The Info List - Akihito

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HIH The Princess Mikasa

* HIH Princess Tomohito of Mikasa

* HIH Princess Akiko of Mikasa * HIH Princess Yōko of Mikasa

* HIH The Princess Takamado

* HIH Princess Tsuguko of Takamado * HIH Princess Ayako of Takamado

* v * t * e

AKIHITO (明仁, Japanese: ; English pronunciation (help ·info ); born 23 December 1933) is the Emperor of Japan . He is the 125th Emperor of his line according to Japan's traditional order of succession . Akihito succeeded his father Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito) and acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne on 7 January 1989. There has been ongoing coverage of his possible abdication due to age and health issues; 31 December 2018 and 1 January 2019 have been mentioned as possible dates of abdication.


* 1 Name

* 2 Biography

* 2.1 Possible abdication

* 3 Marriage and family * 4 Official functions * 5 Succession * 6 Ichthyological research

* 7 Titles, styles, honours and arms

* 7.1 Titles and styles * 7.2 Honours * 7.3 Arms

* 8 Issue

* 9 Ancestors

* 9.1 Patrilineal descent

* 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links


In Japan, the Emperor is never referred to by his given name, but rather is referred to as "His Majesty the Emperor" (天皇陛下, _Tennō Heika_) which may be shortened to "HIS MAJESTY" (陛下, _Heika_). In writing, the Emperor is also referred to formally as "The Reigning Emperor" (今上天皇, _Kinjō Tennō_). The Era of Akihito's reign bears the name "Heisei " (平成), and according to custom he will be renamed "EMPEROR HEISEI" (平成天皇, _Heisei Tennō_, see "posthumous name ") by order of the Cabinet after his death. At the same time, the name of the next era under his successor will be established. If the Emperor were to abdicate, he would receive the title of Jōkō (上皇), an abbreviation of DAIJō TENNō (太上天皇, Retired Emperor), and a new era would be established.


_ The newly married Crown Prince and Crown Princess in Japanese traditional attire, with the Prince wearing a sokutai _, the Princess a _jūnihitoe _

Akihito was born in the Tokyo Imperial Palace, Tokyo City, Japan, and is the elder son and the fifth child of the Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito) and Empress Kōjun (Nagako). Titled Prince Tsugu (継宮, _Tsugu-no-miya_) as a child, he was raised and educated by his private tutors and then attended the elementary and secondary departments of the Peers' School (_ Gakushūin _) from 1940 to 1952. Unlike his predecessors in the Imperial family, he did not receive a commission as an army officer, at the request of his father, Hirohito.

During the American firebombing raids on Tokyo in March 1945, Akihito and his younger brother, Prince Masahito , were evacuated from the city. During the American occupation of Japan following World War II , Prince Akihito was tutored in the English language and Western manners by Elizabeth Gray Vining . He briefly studied at the Department of Political Science at Gakushuin University in Tokyo, though he never received a degree .

Akihito was heir-apparent to the Chrysanthemum Throne from the moment of his birth. His formal Investiture as Crown Prince (立太子礼, _Rittaishi-no-rei_) was held at the Tokyo Imperial Palace on 10 November 1952. In June 1953 Akihito represented Japan at the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in London .

Crown Prince Akihito and Crown Princess Michiko made official visits to thirty-seven countries. As an Imperial prince, Akihito compared the role of Japanese royalty to that of a robot; and, he expressed the hope that he would like to help in bringing the Imperial family closer to the people of Japan.

Upon the death of Emperor Hirohito on 7 January 1989, his eldest son the Crown Prince Akihito succeeded (_senso_) to the throne, with an enthronement ceremony taking place (_sokui_) on 12 November 1990. In 1998, during a state visit to the United Kingdom , he was invested with the UK Order of the Garter .

On 23 December 2001, during his annual birthday meeting with reporters, the Emperor, in response to a reporter's question about tensions with Korea, remarked that he felt a kinship with Koreans and went on to explain that, in the _ Shoku Nihongi _, the mother of Emperor Kammu (736–806) is related to Muryeong of Korea, King of Baekje , a fact that was considered taboo.

Emperor Akihito underwent surgery for prostate cancer on 14 January 2003. Since succeeding to the throne, Emperor Akihito has made an effort to bring the Imperial family closer to the Japanese people. The Emperor and Empress of Japan have made official visits to eighteen countries and to all forty-seven Prefectures of Japan .

In response to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami and the Fukushima I nuclear crisis , the Emperor made an historic televised appearance urging his people not to give up hope and to help each other. The Emperor and Empress also made a visit on Wednesday, 30 March 2011 to a temporary shelter housing refugees of the disaster, in order to inspire hope in the people. This kind of event is also extremely rare, though in line with the Emperor's attempts to bring the Imperial family closer to the people. Later in 2011 he was admitted to hospital suffering from pneumonia . In February 2012 it was announced that the Emperor would be having a coronary examination; he underwent successful heart bypass surgery on 18 February 2012.


On 13 July 2016, national broadcaster NHK reported that the Emperor intended to abdicate in favor of his eldest son Crown Prince Naruhito within a few years, citing his age; an abdication within the Imperial Family has not occurred since Emperor Kōkaku abdicated in 1817. However, senior officials within the Imperial Household Agency have denied that there is any official plan for the monarch to abdicate. A potential abdication by the Emperor would require an amendment to the Imperial Household Law , which currently has no provisions for such a move. On 8 August 2016, the Emperor gave a rare televised address, where he emphasized his advanced age and declining health; this address is interpreted as an implication of his intention to abdicate. According to government sources, to avoid interference with the Imperial Household Law , a one-off exception was considered which would make way for his abdication. The date of this is expected to be on 31 December 2018, the day when the Heisei period is expected to end.


On 19 May 2017, the bill that would allow Akihito to abdicate was issued by the Japanese government 's cabinet. On 8 June 2017, the National Diet passed a one-off bill allowing Akihito to abdicate, and for the government to begin arranging the process of handing over the position to Crown Prince Naruhito .


Then- Crown Prince Akihito on his wedding day, 10 April 1959

In August 1957, he met Michiko Shōda on a tennis court at Karuizawa near Nagano . The Imperial Household Council (a body composed of the Prime Minister of Japan , the presiding officers of the two houses of the Diet of Japan , the Chief Justice of Japan , and two members of the Imperial family) formally approved the engagement of the Crown Prince to Michiko Shōda on 27 November 1958. At that time, the media presented their encounter as a real "fairy tale", or the "romance of the tennis court". It was the first time a commoner would marry into the Imperial Family. The engagement ceremony took place on 14 January 1959, and the marriage on 10 April 1959.

The Emperor and Empress have three children: sons Naruhito, Crown Prince of Japan (born 23 February 1960, formerly The Prince Hiro) and Fumihito, Prince Akishino (born 30 November 1965, formerly The Prince Aya) and daughter Mrs. Sayako Kuroda (born 18 April 1969, formerly The Princess Nori).

The announcement about the then- Crown Prince Akihito's engagement and marriage to the then-Ms. Michiko Shōda drew opposition from traditionalist groups, because Shōda came from a Roman Catholic family. Although Shōda was never baptized, she was educated in Catholic schools and seemed to share the faith of her parents. Rumors also speculated that Empress Kōjun had opposed the engagement. After the death of Empress Kōjun in 2000, Reuters reported that she was one of the strongest opponents of her son's marriage, and that in the 1960s, she had driven her daughter-in-law and grandchildren to depression by persistently accusing her of not being suitable for her son.


Despite being strictly constrained by his constitutional position, he also issued several wide-ranging statements of remorse to Asian countries, for their suffering under Japanese occupation, beginning with an expression of remorse to China made in April 1989, three months after the death of his father, Emperor Shōwa .

In June 2005, the Emperor visited the island of Saipan (part of the Northern Mariana Islands , a U.S. territory ), the site of a battle in World War II from 15 June to 9 July 1944 (known as the Battle of Saipan ). Accompanied by Empress Michiko, he offered prayers and flowers at several memorials, honoring not only the Japanese who died, but also American soldiers, Korean laborers, and local islanders. It was the first trip by a Japanese monarch to a World War II battlefield abroad. The Saipan journey was received with high praise by the Japanese people, as were the Emperor's visits to war memorials in Tokyo , Hiroshima , Nagasaki and Okinawa in 1995.


Play media The Emperor of Japan, at Chōwaden Reception Hall , giving a New Year's address to the people of Japan in 2010.

On 6 September 2006, the Emperor celebrated the birth of his first grandson, Prince Hisahito , the third child of the Emperor's younger son. Prince Hisahito is the first male heir born to the Japanese imperial family in 41 years (since his father Prince Akishino) and could avert a possible succession crisis as the Emperor's elder son, the Crown Prince Naruhito , has only one daughter, Princess Aiko . Under Japan\'s male-only succession law , Princess Aiko is not eligible for the throne. The birth of Prince Hisahito could mean that proposed changes to the law to allow Aiko to ascend the Chrysanthemum Throne will not go through after being temporarily shelved following the announcement of Princess Kiko 's third pregnancy in February 2006. The supporters of changes criticized the current law as it placed a burden on the few aging males old enough to perform royal duties as females left the family.


In extension of his father's interest in marine biology , the Emperor is a published ichthyological researcher, and has specialized in studies within the taxonomy of the family Gobiidae . He has written papers for scholarly journals such as _Gene _ and the _Japanese Journal of Ichthyology_.

He has also written papers about the history of science during the Edo and Meiji eras , which were published in _Science _ and _Nature _. In 2005, a newly described goby was named _ Exyrias akihito _ in his honour.

* Member of the Ichthyological Society of Japan * Foreign member of the Linnean Society of London (1980) * Honorary member of the Linnean Society of London (1986) * Research associate of the Australian Museum * Honorary member of the Zoological Society of London (1992) * Honorary member of the Research Institute for Natural Science of Argentina (1997) * Honorary degree of the Uppsala University (2007)



REFERENCE STYLE His Imperial Majesty

SPOKEN STYLE Your Imperial Majesty



* 23 DECEMBER 1933 – 10 NOVEMBER 1952: _His Imperial Highness_ The Prince Tsugu * 10 NOVEMBER 1952 – 7 JANUARY 1989: _His Imperial Highness_ The Crown Prince * 7 JANUARY 1989 – PRESENT: _His Imperial Majesty_ The Emperor


See also: List of honours of the Japanese Imperial Family by country National honours

* Collar and Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum

* Grand Cordon of The Order of the Rising Sun with the Paulownia Blossoms (renamed Grand Cordon of the Order of the Paulownia Flowers from 2003) * Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure * Order of Culture * The Golden Medal of Merit of the Japanese Red Cross * The Golden Medal of Honorary Member of the Japanese Red Cross

Foreign honours


Afghanistan Order of the Supreme Sun

Austria Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria , Grand Star

Bahrain Order of al-Khalifa , Collar

Belgium Order of Leopold , Grand Cordon

Botswana Presidential Order

Brazil Order of the Southern Cross , Grand Collar

Cambodia Royal Order of Cambodia , Grand Cross

Cameroon Order of Valour , Grand Cordon

Chile Order of the Merit of Chile , Grand Collar

Colombia Order of Boyaca , Grand Collar

Côte d\'Ivoire National Order of the Ivory Coast , Grand Cordon

Czech Republic Order of the White Lion , 1st Class (Civil Division) with Collar Chain

Denmark Order of the Elephant (8 August 1953)

Egypt Order of the Nile , Grand Collar

Estonia Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana , The Collar of the Cross

Ethiopia Order of Solomon , Grand Collar

Finland Order of the White Rose , Grand Cross with Collar

France Légion d\'honneur , Grand Cross

The Gambia Order of the Republic of the Gambia , Grand Commander

Germany Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany , Grand Cross, Special Class

Greece Order of the Redeemer , Grand Cross

Hungary Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary , Grand Cross with Chain

Iceland Order of the Falcon , Grand Cross with Collar

Indonesia Star of Adipurna , 1st Class

Ireland Freedom of the City of Dublin , awarded by Lord Mayor of Dublin

Italy Order of Merit of the Republic , Grand Cross with Cordon

Jordan Order of al-Hussein bin Ali , Collar

Kazakhstan Order of the Golden Eagle

Kenya Order of the Golden Heart

Kuwait Order of Mubarak the Great , Collar

Latvia Order of the Three Stars , Commander Grand Cross with Chain

Liberia Order of the Star of Africa , Knight Grand Band Order of the Pioneers of Liberia , Grand Cordon

Lithuania Order of Vytautas the Great , the Great Grand Cross with Collar

Luxembourg Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau , Knight

Malawi Order of the Lion , Grand Commander

Malaysia Honorary Recipient of the Order of the Crown of the Realm

Mali National Order of Mali , Grand Cordon

Mexico Order of the Aztec Eagle , Grand Collar

Morocco Order of Muhammad , Grand Collar

Nepal Order of Ojaswi Rajanya , Member (19 April 1960) King Birendra Coronation Medal (24 February 1975)

Netherlands Order of the Netherlands Lion , Knight Grand Cross

Nigeria Order of the Federal Republic , Grand Commander

Norway Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav , Grand Cross with Collar

Oman Order of Oman , Superior Class

Pakistan Nishan-e- Pakistan , 1st Class

Panama Order of Manuel Amador Guerrero , Gold Collar

Peru Order of the Sun , Grand Cross in Brilliants

Philippines Philippine Legion of Honor , Chief Commander Order of Sikatuna , Rank of Raja Order of Lakandula , Grand Collar

Poland Order of the White Eagle

Portugal Order of Saint James of the Sword , Grand Collar (2 December 1993) Order of Prince Henry , Grand Collar (12 May 1998)

Qatar Collar of Independence

Saudi Arabia Badr Chain

Senegal Order of the Lion , Collar

South Africa Order of Good Hope , Grand Cross in Gold (4 July 1995)

Spain Order of the Golden Fleece , Knight Order of Charles III , Grand Cross Order of Charles III , Collar

Sweden Royal Order of the Seraphim , Knight with Collar

Thailand The Most Auspicious Order of the Rajamitrabhorn The Most Illustrious Order of the Royal House of Chakri Commemorative Medal on the Occasion of the 60th Anniversary of the Accession to the Throne of H.M. King Bhumibol Adulyadej

Ukraine Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise , First Class

United Arab Emirates Collar of the Federation

United Kingdom Stranger Knight of Order of the Garter (985th member; 1998) Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (?) Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal (2 June 1953)

FR Yugoslavia * Order of the Yugoslav Star

Zaire National Order of the Leopard , Grand Cordon

* FR Yugoslavia split into Serbia and Montenegro.

Other awards

* The Royal Society King Charles II Medal * Golden Pheasant Award of the Scout Association of Japan (1971)


Imperial Standard


See also: Line of succession to the Japanese throne The Emperor and Empress with their family in November 2013


Naruhito, Crown Prince of Japan 23 February 1960 9 June 1993 Masako Owada Aiko, Princess Toshi

Fumihito, Prince Akishino 30 November 1965 29 June 1990 Kiko Kawashima Princess Mako of Akishino Princess Kako of Akishino Prince Hisahito of Akishino

Sayako, Princess Nori 18 April 1969 15 November 2005 Yoshiki Kuroda



16. Osahito, Emperor Kōmei

8. Mutsuhito, Emperor Meiji

17. Lady Yoshiko Nakayama

4. Yoshihito, Emperor Taishō

18. Count Mitsunaru Yanagihara

9. Lady Naruko Yanagihara

19. Lady Utano Hasegawa

2. Hirohito, Emperor Shōwa

20. Prince Kujō Hisatada, Regent of Japan

10. Prince Kujō Michitaka of the Fujiwara Clan

21. Lady Tsuneko Karahashi

5. Lady Sadako Kujō

22. Yorioki Noma

11. Lady Ikuko Noma

23. Lady Kairi Yamokushi


24. Prince Fushimi Kuniie

12. Asahiko, 1st Imperial Prince Kuni

25. Lady Nobuko Toriikōji

6. Kuniyoshi, 2nd Imperial Prince Kuni

26. Sir Toshimasu Izumitei

13. Lady Makiko Izumi

27. Lady Mako Yatoshi

3. Princess Nagako of Kuni

28. Prince Shimazu Hisamitsu

14. Prince Shimazu Tadayoshi

29. Lady Chimoko Shimazu of Echizen-Shimazu

7. Princess Chikako Shimazu

15. Lady Sumako Yamazaki



Akihito's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son.

Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations, which means that Akihito is a member of the Imperial House of Japan . Imperial House of Japan

* Descent prior to Keitai is unclear to modern historians, but traditionally traced back patrilineally to Emperor Jimmu * Emperor Keitai , ca. 450–534 * Emperor Kinmei , 509–571 * Emperor Bidatsu , 538–585 * Prince Oshisaka, ca. 556–??? * Emperor Jomei , 593–641 * Emperor Tenji , 626–671 * Prince Shiki, ???–716 * Emperor Kōnin , 709–786 * Emperor Kanmu , 737–806 * Emperor Saga , 786–842 * Emperor Ninmyō , 810–850 * Emperor Kōkō , 830–867 * Emperor Uda , 867–931 * Emperor Daigo , 885–930 * Emperor Murakami , 926–967 * Emperor En\'yū , 959–991 * Emperor Ichijō , 980–1011 * Emperor Go-Suzaku , 1009–1045 * Emperor Go-Sanjō , 1034–1073 * Emperor Shirakawa , 1053–1129 * Emperor Horikawa , 1079–1107 * Emperor Toba , 1103–1156 * Emperor Go-Shirakawa , 1127–1192 * Emperor Takakura , 1161–1181 * Emperor Go-Toba , 1180–1239 * Emperor Tsuchimikado , 1196–1231 * Emperor Go-Saga , 1220–1272 * Emperor Go-Fukakusa , 1243–1304 * Emperor Fushimi , 1265–1317 * Emperor Go-Fushimi , 1288–1336 * Emperor Kōgon , 1313–1364 * Emperor Sukō , 1334–1398 * Prince Yoshihito Fushimi , 1351–1416 * Prince Sadafusa Fushimi , 1372–1456 * Emperor Go-Hanazono , 1419–1471 * Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado , 1442–1500 * Emperor Go-Kashiwabara , 1464–1526 * Emperor Go-Nara , 1495–1557 * Emperor Ōgimachi , 1517–1593 * Prince Masahito , 1552–1586 * Emperor Go-Yōzei , 1572–1617 * Emperor Go-Mizunoo , 1596–1680 * Emperor Reigen , 1654–1732 * Emperor Higashiyama , 1675–1710 * Prince Naohito Kanin , 1704–1753 * Prince Sukehito Kanin , 1733–1794 * Emperor Kōkaku , 1771–1840 * Emperor Ninkō , 1800–1846 * Emperor Kōmei , 1831–1867 * Emperor Meiji , 1852–1912 * Emperor Taishō , 1879–1926 * Emperor Shōwa , 1901–1989 * Emperor Akihito, b. 1933

Akihito IMPERIAL HOUSE OF JAPAN BORN: 23 December 1933


Preceded by Shōwa (Hirohito) EMPEROR OF JAPAN 1989–present INCUMBENT Heir apparent: Naruhito


FIRST Gentlemen _as the Sovereign_ Succeeded by The Crown Prince


* The Emperor\'s Birthday * Imperial Household Agency * Imperial House of Japan * Japanese era name * List of Emperors of Japan * List of longest reigning current monarchs


* ^ _A_ _B_ "Emperor Akihito: Japan considers moves to allow 2018 abdication - reports". _BBC News_. 2017-01-11. Retrieved 2017-01-11. * ^ "Members of the Order of the Garter". The British Monarchy. * ^ "National Day of Japan to be celebrated". Embassy of Japan in Pakistan. 7 December 2007. Archived from the original on 2 February 2008. Retrieved 28 December 2007. * ^ "Government panel outlines proposals on Emperor\'s abdication, titles". _The Japan Times Online_. 14 April 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017. * ^ " Japan may announce new Imperial era name in summer 2018". _The Japan Times _. 19 May 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ "Their Majesties the Emperor and Empress". Imperial Household Agency. 2002. Archived from the original on 1 December 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2007. * ^ "Those Apprentice Kings and Queens Who May – One Day – Ascend a Throne," _The New York Times._ 14 November 1971. * ^ _A_ _B_ Varley, H. Paul. (1980). _Jinnō Shōtōki,_ p. 44. * ^ "Press Conference on the Occasion of His Majesty\'s Birthday". Imperial Household Agency . Archived from the original on 25 May 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2008. * ^ Chotiner, Isaac (8 August 2016). "What Does the Japanese Emperor Do? And will Japan let him stop doing it?". Slate. * ^ " Akihito has successful cancer operation". _BBC News_. BBC. 18 January 2003. Retrieved 28 December 2007. * ^ "Six days later, Japanese still confronting magnitude of quake crisis". CNN. 29 April 2011. * ^ "Message from His Majesty The Emperor". The Imperial Household Agency. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2016. * ^ Japanese Emperor visits evacuation center Archived 14 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Japan\'s Emperor Akihito leaves Tokyo hospital". _BBC News_. 24 November 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2012. * ^ "Emperor Akihito to have coronary examination". _Mainichi Daily News_. 1 February 2012. * ^ "Report: Japan\'s Emperor undergoes successful cardiac bypass". _CNN_. 18 February 2012. * ^ "天皇陛下 「生前退位」の意向示される ("His Majesty The Emperor Indicates His Intention to \'Abdicate\'")" (in Japanese). NHK. 13 July 2016. Archived from the original on 13 July 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2016. * ^ "Japanese Emperor Akihito \'wishes to abdicate\'". BBC News. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016. * ^ "Message from His Majesty The Emperor". The Imperial Household Agency. 8 August 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016. * ^ "Japan\'s Emperor Akihito hints at wish to abdicate". BBC News. 8 August 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016. * ^ " Japan may announce new Imperial era name in summer 2018". _The Japan Times _. 19 May 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2017. * ^ " Japan passes landmark bill for Emperor Akihito to abdicate". _BBC News_. 8 June 2017. * ^ Fukada, Takahiro, "Emperor — poise under public spotlight", _ Japan Times _, 24 November 2009, p. 3. * ^ « _The Girl from Outside_ », _Time_, 23 March 1959 * ^ Herbert P. Bix , " Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan ", New York, 2001, p. 661 * ^ "Japan\'s Dowager Empress Dead At 97". CBS News . 2000-06-16. Retrieved 2016-10-21. * ^ Brooke, James (June 28, 2005). "Visiting Saipan, Japan\'s Emperor Honors Dead". _New York Times_. Retrieved August 9, 2013. * ^ Yoshida, Reiji (27 March 2007). "Life in the cloudy Imperial fishbowl". _ Japan Times_. Retrieved 28 May 2017. * ^ "The Future of Japan’s Dwindling Imperial Family". Retrieved 26 July 2014. * ^ Hamilton, Alan. "Palace small talk problem solved: royal guest is a goby fish fanatic", _The Times_ (London). 30 May 2007 * ^ PubMed Search Results * ^ Akihito (October 1992). "Early cultivators of science in Japan". _Science_. 258 (5082): 578–80. PMID 1411568 . doi :10.1126/science.1411568 . * ^ His Majesty The Emperor of Japan (July 2007). "Linnaeus and taxonomy in Japan". _Nature_. 448 (7150): 139–140. PMID 17632886 . doi :10.1038/448139a . * ^ "Bundeskanzler Anfragebeantwortung" (PDF) (in German). p. 1298. Retrieved 27 January 2017. * ^ Persondetaljer - Hans Kejserlige Højhed Akihito. _borger.dk_. * ^ "Akihito". _Bearers of decorations_. president. Retrieved 18 January 2011. * ^ Presidency, table of recipients of the Order of the Three Stars since 2004. * ^ Decree 1K-974 * ^ Omsa.org * ^ Embassy of Japan in Nepal * ^ Volkskrant, State visit of