: The Golden Smile Through the Ages. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781317194651.  ^ Ingle, John Ide; Baumgartner, J. Craig (2008). Ingle's Endodontics. PMPH-USA. ISBN 9781550093339.  ^ Andrews, Esther K. (2007). Practice Management for Dental Hygienists. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 9780781753593.  ^ a b Holmes-Walker, Anthony (2004). Life-enhancing plastics : plastics and other materials in medical applications. London: Imperial College Press. p. 176. ISBN 1-86094-462-0.  ^ Ingrid Hehmeyer and Aliya Khan (2007). "Islam's forgotten contributions to medical science", Canadian Medical Association Journal 176 (10). ^ Levey M. (1973), Early Arabic Pharmacology, E. J. Brill, Leiden.[page needed] ^ A Pharmaceutical View of Abulcasis Al-zahrawi in Moorish Spain. Brill Archive. pp. 19–.  ^ See:Luisa Arvide ^ Abū Al-Qāsim Khalaf Ibn ʾabbās Al-Zahrāwī. Albucasis
Albucasis
on Surgery
Surgery
and Instruments. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973. (146) ^ Abū Al-Qāsim Khalaf Ibn ʾabbās Al-Zahrāwī. Albucasis
Albucasis
on Surgery
Surgery
and Instruments. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973. (8) ^ Abū Al-Qāsim Khalaf Ibn ʾabbās Al-Zahrāwī. Albucasis
Albucasis
on Surgery
Surgery
and Instruments. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973. (10) ^ Abū Al-Qāsim Khalaf Ibn ʾabbās Al-Zahrāwī. Albucasis
Albucasis
on Surgery
Surgery
and Instruments. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973. (14) ^ Abū Al-Qāsim Khalaf Ibn ʾabbās Al-Zahrāwī. Albucasis
Albucasis
on Surgery
Surgery
and Instruments. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973. (90) ^ Mikaberidze, Alexander, ed. (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 586. ISBN 1598843370.  ^ Campbell, Donald (2001). Arabian Medicine
Medicine
and Its Influence on the Middle Ages: Trubner's Oriental Series. London: Routledge. p. 88. ISBN 0415244625.  ^ Badeau, John Stothoff; Hayes, John Richard (1983). Hayes, John Richard, ed. The Genius of Arab
Arab
civilization: source of Renaissance (2nd ed.). MIT Press. p. 200. ISBN 0262580632. 

Sources[edit]

Al-Benna, Sammy (29 September 2011). "Albucasis, a tenth-century scholar, physician and surgeon: His role in the history of plastic and reconstructive surgery". European Journal of Plastic Surgery. 35 (5): 379–387. doi:10.1007/s00238-011-0637-3.  al-Zahrāwī, Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn ʻAbbās (1973). مقالة في العمل باليد: A Definitive Edition of the Arabic Text. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520015326. Retrieved 7 December 2012.  Arvide Cambra, Luisa Maria (1994). Un tratado de polvos medicinales en Al-Zahrawi. University of Almeria. ISBN 8482400029.  Arvide Cambra, Luisa Maria (1996). Tratado de pastillas medicinales segْn Abulcasis. Junta de Andalucia. ISBN 8460554856.  Arvide Cambra, Luisa Maria (2000). Un tratado de oftalmologيa en Abulcasis. University of Almeria. ISBN 8482402412.  Arvide Cambra, Luisa Maria (2003). Un tratado de odontoestomatologيa en Abulcasis. University of Almeria. ISBN 8482406361.  Arvide Cambra, Luisa Maria (2010). Un tratado de estética y cosmética en Abulcasis. Grupo Editorial Universitario (GEU). ISBN 9788499153421.  Pormann, Peter E. (2004). The Oriental Tradition of Paul of Aegina's Pragmateia. BRILL. ISBN 9789004137578. Retrieved 7 December 2012.  Hamarneh, Sami Khalaf; Sonnedecker, Glenn Allen (1963). A Pharmaceutical View of Abulcasis Al-Zahrāwī in Moorish Spain: With Special
Special
Reference to the "Adhān,". Brill Archive. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Albucasis.

v t e

Medicine
Medicine
in the medieval Islamic world

Physicians

7th century

Al-Harith ibn Kalada and his son Abu Hafsa Yazid Bukhtishu Masarjawaih Ibn Abi Ramtha al-Tamimi Rufaida Al-Aslamia Ibn Uthal

8th century

Bukhtishu family Ja'far al-Sadiq

9th century

Ali al-Ridha Albubather Bukhtishu family Jabril ibn Bukhtishu Jābir ibn Hayyān Hunayn ibn Ishaq
Hunayn ibn Ishaq
and his son Yusuf Al-Khuri Yahya ibn Sarafyun Al-Kindi Masawaiyh Shapur ibn Sahl al-Tabari Al-Ruhawi Yuhanna ibn Bukhtishu Salmawaih ibn Bunan

10th century

Qusta ibn Luqa Abu ul-Ala Shirazi Abul Hasan al-Tabari Al-Natili Qumri Abu Zayd al-Balkhi Isaac Israeli ben Solomon al-Majusi al-Masihi Muvaffak al-Razi Ibn Juljul al-Jabali Al-Tamimi, the physician al-Zahrawi Ibn al-Jazzar Al-Kaŝkarī Ibn Abi al-Ashʿath Ibn al-Batriq Ibrahim ibn Baks Abu al-Qasim Muqane'i Abu Bakr Bokhari

11th century

Abu 'Ubayd al-Juzjani Ibn al-Haytham Al-Biruni Ali ibn Ridwan Avicenna Ephraim ibn al-Za'faran Ibn al-Wafid Ammar Al-Mawsili Abdollah ibn Bukhtishu Ibn Butlan al-Kirmani Ibn al-Kattani Ibn Jazla Masawaih al-Mardini al-Ilaqi Ibn Al-Thahabi Ibn Abi Sadiq Ali ibn Isa al-Kahhal Ibn Hindu

12th century

Avempace Abu al-Bayan ibn al-Mudawwar Ahmad ibn Farrokh Ibn Hubal Zayn al-Din Gorgani Maimonides Serapion the Younger Ibn Zuhr Ya'qub ibn Ishaq al-Israili al-Turjali Averroes Ibn Tufail Al-Ghafiqi Ibn Abi al-Hakam Abu'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī Al-Samawal al-Maghribi Ibn al-Tilmīdh Ibn Jumay‘

13th century

Ibn al-Baitar Ibn Ṭumlūs Sa'ad al-Dawla Al-Shahrazuri Rashidun al-Suri As-Suwaydi Amin al-Din Rashid al-Din Vatvat Abraham ben Moses ben Maimon Da'ud Abu al-Fadl Al-Dakhwar Ibn Abi Usaibia Joseph ben Judah of Ceuta Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi Ibn al-Nafis Zakariya al-Qazwini Najib ad-Din-e-Samarqandi Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi Ibn al-Quff

14th century

Ibn al-Akfani Muhammad ibn Mahmud Amuli Al-Nagawri Aqsara'i Zayn-e-Attar Mansur ibn Ilyas Jaghmini Mas‘ud ibn Muhammad Sijzi Najm al-Din al-Shirazi Nakhshabi al-Kazaruni al-Kutubi Ibn Shuayb Ibn al-Khatib Rashid-al-Din Hamadani

15th century

Abu Sa'id al-Afif Muhammad Ali Astarabadi Husayni Isfahani Burhan-ud-din Kermani Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu al-Harawi Nurbakhshi Shaykh Muhammad ibn Thaleb

16th century

Hakim-e-Gilani Abul Qasim ibn Mohammed al-Ghassani Taqi ad-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf Dawud al-Antaki Sultan Ali Khorasani

Concepts

Psychology Ophthalmology

Works

Al-Risalah al-Dhahabiah The Canon of Medicine Anatomy
Anatomy
Charts of the Arabs The Book of Healing Book of the Ten Treatises of the Eye De Gradibus Al-Tasrif Zakhireye Khwarazmshahi Adab al-Tabib Kamel al-Sanaat al-Tibbyya Al-Hawi Commentary on Anatomy
Anatomy
in Avicenna's Canon

Centers

Bimaristan Nur al-Din Bimaristan Al-'Adudi

Influences

Ancient Greek medicine

Influenced

Medical Renaissance Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine
Medicine
and Sciences

v t e

Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam

Alchemists

7th century

Khālid ibn Yazīd

8th century

Harbi al-Himyari Ja'far al-Sadiq

9th century

Jābir ibn Hayyān Al-Kindi Abbas ibn Firnas Ahmad ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri Ziryab Dhul-Nun al-Misri

10th century

Ibn Wahshiyya Muhammed ibn Umail al-Tamimi Al-Zahrawi Al-Razi Al-Farabi Ibn al-Nadim Al-Majriti Abu Mansur Muwaffaq

11th century

Ibn al-Wafid Al-Bīrūnī Avicenna Al-Khwarizmi al-Khati Miskawayh Al-Mu'izz ibn Badis Ahmad ibn 'Imad al-Din

12th century

Al-Khazini Artephius Al-Tughrai Al-Nabarawi Abu'l Hasan ibn Arfa Ra'a Al-Jawbari Abu al-Salt

13th century

Ibn al-Baitar Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati Al-Kātibī Attar of Nishapur Al-Simawi Hasan al-Rammah Mansur al-Kamili

14th century

Ibn Rassam Al-Jaldaki Abul Ashba ibn Tammam

Concepts

Takwin Philosopher's stone Al-iksīr Alembic Athanor

Works

Kitab al-Kimya Kitab al-Sab'een

v t e

Ancient anaesthesia

Plants / animals

Aconitum
Aconitum
(aconite) Atropa belladonna
Atropa belladonna
(belladonna) Cannabis

medical use

Castoreum Coca Conium
Conium
(hemlock) Datura innoxia
Datura innoxia
(thorn-apple) Datura metel
Datura metel
(devil's trumpet) Hyoscyamus niger
Hyoscyamus niger
(henbane) Lactucarium Mandragora officinarum
Mandragora officinarum
(mandrake) Opium Saussurea
Saussurea
(saw-wort) Willow

People

Abulcasis Avenzoar Avicenna Celsus Dioscorides Galen Hippocrates Rhazes Sabuncuoğlu Sushrutha Theophrastus Zhang

Compounds

Aconitine Atropine Cocaine Coniine Hyoscine Δ9-THC Hyoscyamine Morphine Salicylate

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 56636061 LCCN: n80103641 ISNI: 0000 0001 1850 335X GND: 118816063 SELIBR: 175688 SUDOC: 029184371 BNF: cb12086406q (data) ICCU

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