Al-Aziz Uthman


Al-Malik al-Aziz Uthman ibn Salah ad-Din Yusuf (1171 – 29 November 1198) was the second
Ayyubid Kurdish
Ayyubid Kurdish
Sultan of Egypt Sultan of Egypt was the status held by the rulers of Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the North Africa, northeast corner of Africa and Western Asia, southwest corn ...
. He was the second son of
Saladin Al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub ( ku, سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی, Selahedînê Eyûbî; ar, الناصر صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب, an-Nāṣir Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; 11374 March 1193), better k ...

. Before his death, Saladin had divided his dominions amongst his kin: al-Afdal received
Palestine Palestine ( or ) most often refers to: * State of Palestine, a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East * Palestine (region), a geographical and historical region in the Middle East Palestine may also refer to: * Palestinian National Aut ...
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

, al-Aziz was made ruler of Egypt, al-Zahir received Aleppo,
al-Adil I Al-Adil I ( ar, العادل, in full al-Malik al-Adil Sayf ad-Din Abu-Bakr Ahmed ibn Najm ad-Din Ayyub, ar, الملك العادل سيف الدين أبو بكر بن أيوب,‎ "Ahmed, son of Najm ad-Din Ayyub, father of Bakr, the Just Kin ...
, and
Turan-Shah Shams ad-Din Turanshah ibn Ayyub al-Malik al-Mu'azzam Shams ad-Dawla Fakhr ad-Din known simply as Turanshah ( ar, توران شاه بن أيوب) (died 27 June 1180) was the Ayyubid dynasty, Ayyubid emir (prince) of History of Yemen#Medieval histo ...
Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a (''Houthi takeover in Yemen, De jure'')Aden (Temporary capital Yemeni government, in exile) , coordinates = , capital_exile = ...

. However, conflict soon broke out between them with al-Adil becoming the undisputed ruler of Syria, Upper Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Yemen. Al-Aziz Uthman succeeded his father and ruled the empire as a whole between 1193 and 1198. Despite Al-Aziz having specifically inherited suzerainty over the whole Ayyubid empire, soon he had to face revolts by the
Zengid#REDIRECT Zengid dynasty The Zengid or Zangid dynasty was a List of Muslim states and dynasties, Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turks, Oghuz Turkic origin, which ruled parts of the Levant and Upper Mesopotamia on behalf of the Seljuk Empire. The dynasty w ...

emirs of
Mosul File:مرقد الإمام يحيى أبو القاسم قبل تفجيره من قبل داعش.jpg, The Shrine of Imam Yahya Abu Al Qasim Mosul ( ar, الموصل, al-Mawṣil, ku, مووسڵ, translit=Mûsil, Turkish language, Turkish: ''M ...

and by the
Artuqid The Artuqids or Artuqid dynasty ( or ', or ', or ', sometimes also spelled as Artukid, Ortoqid or Ortokid; Turkish plural The plural (sometimes list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ), in many languages, is one of the values of the gra ...
s in southern Iraq. When al-Afdal expelled all the ministers left by his father to support him, they came to Egypt, asking al-Aziz to reconquer Syria. In 1194, al-Aziz besieged
Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto = , image_flag = Flag of Damascus.svg , image_seal = Emblem of Damascus.svg , seal_type = Seal , m ...

. Al-Afdal asked for help from Saladin's brother, al-Adil I, who met al-Aziz and managed to bring about a reconciliation. The following year al-Aziz again attacked Syria, but al-Afdal was able to persuade some of the emirs of al-Aziz's army to desert. Later al-Adil allied with al-Aziz against al-Afdal, who was besieged and captured in Damascus on 3 July 1196. Al-Afdal was exiled to
Salkhad Salkhad ( ar, صَلْخَد ') is a Syrian city in the As-Suwayda Governorate, southern Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَ ...

, while al-Aziz was proclaimed supreme overlord of the Ayyubid empire. However, most of the effective power was in the hands of al-Adil I, who installed himself in Damascus. During his reign, al-Aziz tried to demolish the
Great Pyramids of Giza, Egypt
Great Pyramids of Giza, Egypt
, but had to give up because the task was too big. However, he did succeed in damaging
Menkaure's Pyramid The Pyramid of Menkaure is the smallest of the three main Pyramids of Giza, located on the Giza Plateau in the southwestern outskirts of Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic: ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the capital and larg ...

Menkaure's Pyramid
. Al-Aziz also played an important role in the history of the building enterprises and construction at
Banias Banias ( ar, بانياس الحولة; he, בניאס) is an ancient site that developed around a spring once associated with the Greek god . It is located at the foot of , north of the . The spring is the source of the , one of the main trib ...

and Subaybah. He died in a hunting accident in late 1198. He was interred in the tomb of his elder brother al-Mu'azzam.Humphreys, R. Stephen. ''From Saladin to the Mongols: the Ayyubids of Damascus, 1193-1260''. Albany: State University of New York, 1977. Print.


See also

List of rulers of Egypt Lists of rulers of Egypt: * List of pharaohs (c. 3100 BC – 30 BC) * List of governors of Roman Egypt (30 BC – 639 AD) * List of rulers of Islamic Egypt (640–1517) **List of rulers of Islamic Egypt#The Rashidun Caliphs era (640–658), Li ...
{{DEFAULTSORT:Uthman, Al-Aziz 1171 births 1198 deaths 12th-century Ayyubid sultans of Egypt Ayyubid sultans of Egypt Muslims of the Crusades Hunting accident deaths 12th-century Kurdish people Accidental deaths in Egypt