Al-Ruhawi
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Ishāq bin Ali al-Rohawi ( ar, إسحاق بن علي الرهاوي) was a 9th-century
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
physician A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English), medical doctor, or simply doctor, is a professional who practices medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintainin ...

physician
and the author of the first
medical ethics Medical ethics is an applied branch of ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, k ...
book in
Arabic medicine In the history of medicine, "Islamic medicine" is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowledge in the form ...
. His ''Ethics of the Physician'' contains the first documented description of a
peer review Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field Field may r ...
process, where the notes of a practising Arab physician were reviewed by peers and the physician could face a lawsuit from a maltreated patient if the reviews were negative. Al-Rohawi was probably from Al-Ruha, modern-day
Şanlıurfa Urfa, officially known as Şanlıurfa (; ar, الرُّهَا‎, alruha; ku, Riha, script=Latn; syr, ܐܘܪܗܝ, Ūrhāi and known in ancient times as Edessa), is a List of cities in Turkey, city with a population of over 2 million residents ...

Şanlıurfa
in
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
, close to the border with
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
, which is often simply known as ''Urfa''. He was born a Christian, possibly in the
Nestorian Nestorianism is a polysemic Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field. Polysemy is thus ...

Nestorian
offshoot, and may have still been Christian when he composed his works, despite the very strong influence of Islam on them.


Works

Al-Rohawi's most celebrated work is ''
Adab al-Tabib ''Adab al-Tabib'' ( ar, أدب الطبيب ''Adab aț-Ṭabīb'', "Adab (Islam), Morals of the physician") is the common title of a historical Arabic book on medical ethics, written by Al-Ruhawi, a 9th-century physician. The title can be roughly ...
'' ("Practical Ethics of the Physician" or "Practical Medical
Deontology In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek language, Greek: + ) is the normative ethics, normative ethical theory that the morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a s ...
"), the earliest surviving Arabic work on medical ethics. Al-Rohawi regarded physicians as "guardians of souls and bodies". The work was based on
Hippocrates Hippocrates of Kos (; grc-gre, Ἱπποκράτης ὁ Κῷος, Hippokrátēs ho Kôios; ), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ε ...

Hippocrates
and
Galen Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus ( el, Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 – c. AD 216), often Anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modi ...
and consisted of twenty chapters on various topics related to medical ethics. He also wrote the following books: * ''A compilation of first four books of Alexandrian Canons'' * ''Introduction to
Dialectics Dialectic or dialectics ( grc-gre, διαλεκτική, ''dialektikḗ''; related to dialogue Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States Engli ...

Dialectics
for Beginners'' * ''On Examination of Physicians'' He compiled two works based on
Galen Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus ( el, Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 – c. AD 216), often Anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modi ...
.


References


External links


lib.eshia.ir
{{DEFAULTSORT:Ishaq Ibn Ali Al-Ruhqwi Physicians of medieval Islam Medieval Syrian physicians Medieval Arab physicians Science writers of medieval Islam 9th-century physicians 9th-century Arabic writers People from Şanlıurfa Peer review 9th-century Arabs