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Imam al-Haramayn Dhia' ul-Din Abd al-Malik ibn Yusuf al-Juwayni al- Shafi'i
Shafi'i
(Persian: امام الحرمین ضیاءالدین عبدالملک ابن یوسف جوینی شافعی‎, 17 February 1028— 19 August 1085; 419—478 AH) was a Persian Sunni
Sunni
Shafi'i jurist and mutakallim theologian. His name is commonly abbreviated as Al-Juwayni; he is also commonly referred to as Imam al Haramayn,[1][4] meaning "leading master of the two holy cities", that is, Mecca
Mecca
and Medina.

Contents

1 Biography 2 Doctrine 3 Works 4 See also 5 References 6 Citations 7 External links

Biography[edit] Al-Juwayni was born on 22 February 1028 in a village on the outskirts of Naysabur called Bushtaniqan in Iran,[5] Al-Juwayni was a prominent Muslim
Muslim
scholar known for his gifted intellect in Islamic legal matters. Al-Juwayni was born into a family of legal study. His father, Abu Muhammad 'Abdallah b. Yusef al-Juwayni, was a well-known master of Law in the Shafi′i community as well as a Shafi'i
Shafi'i
teacher and his older brother, Abu'l-Hasan 'Ali al-Juwayni, was a Sufi teacher of Hadith. Al-Juwayni grew up in Naysabur,[5] an intellectually thriving area drawing scholars to it. Naturally, Juwayni did not have to search far for his education. At the time, the teachings of the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school were closely linked to the Ash'arite
Ash'arite
theology which al-Juwayni decided to study for several years after the death of his father, though he would later regret the time he invested in studying and debating the school's principles while on his deathbed.[6] He took over for his father at this point and began his teaching career at only 19 years of age.[5] The Seljuks, at the time, were moving quickly in their conquest of eastern Iran
Iran
and Tughril Beg
Tughril Beg
became the first sultan. Tughril Beg
Tughril Beg
was a Mutazili- Hanafi
Hanafi
adherent and at the time, the Ash'arite
Ash'arite
theological camp and the Hanafi
Hanafi
school of legal thought shared a hostile relationship based in differences of opinion regarding doctrine and when Tughril Beg
Tughril Beg
was named wazir in Nishapur, he forbid al-Juwayni to practice or teach the Ash'ari
Ash'ari
theological perspective.[5] Al-Juwayni traveled to Mecca
Mecca
and Medina
Medina
in search of an interim home. He taught and studied there in Hijaz
Hijaz
for four years.[7] During this time, al-Juwayni became hugely popularized because of his father's prominence in the scholarly world, and his exile.[5] He gained a large following and was invited back to Nishapur
Nishapur
by the founder of the Shafii Madrasa, Khwaja Nizam al-Mulk. Upon his return, Juwayni was appointed to teach the doctrine of the Ash'arites at the Nizamiyya Madrasa
Madrasa
until he died in 1085CE (which would turn out to be about 26 years).[7] Al-Juwayni spent his life studying and producing influential treatises in Muslim
Muslim
government; it is suspected that most of his works (below) came out of this period after his return from Mecca
Mecca
and Medina.[5] Al-Juwayni was the teacher of one of the most influential scholars in the Islamic tradition, particularly Sufism, al-Ghazali.[4][7] Doctrine[edit] Al-Juwayni, a Sunni
Sunni
jurist and Mutakallim, or scholar engaged in the study of theological principles, spent his life deciphering between what a Muslim
Muslim
ought and ought not to do. He was said to be stubborn and accepting of any legal speculation whatsoever. His basic principle was that the law should not be left to speculation on any grounds. Rather, texts hold the answers to any possible legal debate in some capacity or another.[5] He was a master of the Koran
Koran
and Hadith
Hadith
texts in addition to being well versed in the particular school of Shafi'i and theological practices of the Ash'arite
Ash'arite
persuasion.[8] Works[edit] Al-Juwayni's primary work Kitab Al-Irshad Ila Qawati' Al-Adilla Fi Usul al-I'tiqad (Arabic: کتاب الارشاد علی قواطع الادله فی اصول الاعتقاد‎), his "guidebook to conclusive proofs for the principles of belief" helps to illustrate his doctrine. It is intended to outline exactly what has been proven, what can be proven and how those things can be proven.[8] He focuses much of his attention on God and the fundamental Islamic principle that God is the only and all-powerful creator. He explains that we are often caught up in a temporally contingent existence, lost in continuity but that we should realize God's ability to interrupt this continuity at any time.[9] Al-Juwayni focuses a similar amount of attention on legal methodology and is particularly concerned with the methods for discerning difficult debates. He explains abrogation, for example, in great detail.[8] In fiqh, usûl, kalām

Ghiyath al-Umam Mughith al-Khalq Nihaya al-Matlab fi Diraya al-Madhhab ("The End of the Quest in the Knowledge of the [Shafi'i] School"), his magnum opus, which Ibn 'Asakir said had no precedent in Islam Mukhtasar al-Nihaya. al-Burhan al-Talkhis al-Waraqat al-Shamil Kitab Al-Irshad Ila Qawati' Al-Adilla Fi Usul al-I'tiqad, shortly known as Al-Irshad al-'Aqida al-Nizamiyya

The book Fara'id al-Simtayn
Fara'id al-Simtayn
is sometimes mistakenly thought to be authored by the Sunni
Sunni
Abd'al Malik al-Juwayni. It was in fact authored by another Sunni
Sunni
scholar Ibrahim bin Muhammad bin Himaway al Juwayni who died in 1322 AD(722 A.H.)[10] See also[edit]

Islamic scholars

References[edit]

Musharraf, M. N. (2015) "Explanation of Al-Waraqat - A Classical Text on Usul Al Fiqh", Printed by Australian Islamic Library, WA. ISBN 978-1-329-78803-9 [4] Al-Juwayni,Yusef. A Guide to the Conclusive Proofs for the Principles of Belief. 1 ed. Eissa S. Muhammad. The Center for Muslim
Muslim
Contribution to Civilization, 2000. Messick, Brinkley. "Kissing Hands and Knees: Hegemony and Hierarchy in Shari'a Discourse." Law & Society Review 22, no. 4 (1988): 637-660. Hallaq, Wael B.. "Caliphs, Jurists and the Saljuqs in the Political Thought of Juwayni." The Muslim
Muslim
World 74, no. 1 (1984): 26-41. Fadiman & Frager,James & Robert. Essential Sufism. 1 ed. James Fadiman & Robert Frager. San Francisco : Harper Collins, 1997. Johnston, David. "A Turn in the Epistemology and Hermeneutics of Twentieth Century Usul Al-Fiqh." Islamic Law & Society 11, no. 2 (2004): 233-282.

Citations[edit]

^ a b c d M. M. Sharif, A History of Muslim
Muslim
Philosophy, 1.242. ISBN 9694073405 ^ A.C. Brown, Jonathan (2009). Hadith: Muhammad's Legacy in the Medieval and Modern World (Foundations of Islam). Oneworld Publications. p. 179. ISBN 978-1851686636.  ^ Adang, Camilla; Fierro, Maribel; Schmidtke, Sabine (2012). Ibn Hazm of Cordoba: The Life and Works of a Controversial Thinker (Handbook of Oriental Studies) (Handbook of Oriental Studies: Section 1; The Near and Middle East). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers. p. 387. ISBN 978-90-04-23424-6.  ^ a b c https://archive.org/download/AlWaraqatOfImamAlJuvainiCommentaryByMuhammadNabeelMusharraf/Al-Waraqat%20of%20Imam%20Al-Juvaini%20-%20Commentary%20by%20Muhammad%20Nabeel%20Musharraf.pdf ^ a b c d e f g Al-Juwayni, Yusef. A Guide to the Conclusive Proofs for the Principles of Belief. 1 ed. Eissa S. Muhammad. The Center for Muslim
Muslim
Contribution to Civilization, 2000 ^ Rashid Ahmad Jullundhry, Qur'anic Exegesis in Classical Literature, pgs. 53-54. New Westminster: The Other Press, 2010. ISBN 9789675062551 ^ a b c Messick, Brinkley. "Kissing Hands and Knees: Hegemony and Hierarchy in Shari'a Discourse." Law & Society Review 22, no. 4 (1988): 637-660. ^ a b c Hallaq, Wael B.. "Caliphs, Jurists and the Saljuqs in the Political Thought of Juwayni." The Muslim
Muslim
World 74, no. 1 (1984): 26-41. ^ Fadiman & Frager,James & Robert. Essential Sufism. 1 ed. James Fadiman & Robert Frager. San Francisco : Harper Collins, 1997. ^ Mu`ajam al-Mu`alafeen Vol.1 Page 89

External links[edit]

Arabic Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Al-Juwayni

Imam al-Haramayn al-Juwayni The Waraqat of Imam al-Haramayn al-Juwayni Exegesis of quranic verses mentioning God's Attributes (in French) Author analysis Faraa’d al Simtayn (in Arabic)

v t e

Shafi`i
Shafi`i
School

by century (AH CE)

2nd/8th

Al- Shafi`i
Shafi`i
(founder of the school)

3rd/9th

Abu al-Hasan al-Ash`ari Al-Humaydi Al-Nasai Harith al-Muhasibi Ibn al-Mundhir Ibn Khuzaymah Ibn Majah Muslim
Muslim
ibn al-Hajjaj

4th/10th

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi Abu Nuaym Abu Talib al-Makki Al-Daraqutni Al-Hakim Nishapuri Ibn Furak

5th/11th

Abu Isḥāq ash-Shirazi Ahmad Ghazali Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tha`labi Al-Baghawi Al-Bayhaqi Al-Juwayni Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi Al-Mawardi Al-Qushayri Yusuf Hamadani

6th/12th

Ahmed al-Rifa`i Al-Ghazali Al-Shahrastani Fakhr al-Din al-Razi Ibn al-Salah Ibn `Asakir Sayf al-Din al-Amidi Shahab al-Din Yahya ibn Habash Suhrawardi

7th/13th

Ahmad al-Badawi Al-Baydawi Al-Nawawi Ibn Abil-Hadid Ibn Daqiq al-Id Ibn Khallikan Izz al-Din ibn Abd al-Salam Safi-ad-din Ardabili Yusuf ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Mizzi

8th/14th

Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Haythami Al-Dhahabi Badr Ad-Din az-Zarkashi Ibn al-Jazari Ibn Kathir Taftazani Taj al-Din al-Subki Taqi al-Din al-Subki Zain al-Din al-Iraqi

9th/15th

Al-Qastallani Al-Sakhawi Al-Suyuti Ali ibn Ahmad al-Samhudi Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani Ibn Nuhaas Zakariyya al-Ansari

10th/16th

Al-Khaṭib ash-Shirbiniy Al-Sha`rani Ibn Hajar al-Haytami

11th/17th

Abdullah ibn Alawi al-Haddad

12th/18th

Muhammad Hayyat ibn Ibrahim al-Sindhi

13th/19th

Abd Al-Rahman bin Ahmad al-Zayla`i Ibrahim al-Bajuri Shaykh Sufi Uways al-Barawi Yusuf an-Nabhani

14th/20th

Abdul Azeez Madani Abdallah al-Qutbi Abdullah al-Harari Afifi al-Akiti Ahmad Syafi'i Maarif Ahmed Kuftaro Ali al-Jifri Ali Gomaa Awn Al-Qaddoumi Cherussery Zainuddeen Musliyar Gibril Haddad Hamka Hasyim Muzadi K. Ali Kutty Musliyar Mohammad Salim Al-Awa Muhammad bin Yahya al-Ninowy Nuh Ha Mim Keller Said Nursî Sayyid Ibraheem Khaleel Al Bukhari Sayyid Muhammad Jifri Muthukkoya Thangal Sheikh Aboobacker Ahmed Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas Taha Jabir Alalwani Umar bin Hafiz Wahbah al-Zuhayli Zaid Shakir

Scholars of other Sunni
Sunni
Islamic schools of jurisprudence

Hanafi Hanbali Maliki Zahiri

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 19728485 LCCN: n82164819 ISNI: 0000 0001 0797 640X GND: 118845772 SUDOC: 03081636X BNF:

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