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Tāj al-Dīn Abū al-Fath Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Karīm ash-Shahrastānī (1086–1153 CE), also known as Muhammad al-Shahrastānī, was an influential Persian historian of religions, a historiographer, Islamic
Islamic
scholar, philosopher and theologian.[1] His book, Kitab al–Milal wa al-Nihal (lit. The Book of Sects and Creeds) was one of the pioneers in developing an objective and philosophical approach to the study of religions.[2]

Contents

1 Life 2 Works

2.1 Religious belief 2.2 Philosophy 2.3 Christian commentary

3 Notes 4 Bibliography 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Life[edit] Very few things are known about al-Shahrastānī's life. He was born in 1086 CE A.H., in the town of Shahristān, (Khorasan, province of Persia) where he acquired his early traditional education. Later, he was sent to Nīshāpūr where he studied under different masters who were all disciples of the Ash`ari theologian al-Juwaynī (d. 1085). At the age of thirty, al-Shahrastānī went to Baghdad
Baghdad
to pursue theological studies and taught for three years at the prestigious Ash`ari school, al-Nizāmiyya. Afterwards, he returned to Persia
Persia
where he worked as Nā’ib (Deputy) of the chancellery for Sanjar, the Saljūq ruler of Khurāsān. At the end of his life, al-Shahrastānī went back to live in his native town, where he died in the year 1153. Works[edit] Al-Shahrastani distinguished himself by his desire to describe in the most objective way the universal religious history of humanity.[3] This is reflected in his Kitab al-Milal wa al-Nihal (The Book of Sects and Creeds), a monumental work, which presents the doctrinal points of view of all the religions and philosophies which existed up to his time. The book was one of the earliest systematic studies of religion, and is noted for its non-polemical style and scientific approach.[4] A French translation of the book by Gimaret, Monnot and Jolivet was sponsored by UNESCO
UNESCO
(Livre des religions et des sectes. Peeters: 1986, 1993). Al-Shahrastani's philosophical and theological thoughts manifested in his other major works, which include:

The Nihayat al-aqdam fi 'ilm al-kalam (The End of Steps in the Science of Theology) presents different theological discussions and shows the limits of Muslim theology (kalam). The Majlis is a discourse, written during the mature period of his life, delivered to a Twelver
Twelver
Shi`ite audience. The Musara`at al-Falasifa (The Struggle with Philosophers) criticizes Ibn Sina
Ibn Sina
(Avicenna)’s doctrines by emphasizing some peculiar Isma'ili
Isma'ili
arguments on the division of beings. The Mafatih al-Asrar wa-masabih al-abrar (The Keys of the Mysteries and the Lamps of the Righteous) introduces the Qur’an
Qur’an
and gives a complete commentary on the first two chapters of the Qur’an.

Religious belief[edit] Al-Shahrastani's own beliefs are difficult to categorize because he juggled many different philosophical and theological vocabularies. He was a clever thinker, demonstrated by the intricacies of many traditions and the Shi`ite notion of the 'Guide' (Imam) found in his thoughts. Al-Shahrastani had many reasons to speak somewhat allegorically. He was a very subtle author who often spoke indirectly by means of symbols. He preferred his own personal vocabulary to the traditional one. For this reason, his position is hard to determine. It may well be that ideological considerations led him to speak indirectly; he perhaps assumed those familiar with the symbols would be able to unravel his elusive ideas. For all these reasons, many scholars who have studied al-Shahrastani were misled concerning his religious identity. Though al-Shahrastani is generally regarded as an Sunni-Ash'ari theologian, he had been accused by his contemporaries, al-Khwarazmi and al-Sam'ani, of being drawn to the "people of the mountain fortresses", i.e. the Nizari
Nizari
Isma'ilis of Alamut
Alamut
(See: Hassan-i Sabbah and the Hashshashin).[citation needed] This view is supported by modern scholars, such as Muhammad Ridā Jalālī Nā’īnī, Muhammad Taqī Dānish-Pazhūh, Wilferd Madelung, Jean Jolivet, Guy Monnot, and Diana Steigerwald who characterize his works as belonging to the Isma'ili
Isma'ili
tradition, while attributing his public Ash'arism and Shafi'ism to the practice of taqiyya (religious dissimulation), since Ismā`īlis were persecuted during that time.[5] Philosophy[edit] As opposed to Ash'arites, al-Shahrastani presents a gradation in the creation (khalq). He gives a definition of the Prophetic Impeccability (`Isma) opposed to the Ash`arite tradition, maintaining that it subsists in the Prophet
Prophet
as part of his real nature. As did al-Ghazzali, al-Shahrastani harshly criticizes Avicenna's Necessary Being
Being
who knows the universal but not the particular. Al-Shahrastani, particularly in the Musara`a al-Falasifa, has an Isma'ili
Isma'ili
conception of the Originator (Mubdi`) beyond Being
Being
and non-Being. He argues convincingly for the existence of Divine Attributes, but he does not ascribe them directly to God. True worship means Tawhid
Tawhid
- declaring the Unicity of God. This includes the negation of all attributes which humans give to God, the Ultimate One who is totally transcendent. God is Unknowable, Indefinable, Unattainable, and above human comprehension. As for the theory of creation, in the Nihaya, al-Shahrastani insists that God is the only Creator and the only Agent. He also develops a different interpretation of ex-nihilo creation which does not mean creation out of nothing, but creation made only by God.[6] In the Majlis and the Mafatih al-Asrar, the angels play a dominant role in the physical creation.[7] His theory of the Divine Word (Kalima) has a convincing Isma'ili
Isma'ili
imprint; for example, his hierarchy of angels and Divine Words (Kalimat ) are conceived as being the causes of spiritual beings. Al-Shahrastani in the Nihaya writes:

"... his [Divine] Command (Amr) is pre-existent and his multiple Kalimat are eternal. By his Command, Kalimat become the manifestation of it. Spiritual beings are the manifestation of Kalimat and bodies are the manifestation of spiritual beings. The Ibda` (Origination beyond time and space) and khalq (physical creation) become manifested [respectively in] spiritual beings and bodies. As for Kalimat and letters (huruf), they are eternal and pre-existent. Since his Command is not similar to our command, his Kalimat and his letters are not similar to our Kalimat. Since letters are elements of Kalimat which are the causes of spiritual beings who govern corporeal beings; all existence subsists in the Kalimat Allah preserved in his Command."[8]

In the Majlis, al-Shahrastani divides the creation into two worlds – the spiritual world (i.e. the world of the Origination of spirits (Ibda'-i arwah)) in an achieved (mafrugh) state and the world of physical creation (khalq) in becoming (musta'naf). He shares an Isma`ili cosmology in which God has built his religion in the image of creation. The conception of Prophecy developed in the Nihaya is closer to that of Isma`ilis and Falasifa ( Islamic
Islamic
philosophers) than to Ash`arites, because al-Shahrastani establishes a logical link between miracles and Prophetic Impeccability (`Isma). For al-Shahrastani, the proof of veracity (sidq) of the Prophet
Prophet
is intrinsic to his nature and is related to his Impeccability.[9] He develops the concept of cyclical time explicitly in the Milal, the Majlis, and the Mafatih and implicitly in the Nihaya. In the Majlis, his understanding of the dynamic evolution of humanity is similar to Isma`ilism, in which each Prophet
Prophet
opens a new cycle. Al-Shahrastani recovers the mythical Qur'anic story of Moses
Moses
and the Servant of God inspired by Al-Risala al-Mudhhiba of al-Qadi al-Nu'man (d. 974). Al-Shahrastani was an able and learned man of great personal charm. The real nature of his thought is best referred to by the term theosophy, in the older sense of "divine wisdom". However, al-Shahrastani was certainly not totally against theology or philosophy, even if he was very harsh against the theologians and the philosophers. As he explained in the Majlis, in order to remain on the right path, one must preserve a perfect equilibrium between intellect (`aql) and audition (sam`). A philosopher or a theologian must use his intellect until he reaches the rational limit. Beyond this limit, he must listen to the teaching of Prophets and Imams. His works reflect a complex interweaving of intellectual strands, and his thought is a synthesis of this fruitful historical period. In his conception of God, Creation, Prophecy, and Imama, al Shahrastani adopted many doctrinal elements that are reconcilable with Nizari Isma'ilism. The necessity of a Guide, belonging both to the spiritual and the physical world, is primordial in his scheme since the Imam is manifested in this physical world. Christian commentary[edit] In Kitab al-Milal wa al-Nihal, al-Shahrastani records a portrayal of Christianity
Christianity
very close to the orthodox tenets while continuing the Islamic
Islamic
narrative:

“The Christians. (They are) the community (umma) of the Christ, Jesus, son of Mary (peace upon him). He it is who was truly sent (as prophet; mab'uth) after Moses
Moses
(peace upon him), and who was announced in the Torah. To him were (granted) manifest signs and notable evidences, such as the reviving of the dead and the curing of the blind and the leper. His very nature and innate disposition (fitra) are a perfect sign of his truthfulness; that is, his coming without previous seed and his speaking without prior teaching. For all the (other) prophets the arrival of their revelation was at (the age of) forty years, but revelation came to him when he was made to speak in the cradle, and revelation came to him when he conveyed (the divine message) at (the age of) thirty. The duration of his (prophetic) mission (da'wa) was three years and three months and three days.”[10]

Al-Shahrastani also explains the differences between Christians in Kitab al-Milal wa al-Nihal regarding the incarnation (tajassud):

“They affirmed that God has three hypostases (aqanim). They said that the Creator (may he be exalted) is one substance (jawhar), meaning by this what is self-subsistent (al-qa'im bi-n-nafs), not (what is characterized by) spatial location and physical magnitude; and he is one in substantiality, three in hypostaticity (uqnumiyya). By the hypostases they mean the attributes (sifat), such as existence, life and knowledge, and the father, the son and the holy spirit (ruh al-qudus). The (hypostasis of) knowledge clothes itself and was incarnated, but not the other hypostases.”[11]

Notes[edit]

^ Schimmel, Annemarie (1992). Islam: An Introduction (Translation of: Der Islam). SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-1327-6. OCLC 25201546. p. 86 ^ Watt, William Montgomery (1991). Muslim-Christian Encounters: Perceptions and Misperceptions. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415054109.  ^ Watt 1991, p. 68. ^ Watt 1991, p. 68. ^ (Steigerwald 1997, pp. 298–307) ^ (al-Shahrastani 1934, pp. 18–9) ^ (al-Shahrastani 1998, p. 82); (al-Shahrastani 1989, vol. I: 109 verso line 24 to 110 recto line 1) ^ (al-Shahrastani 1934, p. 316) ^ (al-Shahrastani 1934, pp. 444–5) ^ Watt 1991, p. 68. ^ Watt 1991, p. 69.

Bibliography[edit]

Works and studies in English

al-Shahrastānī, The Summa philosophiae, (Kitāb Nihāyatu ʼl-Iqdām fī ʽIlmi ʼl –Kalām), edited with a translation by Alfred Guillaume, London, Oxford University Press 1934. Muhammad b. 'Abd al-Karim Shahrastani, Muslim Sects and Divisions. The Section on Muslim Sects in Kitab al-Milal wa 'l-Nibal, translated by A. K.Kazi and J. G.Flynn, London, Kegan Paul International 1984 (reprint New York, Routledge 2013). al-Shahrastānī, Struggling with the Philosopher: A Refutation of Avicenna's Metaphysics, translation by Wilferd Madelung
Wilferd Madelung
and Toby Mayer of Kitāb Muṣāraʿat al-falāsifa, London, Tauris, 2001. al-Shahrastānī, Keys to the Arcana: Shahrastānī's Esoteric Commentary on the Qurʼan: A Translation of the Commentary on Sūrat al-Fātiḥa, by Toby Mayer; with the Arabic text reproduced from the edition by M.A. Adharshab, New York, Oxford University Press, 2009. Bruce B. Lawrence, Shahrastani on the Indian Religions, Preface by Franz Rosenthal, The Hague, Mouton, 1976 (with the translation of Shahrastânï's Kitäb al-milal wan-nihal Part II, Book III, Section Β 'Ära al-hind'l, The Views of the Indians, pp. 33–62). Steigerwald, Diana, "The Divine Word (Kalima) in Shahrastani's Majlis." In Studies in Religion/Sciences religieuses, vol. 25.3, 1996, pp. 335–52. Steigerwald, Diana, "Al-Shahrastānī’s Contribution to Medieval Islamic
Islamic
Thought." In Todd Lawson (ed.), Reason and Inspiration in Islam: Theology, Philosophy
Philosophy
and Mysticism in Muslim Thought. Essays in Honor of Hermann Landolt. London: I.B. Tauris, 2005, pp. 262–273.

Works and studies in French

Al-Shahrastānī, Livre des religions et des sectes, traduction par Daniel Gimaret, Guy Monnot, Jean Jolivet, Louvain, Peeters et UNESCO, 1986-1993 (two volumes) Al-Shahrastānī, Majlis: Discours sur l'ordre et la création. (Majlis-i maktub-i Shahrastāni-i munʿaqid dar Khwārazm. Edited by Muḥammad Riżā R. Jalāli Naʾini) traduction française de Diane Steigerwald), Sainte-Foy (Québec): Les Presses de l'Université Laval 1999. Jolivet, Jean, "Al-Shahrastânî critique d'Avicenne dans la lutte contre les philosophes (quelques aspects)," Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 2000, vol. 10, pp. 275–292. Monnot, Guy, "Islam: exégèse coranique." Annuaire de l'École Pratique des Hautes Études. Section des sciences religieuses, sur Shahrastani:

"L'Introduction de Shahrastâni à son commentaire coranique inédit", Tome 92, 1983-1984. 1983. pp. 305–316; "La Sourate d'ouverture dans le commentaire coranique inédit de Shahrastânï", Tome 93, 1984-1985. 1984. pp. 293–303; "Le commentaire coranique inédit de Shahrastânî (suite)", Tome 94, 1985-1986. 1985. pp. 347–351; "La Sourate de la Vache dans le commentaire coranique inédit de Shahrastânî", Tome 95, 1986-1987. 1986. pp. 253–259; "« Les clefs des mystères » de Shahrastânî", Tome 96, 1987-1988. 1987. pp. 237–243; "« Les clefs des mystères > de Sharastânî (suite)", Tome 97, 1988-1989. 1988. pp. 249–255.

Monnot, Guy, 1996 «Shahrastani», su: Encyclopédie de l'islam, 1996, vol. 9, pp. 220–22. Monnot, Guy, 1999 Book review of La pensée philosophique et théologique de Shahrastani (m. 548/1153) by Diane Steigerwald in: Bulletin critique des annales islamologiques, vol. 15, pp. 79–81. Monnot, Guy, 2001 Book review of Majlis-i maktub-i Shahrastani-i mun'aqid dar Khwarazm. Ed. Muhammad Rida R. Jalali Na'ini and translated into French by Diane Steigerwald in Majlis: Discours sur l'ordre et la création. Sainte-Foy (Québec): Les Presses de l'Université Laval in Bulletin critique des annales islamologiques, vol. 17. Steigerwald, Diana, 1995 "L'Ordre (Amr) et la création (khalq) chez Shahrastani." Folia Orientalia, vol. 31, pp. 163–75. Steigerwald, Diana, 1997 La pensée philosophique et théologique de Shahrastani (m. 548/1153). Sainte-Foy (Québec): Les Presses de l'Université Laval. Steigerwald, Diana, 1998 "La dissimulation (taqiyya) de la foi dans le shi'isme ismaélien." Studies in Religion/Sciences religieuses, vol. 27.1, pp. 39–59.

Works and studies in German

Al-Shahrastānī, Abū al-Fatḥ Ibn ʿAbd al-Karīm, Religionspartheien und Philosophen-Schulen, traduzione di Kitāb al-Milal wa al-Niḥal a cura di Theodor Haarbrücker, Halle, Schwetschke, 1850-1851 (due volumi). Madelung, Wilferd, "Ash-Shahrastanis Streitschrift gegen Avicenna
Avicenna
und ihre Widerlegung durch Nasir ad-din at-Tusi." Akten des VII. Kongresses für Arabistik und Islamwissenschaft, Abhandlungen der Akademie des Wissenschaften in Göttingen, 1976, vol. 98, pp. 250–9.

Works in Arabic

Al-Shahrastānī, Abū al-Fatḥ Ibn ʿAbd al-Karīm, 1923 Kitāb al-Milal wa al-Niḥal. Ed. William Cureton in Books of Religions and Philosophical Sects. 2 vols. Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz (reprint of the edition of London 1846). Danish-Pazhuh, Muhammad Taqi, "Dāʿi al-duʿāt Taj al-din-i Shahrastana." Nama-yi astan-i quds, 1968. vol. 7, pp. 77–80. Danish-Pazhuh, Muhammad Taqi, "Dāʿi al-duʿāt Taj al-din-i Shahrastana." Nama-yi astan-i quds, 1969, vol. 8, pp. 61–71. Naʿini, Jalāli, 1964 Sharh-i Ḥāl wa Athar-i Ḥujjat al-Ḥaqq Abu al-Fatḥ Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Karim b. Aḥmad Shahrastāni. Tehran. al-Nuʿmān, Abū Ḥanīfa, 1956 Al-Risāla al-Mudhhiba. In: Khams Rasāʾil Ismāʿīliyya. Ed. ʿĀrif Tāmir, Beirut. Al-Shahrastānī, Abū al-Fatḥ Ibn ʿAbd al-Karīm, 1366-1375/1947-1955 Kitāb al-Milal wa al-Niḥal. Ed. Muḥammad Fatḥ Allāh Badrān, 2 vols. Cairo. Al-Shahrastānī, Abū al-Fatḥ Ibn ʿAbd al-Karīm, 1396/1976 Muṣāraʿat al-falāsifa. Ed. Suhayr M. Mukhtār. Cairo. Al-Shahrastānī, Abū al-Fatḥ Ibn ʿAbd al-Karīm, 1989 Mafātīḥ al-asrār wa-masābīḥ al-abrār. Tehran.

See also[edit]

Kitab al–Milal wa al-Nihal List of Persian scientists
List of Persian scientists
and scholars

References[edit]

Books

Schimmel, Annemarie (1992). Islam: An Introduction (Translation of: Der Islam). SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-1327-6. OCLC 25201546. 

External links[edit]

Al-Shahrastani at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Al-Shahrastani ( Islamic
Islamic
Philosophy
Philosophy
Online) (in French) Biography of Imām Al-Shahrastānī by Ibn Khallikān (at-tawhid.net) Digitalisations (of Haarbrücker's German translation 1850-51), at Google Books: v.1: [1], [2], v. 1-2: [3]

v t e

Shafi`i
Shafi`i
School

by century (AH CE)

2nd/8th

Al- Shafi`i
Shafi`i
(founder of the school)

3rd/9th

Abu al-Hasan al-Ash`ari Al-Humaydi Al-Nasai Harith al-Muhasibi Ibn al-Mundhir Ibn Khuzaymah Ibn Majah Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj

4th/10th

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi Abu Nuaym Abu Talib al-Makki Al-Daraqutni Al-Hakim Nishapuri Ibn Furak

5th/11th

Abu Isḥāq ash-Shirazi Ahmad Ghazali Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tha`labi Al-Baghawi Al-Bayhaqi Al-Juwayni Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi Al-Mawardi Al-Qushayri Yusuf Hamadani

6th/12th

Ahmed al-Rifa`i Al-Ghazali Al-Shahrastani Fakhr al-Din al-Razi Ibn al-Salah Ibn `Asakir Sayf al-Din al-Amidi Shahab al-Din Yahya ibn Habash Suhrawardi

7th/13th

Ahmad al-Badawi Al-Baydawi Al-Nawawi Ibn Abil-Hadid Ibn Daqiq al-Id Ibn Khallikan Izz al-Din ibn Abd al-Salam Safi-ad-din Ardabili Yusuf ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Mizzi

8th/14th

Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Haythami Al-Dhahabi Badr Ad-Din az-Zarkashi Ibn al-Jazari Ibn Kathir Taftazani Taj al-Din al-Subki Taqi al-Din al-Subki Zain al-Din al-Iraqi

9th/15th

Al-Qastallani Al-Sakhawi Al-Suyuti Ali ibn Ahmad al-Samhudi Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani Ibn Nuhaas Zakariyya al-Ansari

10th/16th

Al-Khaṭib ash-Shirbiniy Al-Sha`rani Ibn Hajar al-Haytami

11th/17th

Abdullah ibn Alawi al-Haddad

12th/18th

Muhammad Hayyat ibn Ibrahim al-Sindhi

13th/19th

Abd Al-Rahman bin Ahmad al-Zayla`i Ibrahim al-Bajuri Shaykh Sufi Uways al-Barawi Yusuf an-Nabhani

14th/20th

Abdul Azeez Madani Abdallah al-Qutbi Abdullah al-Harari Afifi al-Akiti Ahmad Syafi'i Maarif Ahmed Kuftaro Ali al-Jifri Ali Gomaa Awn Al-Qaddoumi Cherussery Zainuddeen Musliyar Gibril Haddad Hamka Hasyim Muzadi K. Ali Kutty Musliyar Mohammad Salim Al-Awa Muhammad bin Yahya al-Ninowy Nuh Ha Mim Keller Said Nursî Sayyid Ibraheem Khaleel Al Bukhari Sayyid Muhammad Jifri Muthukkoya Thangal Sheikh Aboobacker Ahmed Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas Taha Jabir Alalwani Umar bin Hafiz Wahbah al-Zuhayli Zaid Shakir

Scholars of other Sunni
Sunni
Islamic
Islamic
schools of jurisprudence

Hanafi Hanbali Maliki Zahiri

v t e

Islamic
Islamic
theology

Fields Theologians Books

Fields

Aqidah ‘aql Astronomy Cosmology Eschatology Ethics Kalam Fiqh Logic in philosophy Peace in philosophy Philosophy Physics Philosophy
Philosophy
of education

Theologians

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani Abdul Hosein Amini Abdulhakim Arvasi Abū Ḥanīfa Abu l-A‘la Mawdudi Abu Yusuf Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ahmad Sirhindi Ahmad Yasavi Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Akhtar Raza Khan al-Ash‘ari al-Ballūṭī al-Baydawi al-Dhahabi al-Ghazali al-Hilli al-Jahiz al-Jubba'i al-Kindi al-Masudi al-Maturidi al-Mufid Al-Qasim al-Qushayri al-Razi Al-Shafi‘i al-Shahrastani al-Shirazi al-Tirmidhi Allameh Majlesi Amr ibn Ubayd Dawud al-Zahiri Fazlur Rahman Malik Hasan of Basra Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Haji Bektash Veli Hüseyin Hilmi Işık ibn ‘Arabī ibn al-Jawzi ibn ‘Aqil ibn Hazm ibn Qudamah Ibn Taymiyyah Ja’far al-Sadiq Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi Malik ibn Anas Mahmud Hudayi Morteza Motahhari Muhammad al-Baqir Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Muhammad Hamidullah Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad Taqi Usmani Nasir Khusraw Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Said Nursî Shaykh Tusi Sheikh Bedreddin Wasil ibn Ata Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin

Key books

Crucial Sunni
Sunni
books

al-Irshad al- Aqidah
Aqidah
al-Tahawiyyah

Buyruks Kitab al Majmu Masnavi Nahj al-Balagha Epistles of Wisdom Risale-i Nur

Schools

Sunni

Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalism

Shia

Kaysanites

Mukhtar

Abu Muslim Sunpadh Ishaq al-Turk

Muhammerah

Khurramites

Babak Mazyar Ismail I / Pir Sultan Abdal
Pir Sultan Abdal
– Qizilbash / Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam

al-Muqanna

Zaidiyyah

Jarudi Batriyya Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Hasan al-Utrush

List of extinct Shia sects

Dukayniyya Khalafiyya Khashabiyya

Imami Isma'ilism

Batiniyyah

Sevener Qarmatians Hamza / al-Muqtana Baha'uddin / ad-Darazi – Druzes

Musta'li

Hafizi Taiyabi

Nizari

Assassins Nizaris

Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
Badakhshan
Badakhshan
Alevism

Imami Twelver

Theology
Theology
of Twelvers

Ja'fari

Akhbari Shaykhi Usuli

Alevism

Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
– Qalandariyya Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak
– Babai Revolt Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
– Rifa'i-Galibi Order

Ghulat

al-Khaṣībī / ibn Nusayr – Alawites Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi) / Imadaddin Nasimi
Imadaddin Nasimi
– Hurufism / Bektashism and folk religion

Independent

Ibadi

ibn Ibāḍ Jābir ibn Zayd

Jabriyyah

Ibn Safwan

Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya

Khawarij

Azariqa Najdat Sufri

Abu Qurra

Nakkariyyah

Abu Yazid

Haruriyyah

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 90052220 LCCN: n83043209 ISNI: 0000 0001 2030 4034 GND: 102371881 SELIBR: 199147 SUDOC: 02711760X BNF:

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