AKKADIAN (/əˈkeɪdiən/ _akkadû_, 𒀝𒅗𒁺𒌑 AK-KA-DU-U2; logogram: 𒌵𒆠 URIKI ) is an extinct East Semitic language that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia (Akkad , Assyria , Isin , Larsa and Babylonia ) from the 30th century BC until its gradual replacement by Akkadian-influenced Eastern Aramaic among Mesopotamians between the 8th century BC and its final extinction by the 1st to 3rd centuries AD.
It is the earliest attested Semitic language , and used the cuneiform writing system, which was originally used to write the unrelated, and also extinct, Sumerian (which is a language isolate ). Akkadian was named after the city of Akkad , a major centre of Mesopotamian civilization during the Akkadian Empire (c. 2334–2154 BC), but the language itself precedes the founding of Akkad by many centuries, being first attested in the 29th century BC.
The mutual influence between Sumerian and Akkadian had led scholars to describe the languages as a _sprachbund _. Akkadian proper names were first attested in Sumerian texts from around the mid 3rd-millennium BC. From the second half of the third millennium BC (c. 2500 BC), texts fully written in Akkadian begin to appear. Hundreds of thousands of texts and text fragments have been excavated to date, covering a vast textual tradition of mythological narrative, legal texts, scientific works, correspondence, political and military events, and many other examples. By the second millennium BC, two variant forms of the language were in use in Assyria and Babylonia, known as ASSYRIAN and BABYLONIAN respectively.
For centuries, Akkadian was the native language in Mesopotamian nations such as Assyria and Babylonia. Because of the might of various Mesopotamian empires, such as the Akkadian Empire , Old Assyrian Empire , Babylonian Empire , and Middle Assyrian Empire , Akkadian became the lingua franca of much of the Ancient Near East . However, it began to decline during the Neo-Assyrian Empire around the 8th century BC, being marginalized by Aramaic during the reign of Tiglath-pileser III . By the Hellenistic period , the language was largely confined to scholars and priests working in temples in Assyria and Babylonia.
The last known Akkadian cuneiform document dates from the 1st century AD. Neo-Mandaic spoken by the Mandeans of Iraq and Iran and Assyrian Neo- Aramaic spoken by the Assyrian people of northern Iraq , southeast Turkey , northeast Syria and northwest Iran , are two of the few modern Semitic languages that contain some Akkadian vocabulary and grammatical features. Akkadian is an inflected language with grammatical cases ; and as a Semitic language, it has grammatical features highly similar to those found in Classical Arabic . Also, like all Semitic languages, Akkadian uses the system of consonantal roots .
* 1 Classification
* 2 History and writing
* 2.1 Writing * 2.2 Development * 2.3 Decipherment * 2.4 Dialects
* 3 Phonetics and phonology
* 3.1 Consonants * 3.2 Reconstruction * 3.3 Descent from Proto-Semitic * 3.4 Vowels * 3.5 Stress
* 4 Grammar
* 4.1 Morphology
* 4.1.1 Consonantal root * 4.1.2 Case, number and gender * 4.1.3 Noun States and Nominal Sentences
* 4.1.4 Verbal morphology
* 220.127.116.11 Verb aspects * 18.104.22.168 Verb moods * 22.214.171.124 Verb patterns
* 4.2 Stative * 4.3 Derivation
* 4.4 Pronouns
* 4.4.1 Personal pronouns
* 126.96.36.199 Independent personal pronouns * 188.8.131.52 Suffixed (or enclitic) pronouns
* 4.5 Prepositions * 4.6 Numerals
* 4.7 Syntax
* 4.7.1 Nominal phrases * 4.7.2 Sentence syntax
* 5 Vocabulary * 6 Sample text * 7 Akkadian literature * 8 Notes * 9 Sources
* 10 Further reading
* 10.1 General description and grammar * 10.2 Textbooks * 10.3 Dictionaries * 10.4 Akkadian cuneiform * 10.5 Technical literature on specific subjects
* 11 External links
Akkadian belongs with the other Semitic languages in the Near Eastern branch of the Afroasiatic languages , a family native to the Middle East , Arabian peninsula , parts of Asia Minor , North Africa , Malta , Canary Islands and the Horn of Africa , which then later spread to parts of West Africa (Hausa ).
Within the Near Eastern Semitic languages, Akkadian forms an East Semitic subgroup (with Eblaite ). This group distinguishes itself from the Northwest and South Semitic languages by its subject–object–verb , while the other Semitic languages usually have either a verb–subject–object or subject–verb–object order. This novel word order is due to the influence of the Sumerian substratum, which has an SOV order.
Additionally Akkadian is the only Semitic language to use the prepositions _ina_ and _ana_ (locative case , English _in_/_on_/_with_, and dative -locative case, _for_/_to_, respectively). Other Semitic languages like Arabic and Aramaic have the prepositions _bi/bə_ and _li/lə_ (locative and dative, respectively). The origin of the Akkadian spatial prepositions is unknown.
In contrast to most other Semitic languages, Akkadian has only one non-sibilant fricative : ḫ . Akkadian lost both the glottal and pharyngeal fricatives, which are characteristic of the other Semitic languages. Until the Old Babylonian period, the Akkadian sibilants were exclusively affricated .
HISTORY AND WRITING
Main article: Assyrian cuneiform Cuneiform writing (Neoassyrian script) (1 = Logogram (LG) "mix"/syllabogram (SG) _ḫi_, 2 = LG "moat", 3 = SG _aʾ_, 4 = SG _aḫ, eḫ, iḫ, uḫ_, 5 = SG _kam_, 6 = SG _im_, 7 = SG _bir_)
Old Akkadian is preserved on clay tablets dating back to c. 2500 BC. It was written using cuneiform , a script adopted from the Sumerians using wedge-shaped symbols pressed in wet clay. As employed by Akkadian scribes, the adapted cuneiform script could represent either (a) Sumerian logograms (_i.e._, picture-based characters representing entire words), (b) Sumerian syllables, (c) Akkadian syllables, or (d) phonetic complements . However, in Akkadian the script practically became a fully fledged syllabic script , and the original logographic nature of cuneiform became secondary, though logograms for frequent words such as 'god' and 'temple' continued to be used. For this reason, the sign _AN_ can on the one hand be a logogram for the word _ilum_ ('god') and on the other signify the god Anu or even the syllable _-an-_. Additionally, this sign was used as a determinative for divine names.
Another peculiarity of Akkadian cuneiform is that many signs do not have a well-defined phonetic value. Certain signs, such as _AḪ_, do not distinguish between the different vowel qualities. Nor is there any coordination in the other direction; the syllable _-ša-_, for example, is rendered by the sign _ŠA_, but also by the sign _NĪĜ_. Both of these are often used for the same syllable in the same text.
Cuneiform was in many ways unsuited to Akkadian: among its flaws was its inability to represent important phonemes in Semitic, including a glottal stop , pharyngeals , and emphatic consonants . In addition, cuneiform was a syllabary writing system—i.e., a consonant plus vowel comprised one writing unit—frequently inappropriate for a Semitic language made up of triconsonantal roots (i.e., three consonants plus any vowels).
Akkadian is divided into several varieties based on geography and historical period :
* Old Akkadian, 2500–1950 BC * Old Babylonian/Old Assyrian, 1950–1530 BC * Middle Babylonian/Middle Assyrian, 1530–1000 BC * Neo-Babylonian/Neo-Assyrian, 1000–600 BC * Late Babylonian, 600 BC–100 AD
One of the earliest known Akkadian inscriptions was found on a bowl at Ur , addressed to the very early pre-Sargonic king Meskiagnunna of Ur (c. 2485–2450 BC) by his queen Gan-saman, who is thought to have been from Akkad.
The Akkadian Empire , established by Sargon of Akkad , introduced the Akkadian language (the "language of Akkad ") as a written language, adapting Sumerian cuneiform orthography for the purpose. During the Middle Bronze Age (Old Assyrian and Old Babylonian period), the language virtually displaced Sumerian, which is assumed to have been extinct as a living language by the 18th century BC.
Old Akkadian, which was used until the end of the 3rd millennium BC, differs from both Babylonian and Assyrian, and was displaced by these dialects. By the 21st century BC Babylonian and Assyrian, which were to become the primary dialects, were easily distinguishable. Old Babylonian, along with the closely related dialect Mariotic , is clearly more innovative than the Old Assyrian dialect and the more distantly related Eblaite language . For this reason, forms like _lu-prus_ ('I will decide') are first encountered in Old Babylonian instead of the older _la-prus_ (even though it was archaic compared to Akkadian). On the other hand, Assyrian developed certain innovations as well, such as the "Assyrian vowel harmony" (which is not comparable to that found in Turkish or Finnish ). Eblaite is even more archaic, retaining a productive dual and a relative pronoun declined in case, number and gender. Both of these had already disappeared in Old Akkadian.
Old Babylonian was the language of king Hammurabi and his code , which is one of the oldest collections of laws in the world. (see Code of Ur-Nammu .)
The Middle Babylonian (or Assyrian) period started in the 16th century BC. The division is marked by the Kassite invasion of Babylonia around 1550 BC. The Kassites, who reigned for 300 years, gave up their own language in favor of Akkadian, but they had little influence on the language. At its apogee, Middle Babylonian was the written language of diplomacy of the entire ancient Orient, including Egypt. During this period, a large number of loan words were included in the language from North West Semitic languages and Hurrian ; however, the use of these words was confined to the fringes of the Akkadian speaking territory.
Middle Assyrian served as a _lingua franca _ in much of the Ancient Near East of the Late Bronze Age ( Amarna Period ). During the Neo-Assyrian Empire , Neo-Assyrian began to turn into a chancellery language, being marginalized by Old Aramaic . Under the Achaemenids , Aramaic continued to prosper, but Assyrian continued its decline. The language's final demise came about during the Hellenistic period when it was further marginalized by Koine Greek , even though Neo-Assyrian cuneiform remained in use in literary tradition well into Parthian times. The latest known text in cuneiform Babylonian is an astronomical text dated to 75 AD. The youngest texts written in Akkadian date from the 3rd century AD. An Akkadian inscription
Old Assyrian developed as well during the second millennium BC, but because it was a purely popular language — kings wrote in Babylonian — few long texts are preserved. From 1500 BC onwards, the language is termed Middle Assyrian.
During the first millennium BC, Akkadian progressively lost its status as a lingua franca. In the beginning, from around 1000 BC, Akkadian and Aramaic were of equal status, as can be seen in the number of copied texts: clay tablets were written in Akkadian, while scribes writing on papyrus and leather used Aramaic. From this period on, one speaks of Neo-Babylonian and Neo-Assyrian . Neo-Assyrian received an upswing in popularity in the 10th century BC when the Assyrian kingdom became a major power with the Neo-Assyrian Empire , but texts written 'exclusively' in Neo-Assyrian disappear within 10 years of Nineveh 's destruction in 612 BC.
After the end of the Mesopotamian kingdoms, which fell due to the Persian conquest of the area, Akkadian (which existed solely in the form of Late Babylonian) disappeared as a popular language. However, the language was still used in its written form; and even after the Greek invasion under Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, Akkadian was still a contender as a written language, but spoken Akkadian was likely extinct by this time, or at least rarely used. The latest positively identified Akkadian text comes from the 1st century AD.
The Akkadian language began to be rediscovered when Carsten Niebuhr in 1767 was able to make extensive copies of cuneiform texts and published them in Denmark. The deciphering of the texts started immediately, and bilinguals, in particular Old Persian -Akkadian bilinguals, were of great help. Since the texts contained several royal names, isolated signs could be identified, and were presented in 1802 by Georg Friedrich Grotefend . By this time it was already evident that Akkadian was a Semitic language, and the final breakthrough in deciphering the language came from Edward Hincks , Henry Rawlinson and Jules Oppert in the middle of the 19th century. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago recently completed a 21 volume dictionary of the Akkadian language, which is available commercially and online. The Deluge tablet of the Gilgamesh epic in Akkadian.
The following table summarises the dialects of Akkadian identified with certainty so far.
Known Akkadian dialects DIALECT LOCATION
Assyrian Northern Mesopotamia
Babylonian Central and Southern Mesopotamia
Mariotic Central Euphrates (in and around the city of Mari )
Some researchers (such as W. Sommerfeld 2003) believe that the Old Akkadian variant used in the older texts is not an ancestor of the later Assyrian and Babylonian dialects, but rather a separate dialect that was replaced by these two dialects and which died out early.
PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY
Because Akkadian as a spoken language is extinct and no contemporary descriptions of the pronunciation are known, little can be said with certainty about the phonetics and phonology of Akkadian. Some conclusions can be made, however, due to the relationship to the other Semitic languages and variant spellings of Akkadian words.
The following table gives the consonant sounds distinguished in the Akkadian use of cuneiform, with the presumed pronunciation in IPA transcription according to Huehnergard and Woods, which most closely corresponds to recent reconstructions of Proto-Semitic phonology . The parenthesised symbol following is the transcription used in the literature, in the cases where that symbol is different from the phonetic symbol. This transcription has been suggested for all Semitic languages by the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft (DMG), and is therefore known as _DMG-Umschrift_.
AKKADIAN CONSONANTAL PHONEMES
LABIAL DENTAL/ALVEOLAR PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL
NASAL m n
PLOSIVE VOICELESS p t
k ʔ ⟨ʾ⟩
VOICED b d
s ~ ʃ ⟨š⟩ x ⟨ḫ⟩
ɣ ~ ʁ ⟨R⟩
l j ⟨Y⟩ w
Akkadian emphatic consonants are typically reconstructed as ejectives , which are thought to be the oldest realization of emphatics across the Semitic languages. For the sibilants, traditionally /š/ has been held to be postalveolar and /s/, /z/, and /ṣ/ analyzed as fricatives, but attested assimilations in Akkadian suggest otherwise. For example, when the possessive suffix _-šu_ is added to the root _awat_ ('word'), it is written _awassu_ ('his word') even though _šš_ would be expected. This change from _tš_ to _ss_ is unexplained if /š/ and /s/ are both fricatives, especially since a shift of /š/ to /s/ does not occur in other contexts. This is clarified by the interpretation that /s, ṣ/ form a pair of voiceless coronal affricates , *š is a voiceless coronal fricative , and *z is a voiced coronal affricate or fricative . The assimilation is then > , which is quite common across languages. In this vein, an alternative transcription of *š is *s̠, with the macron below indicating a soft (lenis) articulation in Semitic transcription. As Akkadian evolved into the northern Assyrian and southern Babylonian dialects, Assyrian retained the pronunciation of _š_ while Babylonian seems to have pronounced it .
The phoneme /r/ has traditionally been interpreted as a trill but its pattern of alternation with /ḫ/ suggests it was a velar (or uvular) fricative. In the Hellenistic period, Akkadian /r/ was transcribed using the Greek ρ, indicating it was pronounced similarly as an alveolar trill (though Greeks may also have perceived a uvular trill as ρ).
DESCENT FROM PROTO-SEMITIC
Several Proto-Semitic phonemes are lost in Akkadian. The Proto-Semitic glottal stop *ʾ , as well as the fricatives *ʿ , *h , *ḥ are lost as consonants, either by sound change or orthographically, but they gave rise to the vowel quality _e_ not exhibited in Proto-Semitic. The voiceless lateral fricatives (*ś , *ṣ́ ) merged with the sibilants as in Canaanite , leaving 19 consonantal phonemes. Old Akkadian preserved the /*ś/ phoneme longest but it eventually merged with /*š/ , beginning in the Old Babylonian period . The following table shows Proto-Semitic phonemes and their correspondences among Akkadian, Modern Standard Arabic and Tiberian Hebrew :
PROTO-SEMITIC AKKADIAN ARABIC HEBREW
*B _b_ ب b ב b
*D _d_ د d ד d
*G _g_ ج ǧ ג g
*P _p_ ف f פ p
*T _t_ ت t ת t
*K _k_ ك k כ k
*ʾ (Ø)/ ʾ ء ʾ א ʾ
*ṭ _ṭ_ ط ṭ ט ṭ
*ḳ _q_ ق q ק q
*ḏ _z_ ذ ḏ ז z
*Z ز z
*ṯ _š_ ث ṯ שׁ š
*š س s
*ś ش š שׂ ś
*S _s_ س s ס s
*ṱ _ṣ_ ظ ẓ צ ṣ
*ṣ ص ṣ
*ṣ́ ض ḍ
*ġ _ḫ_ غ ġ ע ʿ
*ʿ (e) ع ʿ
*ḫ _ḫ_ خ ḫ ח ḥ
*ḥ (e) ح ḥ
*H (Ø) ه h ה h
*M _m_ م m מ m
*N _n_ ن n נ n
*R _r_ ر r ר r
*L _l_ ل l ל l
*W _w_ و w ו י w y
*Y _y_ ي y י y
PROTO-SEMITIC AKKADIAN ARABIC HEBREW
* ^ _A_ _B_ These are only distinguished from the Ø (zero) reflexes of /h/ and /ʾ/ by /e/-coloring the adjacent vowel *a, e.g. PS _*ˈbaʿ(a)l-um_ ('owner, lord') → Akk. _bēlu(m)_ (Dolgopolsky 1999 , p. 35).
FRONT CENTRAL BACK
The existence of a back mid-vowel /o/ has been proposed, but the cuneiform writing gives no good proof for this. There is limited contrast between different u-signs in lexical texts, but this scribal differentiation may reﬂect the superimposition of the Sumerian phonological system (for which an /o/ phoneme has also been proposed), rather than a separate phoneme in Akkadian.
All consonants and vowels appear in long and short forms. Long consonants are represented in writing as double consonants, and long vowels are written with a macron (ā, ē, ī, ū). This distinction is phonemic , and is used in the grammar, for example _iprusu_ ('that he decided') versus _iprusū_ ('they decided').
The stress patterns of Akkadian are disputed, with some authors claiming that nothing is known of the topic. There are however certain points of reference, such as the rule of vowel syncope (see the next paragraph), and some forms in the cuneiform that might represent the stressing of certain vowels; however, attempts at identifying a rule for stress have so far been unsuccessful.
Huenergard (2005:3-4) claims that stress in Akkadian is completely predictable. In his syllable typology there are three syllable weights: _light_ (V, CV); _heavy_ (CVC, CV̄, CV̂), and _superheavy_ (CV̂C). If the last syllable is superheavy, it is stressed, otherwise the rightmost heavy syllable is stressed. If a word contains only light syllables, the first syllable is stressed.
A rule of Akkadian phonology is that certain short (and probably unstressed) vowels are dropped. The rule is that the last vowel of a succession of syllables that end in a short vowel is dropped, for example the declinational root of the verbal adjective of a root PRS is _PaRiS-_. Thus the masculine singular nominative is _PaRS-um_ (< _*PaRiS-um_) but the feminine singular nominative is _PaRiStum_ (< _*PaRiS-at-um_). Additionally there is a general tendency of syncope of short vowels in the later stages of Akkadian.
Most roots of the Akkadian language consist of three consonants (called the radicals), but some roots are composed of four consonants (so-called quadriradicals). The radicals are occasionally represented in transcription in upper-case letters, for example _PRS_ (to decide). Between and around these radicals various infixes , suffixes and prefixes , having word generating or grammatical functions, are inserted. The resulting consonant-vowel pattern differentiates the original meaning of the root. Also, the middle radical can be geminated, which is represented by a doubled consonant in transcription (and sometimes in the cuneiform writing itself).
The consonants _ʔ_, _w_, _j_ and _n_ are termed "weak radicals" and roots containing these radicals give rise to irregular forms.
Case, Number And Gender
Formally, Akkadian has three numbers (singular, dual and plural) and three cases (nominative , accusative and genitive ). However, even in the earlier stages of the language, the dual number is vestigial, and its use is largely confined to natural pairs (eyes, ears, etc.), and adjectives are never found in the dual. In the dual and plural, the accusative and genitive are merged into a single oblique case .
The nouns _šarrum_ (king), _šarratum_ (queen) and the adjective _dannum_ (strong) will serve to illustrate the case system of Akkadian.
Noun and adjective paradigms
NOUN (MASC.) NOUN (FEM.) ADJECTIVE (MASC.) ADJECTIVE (FEM.)
NOMINATIVE SINGULAR _šarr-um_ _šarr-at-um_ _dann-um_ _dann-at-um_
GENITIVE SINGULAR _šarr-im_ _šarr-at-im_ _dann-im_ _dann-at-im_
ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR _šarr-am_ _šarr-at-am_ _dann-am_ _dann-at-am_
NOMINATIVE DUAL _šarr-ān_ _šarr-at-ān_
OBLIQUE DUAL _šarr-īn_ _šarr-at-īn_
NOMINATIVE PLURAL _šarr-ū_ _šarr-āt-um_ _dann-ūt-um_ _dann-āt-um_
OBLIQUE PLURAL _šarr-ī_ _šarr-āt-im_ _dann-ūt-im_ _dann-āt-im_
* ^ The oblique case includes the accusative and genitive.
As is clear from the above table, the adjective and noun endings differ only in the masculine plural. Certain nouns, primarily those referring to geography, can also form a locative ending in _-um_ in the singular and the resulting forms serve as adverbials . These forms are generally not productive, but in the Neo-Babylonian the _um_-locative replaces several constructions with the preposition _ina_.
In the later stages of Akkadian the mimation (word-final _-m_) - along with nunation (dual final "-n") - that occurs at the end of most case endings has disappeared, except in the locative. Later, the nominative and accusative singular of masculine nouns collapse to _-u_ and in Neo-Babylonian most word-final short vowels are dropped. As a result, case differentiation disappeared from all forms except masculine plural nouns. However many texts continued the practice of writing the case endings (although often sporadically and incorrectly). As the most important contact language throughout this period was Aramaic , which itself lacks case distinctions, it is possible that Akkadian's loss of cases was an areal as well as phonological phenomenon.
Noun States And Nominal Sentences
As is also the case in other Semitic languages, Akkadian nouns may appear in a variety of "states" depending on their grammatical function in a sentence. The basic form of the noun is the _status rectus_ (the Governed state ), which is the form as described above, complete with case endings. In addition to this, Akkadian has the _status absolutus_ (the Absolute state ) and the _status constructus_ ( Construct state ). The latter is found in all other Semitic languages, while the former appears only in Akkadian and some dialects of Aramaic.
The status absolutus is characterised by the loss of a noun's case ending (e.g. _awīl_ < _awīlum_, _šar_ < _šarrum_). It is relatively uncommon, and is used chiefly to mark the predicate of a nominal sentence, in fixed adverbial expressions, and in expressions relating to measurements of length, weight, and the like.
(1) _Awīl-um šū šarrāq_
_Awīl-um_ _šū_ _šarrāq._
Man (Masculine, nominative) he (3rd masc. personal pronoun) thief (status absolutus)
TRANSLATION: This man is a thief
(2) _šarrum lā šanān_
_šarr-um_ _lā_ _šanān._
King (Status rectus, nominative) not (negative particle) oppose (verbal infinitive, status absolutus)
TRANSLATION: The king who cannot be rivaled
The Status Constructus is a great deal more common, and has a much wider range of applications. It is employed when a noun is followed by another noun in the genitive, a pronominal suffix, or a verbal clause in the subjunctive, and typically takes the _shortest form of the noun which is phonetically possible_. In general, this amounts to the loss of case endings with short vowels, with the exception of the genitive -i in nouns preceding a pronominal suffix, hence:
Son (status constructus) + his (3rd person singular possessive pronoun
TRANSLATION: His son, its (masculine) son
(4) _mār šarr-im_
Son (Status constructus) king (genitive singular)
TRANSLATION: The king's son
There are numerous exceptions to this general rule, usually involving potential violations of the language's phonological limitations. Most obviously, Akkadian does not tolerate word final consonant clusters, so nouns like _kalbum_ (dog) and _maḫrum_ (front) would have illegal construct state forms _*kalb_ and _*maḫr_ unless modified. In many of these instances, the first vowel of the word is simply repeated (e.g. _kalab_, _maḫar_). This rule, however, does not always hold true, especially in nouns where a short vowel has historically been elided (e.g. _šaknum_ < _*šakinum_ "governor"). In these cases, the lost vowel is restored in the construct state (so _šaknum_ yields _šakin_).
(5) _kalab belim_
dog (Status constructus) master (genitive singular)
TRANSLATION: The master's dog
(6) _šakin ālim_
Governor (Status constructus) city (genitive singular)
A genitive relation can also be expressed with the relative preposition _ša_, and the noun that the genitive phrase depends on appears in status rectus.
(7) salīmātum ša awīl Ešnunna
_salīmātum_ _ša_ _awīl_ _Ešnunna_
Alliances (Status rectus, nominative) which (relative particle) man (status constructus) Ešnunna (genitive, unmarked)
TRANSLATION: The alliances of the Ruler of Ešnunna (literally "Alliances which man of Ešnunna (has)")
The same preposition is also used to introduce true relative clauses, in which case the verb is placed in the subjunctive mood.
(7) _awīl-um ša māt-am i-kšud-Ø-u_
_Awīl-um_ _ša_ _māt-am_ _i-kšud-Ø-u_
Man (Masculine, nominative) that (relative pronoun) land (singular, accusative) 3rd person - conquer (preterite) - singular, masculine - subjunctive
TRANSLATION: The man who conquered the land
The Akkadian verb has six finite verb aspects (preterite , perfect , present , imperative , precative and vetitive ) and three infinite forms (infinitive , participle and verbal adjective ). The preterite is used for actions that are seen by the speaker as having occurred at a single point in time. The present is primarily imperfective in meaning and is used for concurrent and future actions as well as past actions with a temporal dimension. The final three finite forms are injunctive where the imperative and the precative together form a paradigm for positive commands and wishes, and the vetitive is used for negative wishes. Additionally the periphrastic prohibitive , formed by the present form of the verb and the negative adverb lā, is used to express negative commands. The infinitive of the Akkadian verb is a verbal noun , and in contrast to some other languages the Akkadian infinitive can be declined in case . The verbal adjective is an adjectival form and designates the state or the result of the action of the verb, and consequently the exact meaning of the verbal adjective is determined by the semantics of the verb itself. The participle, which can be active or passive, is another verbal adjective and its meaning is similar to the English gerund .
The following table shows the conjugation of the G-stem verbs derived from the root PRS ("to decide") in the various verb aspects of Akkadian:
PRETERITE PERFECT PRESENT IMPERATIVE STATIVE INFINITIVE PARTICIPLE (ACTIVE) VERBAL ADJECTIVE
1ST PERSON SINGULAR _aprus_ _aptaras_ _aparras_
_parsāku_ _parāsum_ _pārisum_ (masc.) _pāristum_ (fem.) _parsum_ (masc.) _paristum_ (fem.)
1ST PERSON PLURAL _niprus_ _niptaras_ _niparras_ _parsānu_
2ND PERSON SINGULAR MASC. _taprus_ _taptaras_ _taparras_ _purus_ _parsāta_
2ND PERSON SINGULAR FEM. _taprusī_ _taptarsī_ (< *_taptarasī_) _taparrasī_ _pursi_ _parsāti_
2ND PERSON PLURAL _taprusā_ _taptarsā_ _taparrasā_ _pursa_ _parsātunu_ (masc.) / _parsātina_(fem.)
3RD PERSON SINGULAR _iprus_ _iptaras_ _iparras_
_paris_ (masc.) /_parsat_ (fem.)
3RD PERSON PLURAL MASC. _iprusū_ _iptarsū_ (< *_iptarasū_) _iparrasū_ _parsū_
3RD PERSON PLURAL FEM. _iprusā_ _iptarsā_(< _*iptarasā_) _iparrasā_ _parsā_
The table below shows the different affixes attached to the preterite aspect of the verb root PRS "to decide"; and as can be seen, the grammatical genders differ only in the second person singular and third person plural.
G-STEM D-STEM Š-STEM N-STEM
1ST PERSON SINGULAR _a-prus-Ø_ _u-parris-Ø_ _u-šapris-Ø_ _a-pparis-Ø_
1ST PERSON PLURAL _ni-prus-Ø_ _nu-parris-Ø_ _nu-šapris-Ø_ _ni-pparis-Ø_
2ND PERSON SINGULAR MASC. _ta-prus-Ø_ _tu-parris-Ø_ _tu-šapris-Ø_ _ta-pparis-Ø_
2ND PERSON SINGULAR FEM. _ta-prus-ī_ _tu-parris-ī_ _tu-šapris-ī_ _ta-ppars-ī_
2ND PERSON PLURAL _ta-prus-ā_ _tu-parris-ā_ _tu-šapris-ā_ _ta-ppars-ā_
3RD PERSON SINGULAR _i-prus-Ø_ _u-parris-Ø_ _u-šapris-Ø_ _i-pparis-Ø_
3RD PERSON PLURAL MASC. _i-prus-ū_ _u-parris-ū_ _u-šapris-ū_ _i-ppars-ū_
3RD PERSON PLURAL FEM. _i-prus-ā_ _u-parris-ā_ _u-šapris-ā_ _i-ppars-ā_
Akkadian verbs have 3 moods:
* Indicative , used in independent clauses, is unmarked. * Subjunctive , used in dependent clauses. The subjunctive is marked in forms which do not end in a vowel by the suffix -u (compare Arabic and Ugaritic subjunctives), but is otherwise unmarked. In the later stages of most dialects, the subjunctive is indistinct, as short final vowels were mostly lost * Venitive or allative . The venitive is not a mood in the strictest sense, being a development of the 1st person dative pronominal suffix -am/-m/-nim. With verbs of motion, it often indicates motion towards an object or person (e.g. _illik_, "he went" vs. _illikam_, "he came"). However, this pattern is not consistent, even in earlier stages of the language, and its use often appears to serve a stylistic rather than morphological or lexical function.
The following table demonstrates the verb moods of verbs derived from the root PRS ("to decide","to separate"):
PRETERITE. STATIVE .
INDICATIVE _iprus_ _paris_
SUBJUNCTIVE _iprusu_ _parsu_
VENITIVE _iprusam_ _parsam_
* ^ _A_ _B_ Both verbs are for the 3rd person masculine singular.
Akkadian verbs have thirteen separate derived stems formed on each root . The basic, underived, stem is the G-stem (from the German Grundstamm, meaning "basic stem"). Causative or intensive forms are formed with the doubled D-stem, and it gets its name from the doubled middle radical that is characteristic of this form. The doubled middle radical is also characteristic of the present, but the forms of the D-stem use the secondary conjugational affixes, so a D-form will never be identical to a form in a different stem. The Š-stem is formed by adding a prefix _š-_, and these forms are mostly causatives. Finally, the passive forms of the verb are in the N-stem, formed by adding a _n-_ prefix. However the _n-_ element is assimilated to a following consonant, so the original /n/ is only visible in a few forms.
Furthermore, reflexive and iterative verbal stems can be derived from each of the basic stems. The reflexive stem is formed with an infix _-ta_, and the derived stems are therefore called Gt, Dt, Št and Nt, and the preterite forms of the Xt-stem are identical to the perfects of the X-stem. Iteratives are formed with the infix _-tan-_, giving the Gtn, Dtn, Štn and Ntn. Because of the assimilation of _n_, the /n/ is only seen in the present forms, and the Xtn preterite is identical to the Xt durative .
The final stem is the ŠD-stem, a form mostly attested only in poetic texts, and whose meaning is usually identical to either the Š-stem or the D-stem of the same verb. It is formed with the Š prefix (like the Š-stem) in addition to a doubled middle radical (like the D-stem).
An alternative to this naming system is a numerical system. The basic stems are numbered using Roman numerals so that G, D, Š and N become I, II, III and IV, respectively, and the infixes are numbered using Arabic numerals ; 1 for the forms without an infix, 2 for the Xt, and 3 for the Xtn. The two numbers are separated using a solidus. As an example, the Štn-stem is called III/3. The most important user of this system is the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary.
There is mandatory congruence between the subject of the sentence and the verb, and this is expressed by prefixes and suffixes . There are two different sets of affixes, a primary set used for the forms of the G and N-stems, and a secondary set for the D and Š-stems.
The stems, their nomenclature and examples of the third-person masculine singular stative of the verb _parāsum_ (root PRS: 'to decide, distinguish, separate') is shown below:
# STEM VERB DESCRIPTION CORRESPONDENCE
IV.2 Nt _itaPRuS_ n-preformative with a t-infix preceding the first radical, indicating reflexive passive Hb. rare slang _hitpu‘al_ (e.g. התפוטר = forced to resign)
I.3 Gtn _PitaRRuS_ simple stem with tan-infix after first radical
II.3 Dtn _PutaRRuS_ doubled second radical preceded by tan-infix
III.3 Štn _šutaPRuS_ š-preformative with tan-infix
IV.3 Ntn _itaPRuS_ n-preformative with tan-infix
ŠD _šuPuRRuS_ š-preformative with doubled second radical
* ^ The _hitpu‘al_ is not inherited in Hebrew, but is rather a recent analogical creation of a passive formed to _hitpa‘el_.
A very often appearing form which can be formed by nouns , adjectives as well as by verbal adjectives is the stative . Nominal predicatives occur in the status absolutus and correspond to the verb "to be" in English. The stative in Akkadian corresponds to the Egyptian pseudo-participle. The following table contains an example of using the noun _šarrum_ (king), the adjective _rapšum_ (wide) and the verbal adjective _parsum_ (decided).
_šARRUM_ _RAPšUM_ _PARSUM_
1ST PERSON SINGULAR _šarr-āku_ _rapš-āku_ _pars-āku_
1ST PERSON PLURAL _šarr-ānu_ _rapš-ānu_ _pars-ānu_
2ND PERSON SINGULAR MASC. _šarr-āta_ _rapš-āta_ _pars-āta_
2ND PERSON SINGULAR FEM. _šarr-āti_ _rapš-āti_ _pars-āti_
2ND PERSON PLURAL MASC. _šarr-ātunu_ _rapš-ātunu_ _pars-ātunu_
2ND PERSON PLURAL FEM. _šarr-ātina_ _rapš-ātina_ _pars-ātina_
3RD PERSON SINGULAR MASC. _šar-Ø_ _rapaš-Ø_ _paris-Ø_
3RD PERSON SINGULAR FEM. _šarr-at_ _rapš-at_ _pars-at_
3RD PERSON PLURAL MASC. _šarr-ū_ _rapš-ū_ _pars-ū_
3RD PERSON PLURAL FEM. _šarr-ā_ _rapš-ā_ _pars-ā_
Thus, the stative in Akkadian is used to convert simple stems into effective sentences, so that the form _šarr-āta_ is equivalent to: "you were king", "you are king" and "you will be king". Hence, the stative is independent of time forms.
Beside the already explained possibility of derivation of different verb stems, Akkadian has numerous nominal formations derived from verb roots . A very frequently encountered form is the maPRaS form. It can express the location of an event, the person performing the act and many other meanings. If one of the root consonants is labial (p, b, m), the prefix becomes na- (maPRaS > naPRAS). Examples for this are: _maškanum_ (place, location) from ŠKN (set, place, put), _mašraḫum_ (splendour) from ŠRḪ (be splendid), _maṣṣarum_ (guards) from NṢR (guard), _napḫarum_ (sum) from PḪR (summarize).
A very similar formation is the maPRaSt form. The noun derived from this nominal formation is grammatically feminine. The same rules as for the maPRaS form apply, for example _maškattum_ (deposit) from ŠKN (set, place, put), _narkabtum_ (carriage) from RKB (ride, drive, mount).
The suffix - ūt is used to derive abstract nouns . The nouns which are formed with this suffix are grammatically feminine. The suffix can be attached to nouns, adjectives and verbs, e.g. _abūtum_ (paternity) from _abum_ (father), _rabutum_ (size) from _rabum_ (large), _waṣūtum_ (leaving) from WṢY (leave).
Also derivatives of verbs from nouns, adjectives and numerals are numerous. For the most part, a D-stem is derived from the root of the noun or adjective. The derived verb then has the meaning of "make X do something" or "becoming X", for example: _duššûm_ (let sprout) from _dišu_ (grass), _šullušum_ (to do something for the third time ) from _šalāš_ (three).
Independent Personal Pronouns
Independent personal pronouns in Akkadian are as follows:
NOMINATIVE OBLIQUE DATIVE
PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL
1ST anāku "I" nīnu "we" yāti niāti yāšim niāšim
2ND MASCULINE atta "you" attunu "you" kāti (kāta) kunūti kāšim kunūšim
FEMININE atti "you" attina "you" kāti kināti kāšim kināšim
3RD MASCULINE šū "he" šunu "they" šātilu (šātilu) šunūti šuāšim (šāšim) šunūšim
FEMININE šī "she" šina "they" šiāti (šuāti;šāti) šināti šiāšim (šāšim, šāšim) šināšim
Suffixed (or Enclitic) Pronouns
Suffixed (or enclitic ) pronouns (mainly denoting the genitive , accusative and dative ) are as follows:
GENITIVE ACCUSATIVE DATIVE
PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL
1ST -i, -ya -ni -ni -niāti -am/-nim -niāšim
2ND MASCULINE -ka -kunu -ka -kunūti -kum -kunūšim
FEMININE -ki -kina -ki -kināti -kim -kināšim
3RD MASCULINE -šū -šunu -šū -šunūti -šum -šunūšim
FEMININE -ša -šina -ši -šināti -šim -šināšim
* ^ -ni is used for the nominative, i.e. following a verb denoting the subject.
MASC. SINGULAR _annū_ "this" _ullū_ "that"
FEM. SINGULAR _annītu_ "this" _ullītu_ "that"
MASC. PLURAL _annūtu_ "these" _ullūtu_ "those"
FEM. PLURAL _annātu_ "these" _ullātu_ "those"
NOMINATIVE ACCUSATIVE GENITIVE
MASC. SINGULAR _šu_ _ša_ _ši_
FEM. SINGULAR _šāt_ _šāti_
MASC. PLURAL _šūt_
FEM. PLURAL _šāt_
Unlike plural relative pronouns, singular relative pronouns in Akkadian exhibit full declension for case. However, only the form _ša_ (originally accusative masculine singular) survived, while the other forms disappeared in time.
The following table shows the Interrogative pronouns used in Akkadian:
Akkadian has prepositions which consist mainly of only one word. For example: _ina_ (in, on, out, through, under), _ana_ (too, for, after, approximately), _adi_ (to), _aššu_ (because of), _eli_ (up, over), _ištu/ultu_ (of, since), _mala_ (in accordance with), _itti_ (also, with). There are, however, some compound prepositions which are combined with _ina_ and _ana_ (e.g. _ina maḫar_ (forwards), _ina balu_ (without), _ana ṣēr_ (up to), _ana maḫar_ (forwards). Regardless of the complexity of the preposition, the following noun is always in the genitive case .
Examples: _ina bītim_ (in the house, from the house), _ana dummuqim_ (to do good), _itti šarrim_ (with the king), _ana ṣēr mārīšu_ (up to his son).
Since numerals are written mostly as a number sign in the cuneiform script, the transliteration of many numerals is not well ascertained yet. Along with the counted noun, the cardinal numerals are in the status absolutus . Because other cases are very rare, the forms of the status rectus are known only by isolated numerals. The numerals 1 and 2 as well as 21–29, 31–39, 41–49 correspond with the counted in the grammatical gender , while the numerals 3–20, 30, 40 and 50 show gender polarity, i.e. if the counted noun is masculine, the numeral would be feminine and vice versa. This polarity is typical of the Semitic languages and appears also in classical Arabic for example. The numerals 60, 100 and 1000 do not change according to the gender of the counted noun. Counted nouns more than two appear in the plural form. However, body parts which occur in pairs appear in the dual form in Akkadian. e.g. _šepum_ (foot) becomes _šepān_ (two feet).
The ordinals are formed (with a few exceptions) by adding a case ending to the nominal form PaRuS (the P, R and S. must be substituted with the suitable consonants of the numeral). It is noted, however, that in the case of the numeral "one", the ordinal (masculine) and the cardinal number are the same. A metathesis occurs in the numeral "four". The following table contains the masculine and feminine forms of the status absolutus of some of the Akkadian cardinal numbers, as well as the corresponding ordinals.
# CARDINAL NUMERAL (MASC.) CARDINAL NUMERAL (FEM.) CONGRUENCE (GENDER AGREEMENT OF THE CARDINAL NUMERAL) ORDINAL (MASC.) ORDINAL (FEM.)
1 _ištēn_ _išteʾat_, _ištāt_ Congruent (no gender polarity) _ištēn_ _išteʾat_
2 _šinā_ _šittā_ Congruent _šanûm_ _šanītum_
3 _šalāš_ _šalāšat_ Gender polarity _šalšum_ _šaluštum_
4 _erbē_ _erbēt_ Gender polarity _rebûm_ _rebūtum_
5 _ḫamiš_ _ḫamšat_ Gender polarity _ḫamšum_ _ḫamuštum_
6 _šediš_ _šiššet_ Gender polarity _šeššum_ _šeduštum_
7 _sebē_ _sebēt_ Gender polarity _sebûm_ _sebūtum_
8 _samānē_ _samānat_ Gender polarity _samnum_, _samnûm_ _samuntum_
9 _tešē_ _tišīt_ Gender polarity _tišûm_, _tešûm_ _tišūtum_, _tešūtum_
10 _ešer_ _ešeret_ Gender polarity _ešrum_ _ešurtum_
60 _šūš_ No gender distinction
100 _meʾat_, _māt_ No gender distinction
1000 _līm_ No gender distinction
Examples: erbē aššātum (four wives) (male numeral), meʾat ālānū (100 towns).
Adjectives , relative clauses and appositions follow the noun. While numerals precede the counted noun. In the following table the nominal phrase _erbēt šarrū dannūtum ša ālam īpušū abūya_ 'the four strong kings who built the city are my fathers' is analyzed:
WORD MEANING ANALYSIS PART OF THE NOMINAL PHRASE
_erbēt_ four feminine (gender polarity) Numeral
_šarr-ū_ king nominative plural Noun (Subject)
_dann-ūtum_ strong nominative masculine plural Adjective
_ša_ which relative pronoun Relative clause
_āl-am_ city accusative singular
_īpuš-ū_ built 3rd person masculine plural
_ab -ū-ya_ my fathers masculine plural + possessive pronoun Apposition
Akkadian sentence order was Subject+Object+Verb (SOV), which sets it apart from most other ancient Semitic languages such as Arabic and Biblical Hebrew , which typically have a verb–subject–object (VSO) word order. (Modern South Semitic languages in Ethiopia also have SOV order, but these developed within historical times from the classical verb–subject–object (VSO) language Ge\'ez .) It has been hypothesized that this word order was a result of influence from the Sumerian language , which was also SOV. There is evidence that native speakers of both languages were in intimate language contact, forming a single society for at least 500 years, so it is entirely likely that a sprachbund could have formed. Further evidence of an original VSO or SVO ordering can be found in the fact that direct and indirect object pronouns are suffixed to the verb. Word order seems to have shifted to SVO/VSO late in the 1st millennium BC to the 1st millennium AD, possibly under the influence of Aramaic .
The Akkadian vocabulary is mostly of Semitic origin. Although classified as ' East Semitic ', many elements of its basic vocabulary find no evident parallels in related Semitic languages. For example: _māru_ 'son' (Semitic *bn), _qātu_ 'hand' (Semitic *yd), _šēpu_ 'foot' (Semitic *rgl), _qabû_ 'say' (Semitic *qwl), _izuzzu_ 'stand' (Semitic *qwm), _ana_ 'to, for' (Semitic *li).
Due to extensive contact with Sumerian and Aramaic , the Akkadian vocabulary contains many loan words from these languages. Aramaic loan words, however, were limited to the 1st centuries of the 1st millennium BC and primarily in the north and middle parts of Mesopotamia , whereas Sumerian loan words were spread in the whole linguistic area. Beside the previous languages, some nouns were borrowed from Hurrian , Kassite , Ugaritic and other ancient languages. Since Sumerian and Hurrian, two non-Semitic languages, differ from Akkadian in word structure, only nouns and some adjectives (not many verbs) were borrowed from these languages. However, some verbs were borrowed (along with many nouns) from Aramaic and Ugaritic, both of which are Semitic languages.
The following table contains examples of loan words in Akkadian:
AKKADIAN MEANING SOURCE WORD IN THE LANGUAGE OF ORIGIN
_dû_ hill Sumerian _du_
_erēqu_ flee Aramaic _ʿRQ_ (root )
_gadalû_ dressed in linen Sumerian _gada lá_
_isinnu_ firmly Sumerian _ezen_
_kasulatḫu_ a device of copper Hurrian _kasulatḫ-_
_kisallu_ court Sumerian _kisal_
_laqāḫu_ take Ugaritic _LQḤ_( root )
_paraššannu_ part of horse riding gear Hurrian _paraššann-_
_purkullu_ stone cutter Sumerian _bur-gul_
_qaṭālu_ kill Aramaic _QṬL_ (root )
_uriḫullu_ conventional penalty Hurrian _uriḫull-_
Akkadian was also a source of borrowing to other languages, above all Sumerian . Some examples are: Sumerian _da-ri_ ('lastingly', from Akkadian _dāru_), Sumerian _ra gaba_ ('riders, messenger', from Akkadian _rākibu_).
The following is the 7th section of the Hammurabi law code , written in the mid-18th century BC:
AKKADIAN _šumma_ _awīl-um_ _lū_ _kasp-am_ _lū_ _ḫurāṣ-am_ _lū_ _ward-am_ _lū_ _amt-am_
ENGLISH if Man (nominative) or silver (accusative) or gold (accusative) or slave (masculine, accusative) or Slave (feminine, accusative)
AKKADIAN _lū_ _alp-am_ _lū_ _immer-am_ _lū_ _imēr-am_ _ū lū_ _mimma šumšu_ _ina_
ENGLISH or Cattle, oxen (accusative) or sheep (accusative) or donkey (accusative) and or something from
AKKADIAN _qāt_ _mār_ _awīl-im_ _ū lū_ _warad_ _awīl-im_ _balum_ _šīb-ī_ _u_
ENGLISH hand (status constructus) son (status constructus) man (genitive) and or slave (status constructus) man (genitive) without witnesses (genitive) and
AKKADIAN _riks-ātim_ _i-štām-Ø_ _ū lū_ _ana_ _maṣṣārūt-im_ _i-mḫur-Ø_
ENGLISH contracts (genitive) bought (3rd person singular, perfect) and or for safekeeping (genitive) received (3rd person singular, preterite)
AKKADIAN _awīl-um_ _šū_ _šarrāq_ _i-ddāk_
ENGLISH man (nominative) (3rd person masculine singular independent pronoun) stealer (status absolutus) is killed (3rd person singular in passive present tense)
Translation: _If a man bought silver, gold, a slave (masculine), a slave (feminine), an ox, a sheep, a donkey or something other from the hand of another man or a slave of a man without witnesses or contract, or accepted (them) for safekeeping (without same), then this man is a thief; he is to be killed._
* Ancient Near East portal
Main article: Akkadian literature
* Atrahasis Epic (early 2nd millennium BC) * Enûma Elish (c. 18th century BC) * Amarna letters (14th century BC) * Epic of Gilgamesh ( Sin-liqe-unninni ' "standard" version, 13th to 11th century BC) * Ludlul Bel Nemeqi
* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Akkadian". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Black, Jeremy A.; George, Andrew; Postgate, J. N. (2000-01-01). _A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian_. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 10. ISBN 9783447042642 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, " Akkadian and Eblaite", _The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages_. Ed. Roger D. Woodard (2004, Cambridge) Pages 218-280 * ^ John Huehnergard and Christopher Woods, " Akkadian and Eblaite", in Roger D. Woodard, ed., _The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum_, Cambridge University Press, 2008, p.83 * ^ Deutscher, Guy (2007). _Syntactic Change in Akkadian: The Evolution of Sentential Complementation_. Oxford University Press US . pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-0-19-953222-3 . * ^ Andrew George, "Babylonian and Assyrian: A History of Akkadian", In: Postgate, J. N., (ed.), _Languages of Iraq, Ancient and Modern_. London: British School of Archaeology in Iraq, pp. 37. * ^ Marckham Geller, "The Last Wedge" * ^ Müller-Kessler, Christa (July 20, 2009). "Mandaeans v. Mandaic Language". _Encyclopædia Iranica_ (online 2012 ed.). * ^ _Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasitische Archäologie_ 86 (1997): 43–95. * ^ Caplice, p.5 (1980) * ^ Bertman, Stephen (2003). _Handbook to Life in Ancient Mesopotamia_. Oxford University Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-019-518364-1 . Retrieved 16 May 2015. * ^ Adkins 2003, p. 47. * ^ John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, 2004 " Akkadian and Eblaite", _The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages_, pg. 218. * ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-13715296 * ^ Hetzron, Robert. _The Semitic Languages_. * ^ Kogan, Leonid (2011). " Proto-Semitic Phonetics and Phonology". In Semitic languages: an international handbook, Stefan Weninger, ed. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 68. * ^ Hendrik, Jagersma, Abraham. "A descriptive grammar of Sumerian". _openaccess.leidenuniv.nl_. p. 46. Retrieved 2015-11-20. * ^ Sabatino Moscati et al. "An Introduction to Comparative Grammar of Semitic Languages Phonology and Morphology". (section on vowels and semi-vowels) * ^ Huehnergard & Woods. " Akkadian and Eblaite". _www.academia.edu_. p. 233. Retrieved 2015-11-19. * ^ Mark Aronoff, _Morphology by Itself: Stems and Inflectional Classes_, p. 190.
* Aro, Jussi (1957). _Studien zur mittelbabylonischen Grammatik_. Studia Orientalia 22. Helsinki: Societas Orientalis Fennica. * Buccellati, Giorgio (1996). _A Structural Grammar of Babylonian_. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. * Buccellati, Giorgio (1997). "Akkadian," _The Semitic Languages_. Ed. Robert Hetzron. New York: Routledge. Pages 69–99. * Bussmann, Hadumod (1996). _Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics_. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-20319-8 * Caplice, Richard (1980). _Introduction to Akkadian_. Rome: Biblical Institute Press. (1983: ISBN 88-7653-440-7 ; 1988, 2002: ISBN 88-7653-566-7 ) (The 1980 edition is partly available online.) * Dolgopolsky, Aron (1999). _From Proto-Semitic to Hebrew_. Milan: Centro Studi Camito-Semitici di Milano. * Gelb, I.J. (1961). _Old Akkadian Writing and Grammar_. Second edition. Materials for the Assyrian Dictionary 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. * Huehnergard, John (2005). _A Grammar of Akkadian (Second Edition)_. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 1-57506-922-9 * Marcus, David (1978). _A Manual of Akkadian_. University Press of America. ISBN 0-8191-0608-9 * Mercer, Samuel A B (1961). _Introductory Assyrian Grammar_. New York: F Ungar. ISBN 0-486-42815-X * Sabatino Moscati (1980). _An Introduction to Comparative Grammar of Semitic Languages Phonology and Morphology_. Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 3-447-00689-7 . * Soden, Wolfram von (1952). _Grundriss der akkadischen Grammatik_. Analecta Orientalia 33. Roma: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum. (3rd ed., 1995: ISBN 88-7653-258-7 ) * Woodard, Roger D. The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum. Cambridge University Press 2008. ISBN 978-0-521-68497-2
GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND GRAMMAR
* Gelb, I. J. (1961). _Old Akkadian writing and grammar_. Materials for the Assyrian dictionary, no. 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-62304-1 * Hasselbach, Rebecca. _Sargonic Akkadian: A Historical and Comparative Study of the Syllabic Texts_. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag 2005. ISBN 978-3-447-05172-9 * Huehnergard, J. _A Grammar of Akkadian_ (3rd ed. 2011). Harvard Semitic Museum Studies 45. ISBN 978-1-57506-922-7 * Huehnergard, J. (2005). _A Key to_ A Grammar of Akkadian . Harvard Semitic Studies. Eisenbrauns. * Soden, Wolfram von : _Grundriß der Akkadischen Grammatik_. Analecta Orientalia. Bd 33. Rom 1995. ISBN 88-7653-258-7 * Streck, Michael P. _Sprachen des Alten Orients_. Wiss. Buchges., Darmstadt 2005. ISBN 3-534-17996-X * Ungnad, Arthur: _Grammatik des Akkadischen._ Neubearbeitung durch L. Matouš, München 1969, 1979 (5. Aufl.). ISBN 3-406-02890-X * Woodard, Roger D. _The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum_. Cambridge University Press 2008. ISBN 978-0-521-68497-2
* Rykle Borger: _Babylonisch-assyrische Lesestücke._ Rom 1963.(3., revidierte Auflage, 2006 Teil. I-II)
* Part I: _Elemente der Grammatik und der Schrift. Übungsbeispiele. Glossar._ * Part II: _Die Texte in Umschrift._ * Part III: _Kommentar. Die Texte in Keilschrift._
* Richard Caplice: _Introduction to Akkadian._ Biblical Institute Press, Rome 1988, 2002 (4.Aufl.). ISBN 88-7653-566-7 * Kaspar K. Riemschneider: _Lehrbuch des Akkadischen._ Enzyklopädie, Leipzig 1969, Langenscheidt Verl. Enzyklopädie, Leipzig 1992 (6. Aufl.). ISBN 3-324-00364-4 * Martin Worthington: "Complete Babylonian: Teach Yourself" London 2010 ISBN 0-340-98388-4
* Jeremy G. Black, Andrew George, Nicholas Postgate: _A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian._ Harrassowitz-Verlag, Wiesbaden 2000. ISBN 3-447-04264-8 * Wolfram von Soden: _Akkadisches Handwörterbuch._ 3 Bde. Wiesbaden 1958-1981. ISBN 3-447-02187-X * Martha T. Roth, ed.: _The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. _ 21 vols. in 26. Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Chicago 1956-2010. (available free online)
* Cherry, A. (2003). _A basic neo- Assyrian cuneiform syllabary_. Toronto, Ont: Ashur Cherry, York University. * Cherry, A. (2003). _Basic individual logograms (Akkadian)_. Toronto, Ont: Ashur Cherry, York University. * Rykle Borger: _Mesopotamisches Zeichenlexikon._ Alter Orient und Altes Testament (AOAT). Bd 305. Ugarit-Verlag, Münster 2004. ISBN 3-927120-82-0 * René Labat : _Manuel d'Épigraphie Akkadienne._ Paul Geuthner, Paris 1976, 1995 (6.Aufl.). ISBN 2-7053-3583-8
TECHNICAL LITERATURE ON SPECIFIC SUBJECTS
* Ignace J. Gelb: _Old Akkadian Writing and Grammar._ Materials for the Assyrian dictionary. Bd 2. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1952, 1961, 1973. ISBN 0-226-62304-1 ISSN 0076-518X * Markus Hilgert: _Akkadisch in der Ur III-Zeit._ Rhema-Verlag, Münster 2002. ISBN 3-930454-32-7 * Walter Sommerfeld: _Bemerkungen zur Dialektgliederung Altakkadisch, Assyrisch und Babylonisch._ In: _Alter Orient und Altes Testament_ (AOAT). Ugarit-Verlag, Münster 274.2003. ISSN 0931-4296
_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to AKKADIAN LANGUAGE _.
_ AKKADIAN REPOSITORY _ of Wikisource , the free library
_ For a list of words relating to Akkadian, see the AKKADIAN_ category of words in Wiktionary , the free dictionary.
* Introduction to Cuneiform Script and the Akkadian language on The Open Richly Annotated Cuneiform Corpus (Oracc) * Akkadian cuneiform on Omniglot (Writing Systems and Languages of the World) * Wilford, John Noble (7 June 2011). "After 90 Years, a Dictionary of an Ancient World". _The New York Times_. p. 2. * Akkadian Language Samples * A detailed introduction to Akkadian * _Assyrian grammar with chrestomathy and glossary (1921)_ by Samuel A B Mercer * Akkadian-English-French Online Dictionary * Old Babylonian Text Corpus (includes dictionary) * The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (CAD) * Old Akkadian Writing and Grammar, by I. J. Gelb, 2nd Ed. (1961) *