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Great Seljuq Empire
Seljuq Empire
(Nishapur)[1]:292 Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
(Baghdad) / (Jerusalem) / (Damascus) [1]:292

Religion Islam

Denomination Sunni[3][4]

Jurisprudence Shafiʿi

Creed Ashʿari[5][6]

Main interest(s) Sufism, theology (kalam), philosophy, logic, Islamic jurisprudence

Notable work(s) The Revival of Religious Sciences, The Aims of the Philosophers, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Alchemy of Happiness, The Moderation in Belief, On Legal theory of Muslim Jurisprudence

Influenced

Ibn Tumart,[7] Fakhruddin Razi,[8] Suyuti,[9] Al-Nawawi,[10] Maimonides,[11] Thomas Aquinas,[12] Shah Waliullah Dehlawi[13]

Al- Ghazali (/ˈɡɑːzˌɑːli/;[14] full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, c. 1058 – 19 December 1111) was a medieval Muslim theologian, jurist, philosopher, and mystic[15][16] of Persian origin.[17][18][19] Al- Ghazali was a Sufi, and is credited with having initiated a rapprochement between Islamic orthodoxy and Sufi
Sufi
tradition. His religious apologetic work Tahāfut al-Falāsifa ("Incoherence of the Philosophers") favors Muslim faith over philosophy and was extremely influential in turning medieval Muslim thought away from Aristotelianism, philosophical debate and theological speculation, leading to the eventual defeat of the rational Persian Mutazilite
Mutazilite
by the dogmatic Sunni
Sunni
Asharite
Asharite
school of theological belief. Within Islamic myth he is considered to be a Mujaddid
Mujaddid
or renewer of the faith, who, according to the prophetic hadith, appears once every century to restore the faith of the ummah ("the Islamic Community").[20][21][22] His works were so highly acclaimed by his contemporaries that al- Ghazali was awarded the honorific title "Proof of Islam" (Hujjat al-Islam).[2]

Contents

1 Life 2 School affiliations 3 Works

3.1 Incoherence of the Philosophers 3.2 Autobiography 3.3 The Revival of Religious Sciences 3.4 Works in Persian

4 Influence 5 Bibliography 6 Reception of his work 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Life[edit] The believed date of al-Ghazali's birth, as given by Ibn al-Jawzi, is AH 450 (1058/9). Modern estimates place it at AH 448 (1056/7), on the basis of certain statements in al-Ghazali's correspondence and autobiography.[23]:23–25 He was born in Tabaran, a town in the district of Tus, Khorasan (today part of Iran).[23]:25 A posthumous tradition—the authenticity of which has been questioned in recent scholarship—tells that his father, a man "of Persian descent",[24] died in poverty and left the young al- Ghazali and his brother Ahmad to the care of a Sufi. Al-Ghazali's contemporary and first biographer, 'Abd al-Ghafir al-Farisi, records merely that al- Ghazali began to receive instruction in fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) from Ahmad al-Radhakani, a local teacher.[23]:26–27 He later studied under al-Juwayni, the distinguished jurist and theologian and "the most outstanding Muslim scholar of his time",[23]:29in Nishapur, perhaps after a period of study in Gurgan. After al-Juwayni's death in 1085, al- Ghazali departed from Nishapur and joined the court of Nizam al-Mulk, the powerful vizier of the Seljuq sultans, which was likely centered in Isfahan. After bestowing upon him the titles of "Brilliance of the Religion" and "Eminence among the Religious Leaders", Nizam al-Mulk
Nizam al-Mulk
advanced al- Ghazali in July 1091 to the "most prestigious and most challenging" professorial at the time, in the Nizamiyya madrasa in Baghdad.[23]:34 He underwent a spiritual crisis in 1095, and consequently abandoned his career and left Baghdad
Baghdad
on the pretext of going on pilgrimage to Mecca. Making arrangements for his family, he disposed of his wealth and adopted an ascetic lifestyle. According to biographer, Duncan B. Macdonald, the purpose of abstaining from scholastic work was to confront the spiritual experience and more ordinary understanding of "the Word and the Traditions".[25] After some time in Damascus
Damascus
and Jerusalem, with a visit to Medina
Medina
and Mecca
Mecca
in 1096, he returned to Tus to spend the next several years in 'uzla (seclusion). This seclusion consisted in abstaining from teaching at state-sponsored institutions, though he continued to publish, to receive visitors, and to teach in the zawiya (private madrasa) and khanqah ( Sufi
Sufi
monastery) that he had built. Fakhr al-Mulk, grand vizier to Ahmad Sanjar, pressed al- Ghazali to return to the Nizamiyya in Nishapur; al- Ghazali reluctantly capitulated in 1106, fearing (rightly) that he and his teachings would meet with resistance and controversy.[23]:53–4 He later returned to Tus, and declined an invitation in 1110 from the grand vizier of Muhammad
Muhammad
I to return to Baghdad. He died on 19 December 1111. According to 'Abd al-Ghafir al-Farisi he had several daughters, but no sons.[23]:57–59 School affiliations[edit]

Part of a series on Islam Sufism
Sufism
and Tariqat

Ideas

Abdal Al-Insān al-Kāmil Baqaa Dervish Dhawq Fakir Fanaa Haal Haqiqa Ihsan Irfan Ishq Keramat Kashf Lataif Manzil Marifa Nafs Nūr Qalandar Qutb Silsila Sufi
Sufi
cosmology Sufi
Sufi
metaphysics Sufi
Sufi
philosophy Sufi
Sufi
poetry Sufi
Sufi
psychology Salik Tazkiah Wali Yaqeen

Practices

Anasheed Dhikr Haḍra Muraqaba Qawwali Sama Whirling Ziyarat

Sufi
Sufi
orders

Akbari Alians Ashrafia Azeemia Ba 'Alawi Bayrami Bektashi Burhaniyya Chishti Galibi Gulshani Haqqani Anjuman Hurufi Idrisi Issawiyya Jelveti Jerrahi Khalidi

İskenderpaşa İsmailağa

Khalwati Kubrawi Madari Meivazhi Malamati Mevlevi Mouridi Noorbakshia Naqshbandi Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
Haqqani Nasuhi Ni'matullāhī Nuqtavi Qadiri Qalandari Rifa'i Safavi Saifia Shadhili Shattari Suhrawardi Sunbuli Sülaymaniyya Tijani Ussaki Uwaisi Zahedi Zikris

List of sufis

Notable early Notable modern Singers

Topics in Sufism

Tawhid Sharia Tariqa Haqiqa Ma'rifa Art History Music Shrines Texts

Portal

v t e

Al- Ghazali contributed significantly to the development of a systematic view of Sufism
Sufism
and to its integration and acceptance in mainstream Islam. As a scholar of orthodox Islam, he belonged to the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school of Islamic jurisprudence and to the Asharite
Asharite
school of theology.[26] Al- Ghazali received many titles such as Sharaf-ul-Aʾimma (شرف الأئمة), Zayn-ud-dīn (زين الدين), Ḥujjat-ul-Islām (حجة الإسلام). He is viewed[by whom?] as the key member of the influential Asharite school of early Muslim philosophy and as the most important refuter of the Mutazilites. However, he chose a slightly different position in comparison with the Asharites; his beliefs and thoughts differ, in some aspects, from the orthodox Asharite
Asharite
school.[26] Works[edit]

Haruniyah (هارونیه) structure in Tus, Iran, named after Harun al-Rashid, the mausoleum of Al- Ghazali is thought to be situated at the entrance of this monument

A total of about 60 works can be attributed to Al-Ghazali.[27] Incoherence of the Philosophers[edit] His 11th century book titled The Incoherence of the Philosophers
The Incoherence of the Philosophers
marks a major turn in Islamic epistemology. The encounter with skepticism led al- Ghazali to embrace a form of theological occasionalism, or the belief that all causal events and interactions are not the product of material conjunctions but rather the immediate and present Will of God. In the next century, Averroes
Averroes
drafted a lengthy rebuttal of al-Ghazali's Incoherence entitled The Incoherence of the Incoherence; however, the epistemological course of Islamic thought had already been set.[28] Al- Ghazali gave as an example of the illusion of independent laws of cause the fact that cotton burns when coming into contact with fire. While it might seem as though a natural law was at work, it happened each and every time only because God willed it to happen—the event was "a direct product of divine intervention as any more attention grabbing miracle". Averroes, by contrast insisted while God created the natural law, humans "could more usefully say that fire cause cotton to burn—because creation had a pattern that they could discern."[29] [30][31] The Incoherence also marked a turning point in Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy
in its vehement rejections of Aristotle
Aristotle
and Plato. The book took aim at the falasifa, a loosely defined group of Islamic philosophers from the 8th through the 11th centuries (most notable among them Avicenna
Avicenna
and Al-Farabi) who drew intellectually upon the Ancient Greeks. This long-held argument has been criticized. George Saliba in 2007 argued that the decline of science in the 11th century has been overstated, pointing to continuing advances, particularly in astronomy, as late as the 14th century.[32] On the other hand, Hassan Hassan in 2012 argued that while indeed scientific thought in Islam was stifled in the 11th century, the person mostly to blame is not Al- Ghazali but Nizam al-Mulk.[33] Autobiography[edit]

Last page of Al-Ghazali's autobiography in MS Istanbul, Shehid Ali Pasha 1712[clarification needed], dated AH 509 (AD 1115-1116).

The autobiography al- Ghazali wrote towards the end of his life, Deliverance From Error (المنقذ من الضلال al-munqidh min al-ḍalāl) is considered a work of major importance.[24] In it, al- Ghazali recounts how, once a crisis of epistemological skepticism was resolved by "a light which God Most High cast into my breast ... the key to most knowledge,"[34]:66 he studied and mastered the arguments of kalam, Islamic philosophy, and Ismailism. Though appreciating what was valid in the first two of these, at least, he determined that all three approaches were inadequate and found ultimate value only in the mystical experience and insight (the state of prophecy or nubuwwa)[citation needed] he attained as a result of following Sufi
Sufi
practices. William James, in Varieties of Religious Experience, considered the autobiography an important document for "the purely literary student who would like to become acquainted with the inwardness of religions other than the Christian" because of the scarcity of recorded personal religious confessions and autobiographical literature from this period outside the Christian tradition.[35]:307 The Revival of Religious Sciences[edit] See also: The Alchemy of Happiness Another of al-Ghazali's major works is Ihya' Ulum al-Din or Ihya'u Ulumiddin (The Revival of Religious Sciences). It covers almost all fields of Islamic sciences: fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), kalam (theology) and sufism.[citation needed] It contains four major sections: Acts of worship (Rub' al-'ibadat), Norms of Daily Life (Rub' al-'adatat), The ways to Perdition (Rub' al-muhlikat) and The Ways to Salvation (Rub' al-munjiyat). The Ihya became the most frequently recited Islamic text after the Qur'an and the hadith. Its great achievement was to bring orthodox Sunni
Sunni
theology and Sufi
Sufi
mysticism together in a useful, comprehensive guide to every aspect of Muslim life and death.[36] The book was well received by Islamic scholars such as Nawawi who stated that: "Were the books of Islam
Islam
all to be lost, excepting only the Ihya', it would suffice to replace them all."[37] Ghazali rewrote The Revival of Religious Sciences
The Revival of Religious Sciences
in Persian to reach a larger audience; he published this book under the name The Alchemy of Happiness. Works in Persian[edit] Al- Ghazali wrote most of his works in Arabic
Arabic
and few in Persian. His most important Persian work is Kīmyāyé Sa'ādat (The Alchemy of Happiness). It is al-Ghazali's own Persian version of Ihya'ul ulumuddin (The Revival of Religious Sciences) in Arabic, but a shorter work. It is one of the outstanding works of 11th-century-Persian literature. The book was published several times in Tehran
Tehran
by the edition of Hussain Khadev-jam, a renowned Iranian scholar. It is translated to English, Arabic, Turkish, Urdu, Azerbaijani and other languages.[38] Apart from Kimya, the most celebrated of al-Ghazali's works in Persian is 'Nasīhatul Mulūk (The Counseling Kings), written most probably for Sultan Ahmad Sanjar
Ahmad Sanjar
ibn Malekshah. In the edition published by Jalāluddīn Humāyī, the book consists of two parts of which only the first can reliably be attributed to al-Ghazali. The language and the contents of some passages are similar to the Kimyaye Sa'adat. The second part differs considerably in content and style from the well-known writings of al-Ghazali. It contains the stories of pre-Islamic kings of Persia, especially those of Anoshervān. Nasihatul Muluk was early translated to Arabic
Arabic
under the title al-Tibr al-masbuk fi nasihat al-muluk (The Forged Sword in Counseling Kings). Zād-e Ākherat (Provision for the hereafter) is an important Persian book of al- Ghazali but gained less scholarly attention. The greater part of it consists of the Persian translation of one of his Arabic books, Bedāyat al-Hedāya (Beginning of Guidance). It contains in addition the same contents as the Kīmyāyé Sa'ādat. The book was most probably written during the last years of his life. Its manuscripts are in Kabul
Kabul
(Library of the Department of Press) and in Leiden. Pand-nāma (Book of Counsel) is another book of advice and probably attributed to Sultan Sanjar. The introduction to the book relates that Al- Ghazali wrote the book in response to a certain king who had asked him for advice. Ay farzand (O son!) is a short book of counsel that al- Ghazali wrote for one of his students. The book was early translated to Arabic
Arabic
entitled ayyuhal walad. Another Persian work is Hamāqāti ahli ibāhat or Raddi ebāhīyya (Condemnation of antinomians) which is his fatwa in Persian illustrated with Quranic verses and Hadiths. Faza'ilul al-anam min rasa'ili hujjat al- Islam
Islam
is the collection of letters in Persian that al- Ghazali wrote in response to the kings, ministers, jurists and some of his friends after he returned to Khorasan. The collection was gathered by one of his grandchildren after his death, under five sections/chapters. The longest letter is the response to objections raised against some of his statements in Mishkat al-Anwar (The Niche of Light) and al-Munqidh min al-dalal (Rescuer from Error). The first letter is the one which al-Ghazali wrote to Sultan Sanjar presenting his excuse for teaching in Nizamiyya of Nishapur; followed by al-Ghazali's speech in the court of Sultan Sanjar. Al- Ghazali makes an impressive speech when he was taken to the king's court in Nishapur
Nishapur
in 1106, giving very influential counsels, asking the sultan once again for excusing him from teaching in Nizamiyya. The sultan was so impressed that he ordered al- Ghazali to write down his speech so that it will be sent to all the ulemas of Khorasan and Iraq. Influence[edit] Al- Ghazali had an important influence on both later Muslim philosophers and Christian
Christian
medieval philosophers. Margaret Smith writes in her book Al-Ghazali: The Mystic (London 1944): "There can be no doubt that al-Ghazali’s works would be among the first to attract the attention of these European scholars" (page 220). Then she emphasizes, "The greatest of these Christian
Christian
writers who was influenced by al- Ghazali was St. Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
(1225–1274), who made a study of the Arabic
Arabic
writers and admitted his indebtedness to them, having studied at the University of Naples
University of Naples
where the influence of Arab literature and culture was predominant at the time." In addition, Aquinas' interest in Islamic studies could be attributed to the infiltration of ‘Latin Averroism’ in the 13th century, especially at the University of Paris. The period following Ghazali has "has tentatively been called the Golden Age of Arabic
Arabic
philosophy" initiated by Ghazali's successful integration of logic into the Islamic seminary Madrasah curriculum.[39] Al- Ghazali also played a major role in integrating Sufism
Sufism
with Shariah. He was also the first to present a formal description of Sufism
Sufism
in his works. His works also strengthened the status of Sunni Islam
Islam
against other schools. The Batinite (Ismailism) had emerged in Persian territories and were gaining more and more power during al-Ghazali's period, as Nizam al-Mulk
Nizam al-Mulk
was assassinated by the members of Ismailis. Al- Ghazali strongly rejected their ideology and wrote several books on criticism of Baatinyas which significantly weakened their status. Al- Ghazali succeeded in gaining widespread acceptance for Sufism
Sufism
at the expense of philosophy.[40] At the same time, in his refutation of philosophers he made use of their philosophical categories and thus helped to give them wider circulation.[40] His reforms are widely seen as having initiated the decline of scientific research in the Islamic world.[by whom?][citation needed] Against this view, Saliba (2007) has given a number of examples especially of astronomical research flourishing after the time of al-Ghazali.[32] Bibliography[edit] Al- Ghazali had mentioned the number of his works "more than 70", in one of his letters to Sultan Sanjar in the late years of his life.[citation needed] Some "five dozen" are plausibly identifiable, while several hundred attributed works, many of them dublicates due to varying titles, are doubtful or spurious. The tradition of falsely attributing works to Al- Ghazali increased in the 13th century, after the dissemination of the large corpus of works by Ibn Arabi.[27] Bibliographies have been published by William Montgomery Watt
William Montgomery Watt
(The works attributed to Al-Ghazali), Maurice Bouyges (Essai de chronologie des oeuvres d'Al-Ghazali) and others. Abdel Rahman Badawi[year needed] prepared a comprehensive bibliography of all works attributed to Al-Ghazali, with a total of 457 entries:

1–72: works definitely written by al-Ghazali 73–95: works of doubtful attribution 96–127: works which are not those of al- Ghazali with most certainty 128–224: are the names of the Chapters or Sections of al-Ghazali's books that are mistakenly thought books of his 225–273: books written by other authors regarding al-Ghazali's works 274–389: books of other unknown scholars/writers regarding al-Ghazali's life and personality 389–457: the name of the manuscripts of al-Ghazali's works in different libraries of the world

The following is a short list of his major works: Theology

al-Munqidh min al-dalal (Rescuer from Error) Hujjat al-Haq (Proof of the Truth) Al-Iqtisād fī al-iʿtiqad (The Moderation in Belief) al-maqsad al-asna fi sharah asma' Allahu al-husna (The best means in explaining Allah's Beautiful Names) Jawahir al-Qur'an wa duraruh (Jewels of the Qur'an and its Pearls) Fayasl al-tafriqa bayn al- Islam
Islam
wa-l-zandaqa (The Criterion of Distinction between Islam
Islam
and Clandestine Unbelief) Mishkat al-Anwar (The Niche for Lights),[41] a commentary on the Verse of Light) Tafsir al-yaqut al-ta'wil

Sufism

Mizan al-'amal (Criterion of Action) Ihya'e Ulum-ed'Deen, "The Revival of the Religious Sciences" Bidayat al-hidayah (Beginning of Guidance) Kimiya-yi sa'ādat
Kimiya-yi sa'ādat
(The Alchemy of Happiness) [a résumé of Ihya'ul ulum, in Persian] Nasihat al-muluk (Counseling Kings) [in Persian] al-Munqidh min al-dalal (Rescuer from Error) Minhaj al-'Abidin (Methodology for the Worshipers)

Philosophy

Maqasid al falasifa (Aims of the Philosophers) [written in the beginning of his life, in favour of philosophy and presenting the basic theories in Philosophy, mostly influenced by Avicenna's works] Tahafut al-Falasifa (The Incoherence of the Philosophers), [in this book he refutes the Greek Philosophy
Philosophy
aiming at Avicenna
Avicenna
and Al-Farabi; and of which Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
wrote his famous refutation Tahafut al-tahafut (The Incoherence of the Incoherence) Miyar al-Ilm fi fan al-Mantiq (Criterion of Knowledge in the Art of Logic) Mihak al-Nazar fi al-mantiq (Touchstone of Reasoning in Logic) al-Qistas al-mustaqim (The Correct Balance)

Jurisprudence

Fatawy al- Ghazali (Verdicts of al-Ghazali) Al-wasit fi al-mathab (The medium [digest] in the Jurisprudential school) Kitab tahzib al-Isul (Prunning on Legal Theory) al-Mustasfa fi 'ilm al-isul (The Clarified in Legal Theory) Asas al- Qiyas (Foundation of Analogical reasoning) The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Tract.[42]:29

Reception of his work[edit] According to William Montgomery Watt, Al- Ghazali considered himself to be the Mujaddid
Mujaddid
(Revivier) of his age. Many, perhaps most, later Muslims concurred and according to Watt, some have even considered him to be the greatest Muslim after the Prophet Muhammad.[43] As an example, the Islamic scholar al-Safadi states:

Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ahmad, the Proof of Islam, Ornament of the Faith, Abu Hamid al-Tusi (al-Ghazali) the Shafi'ite jurist, was in his later years without rival[44] ”

and the jurist, al-Yafi'i stated that:

He was called The Proof of Islam
Islam
and undoubtedly was worthy of the name, absolutely trustworthy (in respect of the Faith) How many an epitome (has he given) us setting forth the basic principles of religion: how much that was repetitive has he summarised, and epitomised what was lengthy. How many a simple explanation has he given us of what was hard to fathom, with brief elucidation and clear solution of knotty problems. He used moderation, being quiet but decisive in silencing an adversary, though his words were like a sharp sword-thrust in refuting a slanderer and protecting the high-road of guidance.[45]

The Shafi'i
Shafi'i
jurist al-Subki stated that:

"If there had been a prophet after Muhammad, al- Ghazali would have been the man".[46][47]

Also a widely considered Sunni
Sunni
scholar Al Dhahabi in wrote praise of Al Ghazali: “Al-Ghazzaali, the imaam and shaykh, the prominent scholar, Hujjat al-Islam, the wonder of his time, Zayn al-Deem Abu Haamid Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ahmad al-Toosi al-Shaafa’i al-Ghazzaali, the author of many books and one possessed of utter intelligence. He studied fiqh in his own town, then he moved to Nisapur in the company of a group of students. He stayed with the Imaam al-Haramayn and gained a deep knowledge of fiqh within a short period. He became well-versed in ‘ilm al-kalaam and debate, until he became the best of debater.”[48] Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
(Averroes), a rationalist, famously responded that "to say that philosophers are incoherent is itself to make an incoherent statement."[citation needed] Rushd's book, The Incoherence of the Incoherence, attempted to refute al-Ghazali's views, though the work was not well received in the Muslim community.[49] According to Firas Alkhateeb: "When one reads Imam al-Ghazali’s works at a very superficial level, one can easily misunderstand what he is saying as anti-scientific in general. The truth, however, is that al-Ghazali’s only warning to students is to not fully accept all the beliefs and ideas of a scholar simply because of his achievements in mathematics and science. By issuing such a warning, al- Ghazali is in fact protecting the scientific enterprise for future generations by insulating it from being mixed with theoretical philosophy that could eventually dilute science itself to a field based on conjecture and reasoning alone."[50] See also[edit]

Mujaddid Nasîhatnâme

Notes[edit]

^ a b Griffel, Frank (2006). Meri, Josef W., ed. Medieval Islamic civilization : an encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415966906.  ^ a b Hunt Janin, The Pursuit of Learning in the Islamic World, p. 83. ISBN 0786419547 ^ Meri, Josef W.; Bacharach, Jere L. (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K. Taylor and Francis. p. 293. ISBN 0415966914.  ^ Böwering, Gerhard; Crone, Patricia (2013). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. p. 191. ISBN 0691134847. Ghazali (ca. 1058–1111) Abu Hamid Muhammad
Muhammad
b. Muhammad
Muhammad
al- Ghazali al-Tusi (the “Proof of Islam”) is the most renowned Sunni
Sunni
theologian of the Seljuq period (1038–1194).  ^ A.C. Brown, Jonathan (2009). Hadith: Muhammad's Legacy in the Medieval and Modern World (Foundations of Islam). Oneworld Publications. p. 179. ISBN 978-1851686636.  ^ Leaman, Oliver (2006). The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 84. ISBN 0415326397.  ^ Frank Griffel, Al-Ghazali's Philosophical Theology, p. 77. ISBN 0199724725 ^ Frank Griffel, Al-Ghazali's Philosophical Theology, p 75. ISBN 0199724725 ^ Andrew Rippin, The Blackwell Companion to the Qur'an, p 410. ISBN 1405178442 ^ Frank Griffel, Al-Ghazali's Philosophical Theology, p 76. ISBN 0199724725 ^ The Influence of Islamic Thought on Maimonides
Maimonides
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, June 30, 2005 ^ Karin Heinrichs, Fritz Oser, Terence Lovat, Handbook of Moral Motivation: Theories, Models, Applications, p 257. ISBN 9462092753 ^ Muslim Philosophy
Philosophy
Archived 2013-10-29 at the Wayback Machine., Islamic Contributions to Science
Science
& Math, netmuslims.com ^ "Ghazali". Collins English Dictionary. ^ "Ghazali, al-". The Columbia Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17 December 2012.  ^ Ludwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810861615. ^ The Spirit of Creativity: Basic Mechanisms of Creative Achievements « Persian polymath Al- Ghazali published several treatises... » ^ AL-GHAZALI « Al- Ghazali est né en 450 de l’Hégire, soit 1058 de l’ère chrétienne, dans la ville de Tus (Khorassan) ou dans un des villages avoisinants, au sein d’une famille persane de condition modeste... » ^ The Ethics of Suicide: Historical Sources « A native of Khorassan, of Persian origin, the Muslim theologian, sufi mystic, and philosopher Abu Hamid Muhammad
Muhammad
al- Ghazali is one of the great figures of Islamic religious thought... » ^ Jane I. Smith, Islam
Islam
in America, p. 36. ISBN 0231519990 ^ Dhahabi, Siyar, 4.566 ^ Willard Gurdon Oxtoby, Oxford University Press, 1996, p 421 ^ a b c d e f g Griffel, Frank (2009). Al-Ghazālī's Philosophical Theology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195331622.  ^ a b Böwering, Gerhard. "ḠAZĀLĪ". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 17 December 2012.  ^ Nicholson, Reynold Alleyne. (1966). "A literary history of the Arabs". London: Cambridge University Press. p. 382. ^ a b R.M. Frank, Al- Ghazali and the Ashʿarite School, Duke University Press, London 1994 ^ a b "about five dozen authentic works, in addition to which some 300 other titles of works of uncertain, doubtful, or spurious authorship, many of them duplicates owing to varying titles, are cited in Muslim bibliographical literature. [...] Already Ebn Ṭofayl (d. 581/1185, q.v.) observed that Ḡazālī wrote for different audiences, ordinary men and the elite (pp. 69-72), and Ḡazālī himself completed the rather moderate theological treatise, Eljām al-ʿawāmmʿan ʿelm al-kalām “The restraining of ordinary men from theology,” in the last month before his death" Encyclopedia Iranica. ^ Craig, William Lane (2001). The cosmological argument from Plato
Plato
to Leibniz. Eugene, OR.: Wipf and Stock. p. 89. ISBN 978-1579107871.  ^ Kadri, Sadakat (2012). Heaven on Earth: A Journey Through Shari'a Law from the Deserts of Ancient Arabia . macmillan. pp. 118–9. ISBN 9780099523277.  ^ For al-Ghazali's argument see The Incoherence of the Philosophers. Translated by Michael E. Marmura. 2nd ed, Provo Utah, 2000, pp.116-7. ^ For Ibn Rushd's response, see Khalid, Muhammad
Muhammad
A. ed. Medieval Islamic Philosophical Writings, Cambridge UK, 2005, p.162) ^ a b "Many orientalists argue that Ghazali's Tahafut is responsible for the age of decline in science in the Muslim World. This is their key thesis as they attempt to explain the scientific and intellectual history of the Islamic world. It seems to be the most widely accepted view on the matter not only in the Western world but in the Muslim world as well. George Saliba, a Professor of Arabic
Arabic
and Islamic Science
Science
at Columbia University who specializes in the development of astronomy within Islamic civilization, calls this view the "classical narrative" (Saliba, 2007)." Aydin, Nuh. "Did al- Ghazali kill the science in Islam?". Retrieved 23 February 2014.  ^ Hasan Hasan, How the decline of Muslim scientific thought still haunts, The National, 9 February 2012. ^ McCarthy, Richard Joseph (1980). Freedom and fulfillment: "al-Munqidh min al-Dalal" and other relevant works. Boston: Twayne. ISBN 0805781676.  ^ James, William (2012). Bradley, Matthew, ed. The Varieties of Religious Experience. Oxford Univ Press. ISBN 9780199691647.  ^ Hunt Janin, The Pursuit of Learning in the Islamic World 610-2003, p 83. ISBN 0786429046 ^ Joseph E. B. Lumbard, Islam, Fundamentalism, and the Betrayal of Tradition: Essays by Western Muslim Scholars, p. 291. ISBN 0941532607 ^ Translated into English by Mohammed Asim Bilal and available at archive.org ^ "Ghazâlî had successfully introduced logic into the madrasa (though it was studied in other venues as well (Endress 2006)). What happened to it after this time was the result of the activities of logicians much more gifted than Ghazâlî. This period has tentatively been called the Golden Age of Arabic
Arabic
philosophy (Gutas 2002). It is in this period, and especially in the thirteenth century, that the major changes in the coverage and structure of Avicennan logic were introduced; these changes were mainly introduced in free-standing treatises on logic. It has been observed that the thirteenth century was the time that “doing logic in Arabic
Arabic
was thoroughly disconnected from textual exegesis, perhaps more so than at any time before or since” (El-Rouayheb 2010b: 48–49). Many of the major textbooks for teaching logic in later centuries come from this period. [...] For all his historical importance in the process of introducing logic into the madrasa, the logic that Ghazâlî defended was too dilute to be recognizably Farabian or Avicennan." Tony Street (July 23, 2008). " Arabic
Arabic
and Islamic Philosophy
Philosophy
of Language and Logic". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2008-12-05.  ^ a b Sells, Michael Anthony (1996). Early Islamic Mysticism: Sufi, Qurʼan, Miraj, Poetic and Theological Writings. New York: Paulist. ISBN 9780809136193.  ^ "The Mishkat al-Anwar of al-Ghazzali Index".  ^ At the insistence of his students in Jerusalem, al- Ghazali wrote a concise exposition of Islam
Islam
Khalidi, Walid; Khalidi, commentary by Walid (1984). Before their diaspora : a photographic history of the Palestinians, 1876-1948. Washington, D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 0887281435.  ^ William Montgomery Watt, Al-Ghazali: The Muslim Intellectual, p. 180. Edinburgh: Edinburgh
Edinburgh
University Press, 1963. ^ al-Wafa bi'l wafayat, p. 274 - 277. Also see Tabaqat al-Shafiyya, subki, 4, 101. ^ Margaret Smith, Al-Ghazali, The Mystic, p. 47 ^ Tabaqat al-Shafi’iyyah al-Kubra, Cairo, 1324/1906, Vol. IV, p. 101 ^ Margaret Smith, Al-Ghazali, The Mystic, p. 48 ^ Al-Dhahabi. Siyar A’laam al-Nubala’. 9. Lebanon: Dar Al-Hadith. p. 323.  ^ Menocal, Maria Rosa (29 November 2009). "The Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews, and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain". Little, Brown – via Google Books.  ^ "Al- Ghazali and the Revival of Islamic Scholarship". 22 May 2013. 

References[edit]

Haque, Amber (2004), "Psychology from Islamic perspective: contributions of early Muslim scholars and challenges to contemporary Muslim psychologists", Journal of Religion & Health, 43 (4): 357–377, doi:10.1007/s10943-004-4302-z  Savage-Smith, Emilie (1995), "Attitudes toward dissection in medieval Islam", Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 50 (1): 67–110, doi:10.1093/jhmas/50.1.67, PMID 7876530 

Further reading[edit]

Macdonald, Duncan B. (1899) 'The life of al-Ghazzali', in Journal of the American Oriental Society. 20, p. 122 sqq. Laoust, H: La politique de Gazali, Paris 1970 Campanini, M.: Al-Ghazzali, in S.H. Nasr and O. Leaman, History of Islamic Philosophy
Philosophy
1996 Campanini, Massimo, Ghazali, in Muhammad
Muhammad
in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014. ISBN 1610691776 Watt, W. M.: Muslim Intellectual: A Study of al-Ghazali, Edinburgh 1963 Zwemer, S. M. A Moslem Seeker after God, New York 1920 Nakamura, K. Al-Ghazali, Encyclopedia of Philosophy Dougan, A. The Glimpse. A study of the inner teaching of the Mishkat al-Alwar (The Niche for Lights) by Abdullah Dougan ISBN 0-9597566-6-3 A comparison between the philosophy of Ghazali and the Copenhagen Interpretation: Harding, Karen (1993). "'Causality Then and Now: al- Ghazali and Quantum Theory'" (PDF). American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences. 1 (2): 165–177. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-07-04.  Watt, W. Montgomery (1953). The Faith and Practice of Al-Ghazali. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Al-Ghazali

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Al-Ghazali.

Translation of the Ihya ulum al-din (The Revival of Religious Sciences), Vol 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3, Vol.4 Griffel, Frank. "Al-Ghazali". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  Full French text of the Deliverance from error, Préservatif contre l'erreur Al- Ghazali website Ghazali Series page at the Islamic Texts Society The Confessions of al- Ghazali audio on Librivox A detailed biography on Imam Ghazzali (450-505H) الغزَّالِي Works by or about Al- Ghazali at Internet Archive Ghazali and Islamic reform Ghazali and the Revival of Islamic Scholarship Full text of Incoherence of the Philosophers, from Al- Ghazali website Short commentary on The Alchemy of Happiness The Alchemy of Happiness, by Mohammed Al-Ghazzali, the Mohammedan Philosopher, trans. Henry A. Homes (Albany, N.Y.: Munsell, 1873). See original text in The Online Library of Liberty. "Al- Ghazali Contra Aristotle: An Unforeseen Overture to Science
Science
In Eleventh-Century Baghdad". Richard P. Aulie. PSCF 45. March 1994. pp. 26–46. Review of Ghazali's Tahafat al-Falasifa Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali, in http://www.intellectualencounters.org/ (in French) Profession de Foi de l'Imam Al Ghazali

v t e

Early Islamic scholars

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muhammad
Muhammad
(570–632) prepared the Constitution of Medina, taught the Quran, and advised his companions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

`Abd Allah bin Masud (died 650) taught Ali
Ali
(607-661) fourth caliph taught Aisha, Muhammad's wife and Abu Bakr's daughter taught Abd Allah ibn Abbas
Abd Allah ibn Abbas
(618-687) taught Zayd ibn Thabit (610-660) taught Umar
Umar
(579-644) second caliph taught Abu Hurairah
Abu Hurairah
(603 – 681) taught

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alqama ibn Qays (died 681) taught

 

Husayn ibn Ali
Ali
(626–680) taught Qasim ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
(657-725) taught and raised by Aisha Urwah ibn Zubayr
Urwah ibn Zubayr
(died 713) taught by Aisha, he then taught Said ibn al-Musayyib (637-715) taught Abdullah ibn Umar
Umar
(614-693) taught Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (624-692) taught by Aisha, he then taught

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ibrahim al-Nakha’i taught

 

 

Ali
Ali
ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (659–712) taught

 

 

 

 

Hisham ibn Urwah (667-772) taught Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (died 741) taught Salim ibn Abd-Allah ibn Umar
Umar
taught Umar
Umar
ibn Abdul Aziz (682-720) raised and taught by Abdullah ibn Umar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hammad bin ibi Sulman taught

 

 

Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir (676-733) taught Farwah bint al-Qasim
Farwah bint al-Qasim
Abu Bakr's great grand daughter Jafar's mother

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abu Hanifa
Abu Hanifa
(699 — 767) wrote Al Fiqh
Fiqh
Al Akbar and Kitab Al-Athar, jurisprudence followed by Sunni, Sunni
Sunni
Sufi, Barelvi, Deobandi, Zaidiyyah
Zaidiyyah
Shia and originally by the Fatimid and taught Zayd ibn Ali
Ali
(695-740) Ja'far bin Muhammad
Muhammad
Al-Baqir (702–765) Ali's and Abu Bakr's great great grand son taught Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas
(711 – 795) wrote Muwatta, jurisprudence from early Medina
Medina
period now mostly followed by Sunni
Sunni
in Africa and taught

 

Al-Waqidi (748 – 822) wrote history books like Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi, student of Malik ibn Anas Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam (died 829) wrote biographies and history books, student of Malik ibn Anas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abu Yusuf
Abu Yusuf
(729-798) wrote Usul al-fiqh Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Shaybani (749–805)

 

 

 

Al-Shafi‘i
Al-Shafi‘i
(767—820) wrote Al-Risala, jurisprudence followed by Sunni
Sunni
and taught Ismail ibn Ibrahim

 

Ali
Ali
ibn al-Madini (778–849) wrote The Book of Knowledge of the Companions

 

Ibn Hisham (died 833) wrote early history and As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, Muhammad's biography

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Isma'il ibn Jafar
Isma'il ibn Jafar
(719-775) Musa al-Kadhim
Musa al-Kadhim
(745-799)

 

Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Ahmad ibn Hanbal
(780—855) wrote Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal jurisprudence followed by Sunni
Sunni
and hadith books Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Bukhari (810-870) wrote Sahih al-Bukhari
Sahih al-Bukhari
hadith books Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj
Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj
(815-875) wrote Sahih Muslim
Sahih Muslim
hadith books Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi (824-892) wrote Jami` at-Tirmidhi
Jami` at-Tirmidhi
hadith books Al-Baladhuri (died 892) wrote early history Futuh al-Buldan, Genealogies of the Nobles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ibn Majah
Ibn Majah
(824- 887) wrote Sunan ibn Majah
Sunan ibn Majah
hadith book

 

Abu Dawood
Abu Dawood
(817–889) wrote Sunan Abu Dawood
Abu Dawood
Hadith
Hadith
Book

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni (864- 941) wrote Kitab al-Kafi
Kitab al-Kafi
hadith book followed by Twelver
Twelver
Shia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) wrote History of the Prophets and Kings, Tafsir al-Tabari

 

Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari
Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari
(874–936) wrote Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn, Kitāb al-luma, Kitāb al-ibāna 'an usūl al-diyāna

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ibn Babawayh
Ibn Babawayh
(923-991) wrote Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
jurisprudence followed by Twelver
Twelver
Shia

 

Sharif Razi (930-977) wrote Nahj al-Balagha
Nahj al-Balagha
followed by Twelver
Twelver
Shia

 

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
(1201-1274) wrote jurisprudence books followed by Ismaili and Twelver
Twelver
Shia

 

 

Al- Ghazali (1058–1111) wrote The Niche for Lights, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Alchemy of Happiness
The Alchemy of Happiness
on Sufism

 

Rumi
Rumi
(1207-1273) wrote Masnavi, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi
Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi
on Sufism

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Key: Some of Muhammad's Companions Key: Taught in Medina Key: Taught in Iraq Key: Worked in Syria Key: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of Muhammad
Muhammad
and compiled books of hadith Key: Worked in Iran

v t e

Islamic philosophy

Fields

Alchemy Aqidah
Aqidah
(theology) 'Aql (intellect) Cosmology

astrology medieval astronomy

Eschatology Ethics Kalam
Kalam
(dialectic) Fiqh
Fiqh
(jurisprudence) Logic Metaphysics Natural philosophy (physics) Peace Madrasah
Madrasah
(education) Medieval science Medieval psychology Sufism
Sufism
(mysticism)

Schools

Early Farabism Avicennism Averroism Illuminationism Sufi

cosmology metaphysics

Transcendent theosophy Traditionalist Contemporary

Concepts

ʻAṣabīya Ḥāl Iʻjaz ʼIjtihād ʻlm ʻIrfān Ijmāʿ Maslaha Nafs Qadar Qalb Qiyās Shūrā Tawḥīd Ummah

Philosophers by century (CE)

9th–10th

Al-Kindi Ali
Ali
ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari Abu al-Abbas Iranshahri Zakariya Razi Apharabius Abu Hatim al-Razi Al Amiri Ikhwan al-Safa Abu Sulayman Sijistani Ibn Masarrah Abu Yaqub al-Sijistani

11th

Al-Ghazali Ibn Miskawayh Avicenna Ibn Hazm Bahmanyār Mu'ayyad fi'l-Din al-Shirazi Nasir Khusraw

12th

Abu'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī Afdal al-Din Kashani Ahi Evren Ahmad Yasavi Ayn-al-Quzat Averroes Ibn Tufail Omar Khayyám Suhrawardi Shams Tabrizi

13th

Hajji Bektash Wali Jalal ad-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Rumi Ibn Sab’in Ibn Arabi al-Abharī Nasir al-Din Tusi Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi Qutb
Qutb
al-Din al-Shirazi Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi

14th–16th

Ibn Khaldun Yunus Emre Hajji Bayram Jalaladdin Davani Sadr ad-Din Dashtaki Aziz Mahmud Hudayi Qadi Mir Husayn al-Maybudi Mahmud Shabistari Sayyid Haydar Amuli Dawūd al-Qayṣarī Jami

17th–19th

Mir Damad Mir Fendereski Mulla Sadra Mohsen Fayz Kashani Abd al-Razzaq Lahiji Mujaddid
Mujaddid
Alf-i-Sani Rajab Ali
Ali
Tabrizi Qazi Sa’id Qumi Shah Waliullah Dehlawi Hādī Sabzavārī

20th–present

Muhammad
Muhammad
Husayn Tabatabaei Muhammad
Muhammad
Iqbal Gohar Shahi Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr René Guénon Frithjof Schuon Martin Lings Hossein Nasr Naquib al-Attas Abdolkarim Soroush Gholamhossein Ebrahimi Dinani Taha Abdurrahman Mohammed Abed al-Jabri Mohammed Arkoun Fouad Zakariyya Reza Davari Ardakani Ahmad Fardid Mostafa Malekian Hasanzadeh Amoli Javadi Amoli Partawi Shah

v t e

Medieval philosophers

Islamic

Early

Al-Jahiz Alkindus Ibn al-Rawandi Al-Razi (Rhazes) Al-Farabi
Al-Farabi
(Alpharabius) Ibn Masarra Al Amiri Ebn Meskavayh Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) Abu Rayhan Biruni "Brethren of Purity"

High

Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) Ibn Hazm Al- Ghazali (Algazel) Abu'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī Ibn Bajjah (Avempace) Ayn al-Quzat Hamadani Ibn Tufail Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
(Averroes)

Late

Ibn Sab'in Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi Rashid al-Din Ibn Arabi Zachariah Kazwin Abd-el-latif Athīr al-Dīn al-Abharī Nasir al-Din al-Tusi Ibn al-Nafis Qutb
Qutb
al-Din al-Shirazi Ibn Taymiyyah Ibn Khaldun

Jewish

Medieval

Isaac Israeli ben Solomon Saadia Gaon Solomon ibn Gabirol Judah Halevi Abraham ibn Daud Maimonides Nachmanides Gersonides Hasdai Crescas Joseph Albo

Christian

Early

"Church Fathers" Augustine of Hippo Boethius Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite Isidore of Seville Johannes Scotus Eriugena Alcuin

11–12th century

"Scholasticism" Anselm of Canterbury Peter Abelard Anselm of Laon Hugh of Saint Victor Richard of Saint Victor Roscelin Peter Lombard Alexander of Hales Bernard of Chartres Dominicus Gundissalinus Gilbert de la Porrée Alain de Lille

13–14th century

Robert Grosseteste Albertus Magnus Bonaventure Thomas Aquinas Siger of Brabant Boetius of Dacia Henry of Ghent Roger Bacon John Peckham Ramon Llull Petrus Aureolus Petrus Peregrinus de Maricourt Durandus Giles of Rome Godfrey of Fontaines Duns Scotus William of Ockham

Late

Jean Buridan Nicole Oresme Albert of Saxony Francesc Eiximenis Vincent Ferrer Paul of Venice Lambertus de Monte John Hennon

See also Renaissance philosophy

v t e

Islamic theology

Fields Theologians Books

Fields

Aqidah ‘aql Astronomy Cosmology Eschatology Ethics Kalam Fiqh Logic
Logic
in philosophy Peace in philosophy Philosophy Physics Philosophy
Philosophy
of education

Theologians

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani Abdul Hosein Amini Abdulhakim Arvasi Abū Ḥanīfa Abu l-A‘la Mawdudi Abu Yusuf Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ahmad Sirhindi Ahmad Yasavi Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Akhtar Raza Khan al-Ash‘ari al-Ballūṭī al-Baydawi al-Dhahabi al-Ghazali al-Hilli al-Jahiz al-Jubba'i al-Kindi al-Masudi al-Maturidi al-Mufid Al-Qasim al-Qushayri al-Razi Al-Shafi‘i al-Shahrastani al-Shirazi al-Tirmidhi Allameh Majlesi Amr ibn Ubayd Dawud al-Zahiri Fazlur Rahman Malik Hasan of Basra Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Haji Bektash Veli Hüseyin Hilmi Işık ibn ‘Arabī ibn al-Jawzi ibn ‘Aqil ibn Hazm ibn Qudamah Ibn Taymiyyah Ja’far al-Sadiq Jalal al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Rumi Malik ibn Anas Mahmud Hudayi Morteza Motahhari Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Muhammad
Muhammad
al- Nafs
Nafs
al-Zakiyya Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir al-Sadr Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Muhammad
Muhammad
Hamidullah Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah Muhammad
Muhammad
Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi Usmani Nasir Khusraw Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Said Nursî Shaykh Tusi Sheikh Bedreddin Wasil ibn Ata Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin

Key books

Crucial Sunni
Sunni
books

al-Irshad al- Aqidah
Aqidah
al-Tahawiyyah

Buyruks Kitab al Majmu Masnavi Nahj al-Balagha Epistles of Wisdom Risale-i Nur

Schools

Sunni

Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalism

Shia

Kaysanites

Mukhtar

Abu Muslim Sunpadh Ishaq al-Turk

Muhammerah

Khurramites

Babak Mazyar Ismail I / Pir Sultan Abdal
Abdal
– Qizilbash / Safavid conversion of Iran
Iran
to Shia Islam

al-Muqanna

Zaidiyyah

Jarudi Batriyya Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Hasan al-Utrush

List of extinct Shia sects

Dukayniyya Khalafiyya Khashabiyya

Imami Isma'ilism

Batiniyyah

Sevener Qarmatians Hamza / al-Muqtana Baha'uddin / ad-Darazi – Druzes

Musta'li

Hafizi Taiyabi

Nizari

Assassins Nizaris

Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
Badakhshan
Badakhshan
Alevism

Imami Twelver

Theology
Theology
of Twelvers

Ja'fari

Akhbari Shaykhi Usuli

Alevism

Qutb
Qutb
ad-Dīn Haydar – Qalandariyya Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak
– Babai Revolt Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
– Rifa'i-Galibi Order

Ghulat

al-Khaṣībī / ibn Nusayr – Alawites Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi) / Imadaddin Nasimi
Imadaddin Nasimi
– Hurufism / Bektashism and folk religion

Independent

Ibadi

ibn Ibāḍ Jābir ibn Zayd

Jabriyyah

Ibn Safwan

Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya

Khawarij

Azariqa Najdat Sufri

Abu Qurra

Nakkariyyah

Abu Yazid

Haruriyyah

v t e

Shafi`i
Shafi`i
School

by century (AH CE)

2nd/8th

Al- Shafi`i
Shafi`i
(founder of the school)

3rd/9th

Abu al-Hasan al-Ash`ari Al-Humaydi Al-Nasai Harith al-Muhasibi Ibn al-Mundhir Ibn Khuzaymah Ibn Majah Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj

4th/10th

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi Abu Nuaym Abu Talib al-Makki Al-Daraqutni Al-Hakim Nishapuri Ibn Furak

5th/11th

Abu Isḥāq ash-Shirazi Ahmad Ghazali Ahmad ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Tha`labi Al-Baghawi Al-Bayhaqi Al-Juwayni Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi Al-Mawardi Al-Qushayri Yusuf Hamadani

6th/12th

Ahmed al-Rifa`i Al-Ghazali Al-Shahrastani Fakhr al-Din al-Razi Ibn al-Salah Ibn `Asakir Sayf al-Din al-Amidi Shahab al-Din Yahya ibn Habash Suhrawardi

7th/13th

Ahmad al-Badawi Al-Baydawi Al-Nawawi Ibn Abil-Hadid Ibn Daqiq al-Id Ibn Khallikan Izz al-Din ibn Abd al-Salam Safi-ad-din Ardabili Yusuf ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Mizzi

8th/14th

Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri Ali
Ali
ibn Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
al-Haythami Al-Dhahabi Badr Ad-Din az-Zarkashi Ibn al-Jazari Ibn Kathir Taftazani Taj al-Din al-Subki Taqi al-Din al-Subki Zain al-Din al-Iraqi

9th/15th

Al-Qastallani Al-Sakhawi Al-Suyuti Ali
Ali
ibn Ahmad al-Samhudi Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani Ibn Nuhaas Zakariyya al-Ansari

10th/16th

Al-Khaṭib ash-Shirbiniy Al-Sha`rani Ibn Hajar al-Haytami

11th/17th

Abdullah ibn Alawi al-Haddad

12th/18th

Muhammad
Muhammad
Hayyat ibn Ibrahim al-Sindhi

13th/19th

Abd Al-Rahman bin Ahmad al-Zayla`i Ibrahim al-Bajuri Shaykh Sufi Uways al-Barawi Yusuf an-Nabhani

14th/20th

Abdul Azeez Madani Abdallah al-Qutbi Abdullah al-Harari Afifi al-Akiti Ahmad Syafi'i Maarif Ahmed Kuftaro Ali
Ali
al-Jifri Ali
Ali
Gomaa Awn Al-Qaddoumi Cherussery Zainuddeen Musliyar Gibril Haddad Hamka Hasyim Muzadi K. Ali
Ali
Kutty Musliyar Mohammad Salim Al-Awa Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Yahya al-Ninowy Nuh Ha Mim Keller Said Nursî Sayyid Ibraheem Khaleel Al Bukhari Sayyid Muhammad
Muhammad
Jifri Muthukkoya Thangal Sheikh Aboobacker Ahmed Syed Muhammad
Muhammad
Naquib al-Attas Taha Jabir Alalwani Umar
Umar
bin Hafiz Wahbah al-Zuhayli Zaid Shakir

Scholars of other Sunni
Sunni
Islamic schools of jurisprudence

Hanafi Hanbali Maliki Zahiri

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 31996761 LCCN: n82097778 ISNI: 0000 0001 2100 3882 GND: 118537938 SELIBR: 32853 SUDOC: 026886030 BNF: cb11904478v (data) NLA: 35858591 NDL: 00431120 NKC: jn20020304001 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV5

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