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HIH The Princess Mikasa

* HIH Princess Tomohito of Mikasa

* HIH Princess Akiko of Mikasa * HIH Princess Yōko of Mikasa

* HIH The Princess Takamado

* HIH Princess Tsuguko of Takamado * HIH Princess Ayako of Takamado

* v * t * e

AKIHITO (明仁, Japanese: ; English pronunciation (help ·info ); born 23 December 1933) is the Emperor of Japan
Emperor of Japan
. He is the 125th Emperor of his line according to Japan's traditional order of succession . Akihito
Akihito
succeeded his father Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito) and acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne on 7 January 1989. There has been ongoing coverage of his possible abdication due to age and health issues; 31 December 2018 and 1 January 2019 have been mentioned as possible dates of abdication.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 2 Biography

* 2.1 Possible abdication

* 3 Marriage and family * 4 Official functions * 5 Succession * 6 Ichthyological research

* 7 Titles, styles, honours and arms

* 7.1 Titles and styles * 7.2 Honours * 7.3 Arms

* 8 Issue

* 9 Ancestors

* 9.1 Patrilineal descent

* 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links

NAME

In Japan, the Emperor is never referred to by his given name, but rather is referred to as "His Majesty the Emperor" (天皇陛下, Tennō Heika) which may be shortened to "HIS MAJESTY" (陛下, Heika). In writing, the Emperor is also referred to formally as "The Reigning Emperor" (今上天皇, Kinjō Tennō). The Era of Akihito's reign bears the name "Heisei " (平成), and according to custom he will be renamed "EMPEROR HEISEI" (平成天皇, Heisei Tennō, see "posthumous name ") by order of the Cabinet after his death. At the same time, the name of the next era under his successor will be established. If the Emperor were to abdicate, he would receive the title of Jōkō (上皇), an abbreviation of DAIJō TENNō (太上天皇, Retired Emperor), and a new era would be established.

BIOGRAPHY

The newly married Crown Prince
Crown Prince
and Crown Princess in Japanese traditional attire, with the Prince wearing a sokutai , the Princess a jūnihitoe

Akihito
Akihito
was born in the Tokyo
Tokyo
Imperial Palace, Tokyo
Tokyo
City, Japan, and is the elder son and the fifth child of the Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito) and Empress Kōjun (Nagako). Titled Prince Tsugu (継宮, Tsugu-no-miya) as a child, he was raised and educated by his private tutors and then attended the elementary and secondary departments of the Peers' School ( Gakushūin ) from 1940 to 1952. Unlike his predecessors in the Imperial family, he did not receive a commission as an army officer, at the request of his father, Hirohito.

During the American firebombing raids on Tokyo
Tokyo
in March 1945, Akihito and his younger brother, Prince Masahito , were evacuated from the city. During the American occupation of Japan
Japan
following World War II
World War II
, Prince Akihito
Akihito
was tutored in the English language
English language
and Western manners by Elizabeth Gray Vining . He briefly studied at the Department of Political Science at Gakushuin University in Tokyo, though he never received a degree .

Akihito
Akihito
was heir-apparent to the Chrysanthemum Throne from the moment of his birth. His formal Investiture as Crown Prince
Crown Prince
(立太子礼, Rittaishi-no-rei) was held at the Tokyo Imperial Palace
Tokyo Imperial Palace
on 10 November 1952. In June 1953 Akihito
Akihito
represented Japan
Japan
at the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
in London
London
.

Crown Prince
Crown Prince
Akihito
Akihito
and Crown Princess Michiko made official visits to thirty-seven countries. As an Imperial prince, Akihito
Akihito
compared the role of Japanese royalty to that of a robot; and, he expressed the hope that he would like to help in bringing the Imperial family closer to the people of Japan.

Upon the death of Emperor Hirohito on 7 January 1989, his eldest son the Crown Prince
Crown Prince
Akihito
Akihito
succeeded (senso) to the throne, with an enthronement ceremony taking place (sokui) on 12 November 1990. In 1998, during a state visit to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, he was invested with the UK Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
.

On 23 December 2001, during his annual birthday meeting with reporters, the Emperor, in response to a reporter's question about tensions with Korea, remarked that he felt a kinship with Koreans
Koreans
and went on to explain that, in the Shoku Nihongi , the mother of Emperor Kammu (736–806) is related to Muryeong of Korea, King of Baekje , a fact that was considered taboo.

Emperor Akihito
Akihito
underwent surgery for prostate cancer on 14 January 2003. Since succeeding to the throne, Emperor Akihito
Akihito
has made an effort to bring the Imperial family closer to the Japanese people. The Emperor and Empress of Japan
Japan
have made official visits to eighteen countries and to all forty-seven Prefectures of Japan
Japan
.

In response to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
and the Fukushima I nuclear crisis , the Emperor made an historic televised appearance urging his people not to give up hope and to help each other. The Emperor and Empress also made a visit on Wednesday, 30 March 2011 to a temporary shelter housing refugees of the disaster, in order to inspire hope in the people. This kind of event is also extremely rare, though in line with the Emperor's attempts to bring the Imperial family closer to the people. Later in 2011 he was admitted to hospital suffering from pneumonia . In February 2012 it was announced that the Emperor would be having a coronary examination; he underwent successful heart bypass surgery on 18 February 2012.

POSSIBLE ABDICATION

On 13 July 2016, national broadcaster NHK
NHK
reported that the Emperor intended to abdicate in favor of his eldest son Crown Prince
Crown Prince
Naruhito within a few years, citing his age; an abdication within the Imperial Family has not occurred since Emperor Kōkaku abdicated in 1817. However, senior officials within the Imperial Household Agency
Imperial Household Agency
denied that there was any official plan for the monarch to abdicate. A potential abdication by the Emperor would require an amendment to the Imperial Household Law , which currently has no provisions for such a move. On 8 August 2016, the Emperor gave a rare televised address, where he emphasized his advanced age and declining health; this address is interpreted as an implication of his intention to abdicate. According to government sources, to avoid interference with the Imperial Household Law , a one-off exception was considered which would make way for his abdication. The date of this is expected to be on 31 December 2018, the day when the Heisei period is expected to end.

Wikinews has related news: JAPAN\\'S NATIONAL DIET PASSES LAW ALLOWING EMPEROR AKIHITO TO ABDICATE WITHIN THREE YEARS

On 19 May 2017, the bill that would allow Akihito
Akihito
to abdicate was issued by the Japanese government 's cabinet. On 8 June 2017, the National Diet passed a one-off bill allowing Akihito
Akihito
to abdicate, and for the government to begin arranging the process of handing over the position to Crown Prince Naruhito .

MARRIAGE AND FAMILY

Then- Crown Prince
Crown Prince
Akihito
Akihito
on his wedding day, 10 April 1959

In August 1957, he met Michiko Shōda on a tennis court at Karuizawa near Nagano . The Imperial Household Council (a body composed of the Prime Minister of Japan
Prime Minister of Japan
, the presiding officers of the two houses of the Diet of Japan
Japan
, the Chief Justice of Japan
Japan
, and two members of the Imperial family) formally approved the engagement of the Crown Prince
Crown Prince
to Michiko Shōda on 27 November 1958. At that time, the media presented their encounter as a real "fairy tale", or the "romance of the tennis court". It was the first time a commoner would marry into the Imperial Family. The engagement ceremony took place on 14 January 1959, and the marriage on 10 April 1959.

The Emperor and Empress have three children: sons Naruhito, Crown Prince of Japan
Japan
(born 23 February 1960, formerly The Prince Hiro) and Fumihito, Prince Akishino (born 30 November 1965, formerly The Prince Aya) and daughter Mrs. Sayako Kuroda (born 18 April 1969, formerly The Princess Nori).

The announcement about the then- Crown Prince
Crown Prince
Akihito's engagement and marriage to the then-Ms. Michiko Shōda drew opposition from traditionalist groups, because Shōda came from a Roman Catholic family. Although Shōda was never baptized, she was educated in Catholic schools and seemed to share the faith of her parents. Rumors also speculated that Empress Kōjun had opposed the engagement. After the death of Empress Kōjun in 2000, Reuters
Reuters
reported that she was one of the strongest opponents of her son's marriage, and that in the 1960s, she had driven her daughter-in-law and grandchildren to depression by persistently accusing her of not being suitable for her son.

OFFICIAL FUNCTIONS

Despite being strictly constrained by his constitutional position, he also issued several wide-ranging statements of remorse to Asian countries, for their suffering under Japanese occupation, beginning with an expression of remorse to China
China
made in April 1989, three months after the death of his father, Emperor Shōwa .

In June 2005, the Emperor visited the island of Saipan
Saipan
(part of the Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
, a U.S. territory ), the site of a battle in World War II
World War II
from 15 June to 9 July 1944 (known as the Battle of Saipan
Saipan
). Accompanied by Empress Michiko, he offered prayers and flowers at several memorials, honoring not only the Japanese who died, but also American soldiers, Korean laborers, and local islanders. It was the first trip by a Japanese monarch to a World War II
World War II
battlefield abroad. The Saipan
Saipan
journey was received with high praise by the Japanese people, as were the Emperor's visits to war memorials in Tokyo
Tokyo
, Hiroshima
Hiroshima
, Nagasaki
Nagasaki
and Okinawa in 1995.

SUCCESSION

Play media The Emperor of Japan, at Chōwaden Reception Hall , giving a New Year's address to the people of Japan
Japan
in 2010.

On 6 September 2006, the Emperor celebrated the birth of his first grandson, Prince Hisahito , the third child of the Emperor's younger son. Prince Hisahito is the first male heir born to the Japanese imperial family in 41 years (since his father Prince Akishino) and could avert a possible succession crisis as the Emperor's elder son, the Crown Prince Naruhito , has only one daughter, Princess Aiko . Under Japan\'s male-only succession law , Princess Aiko is not eligible for the throne. The birth of Prince Hisahito could mean that proposed changes to the law to allow Aiko to ascend the Chrysanthemum Throne will not go through after being temporarily shelved following the announcement of Princess Kiko 's third pregnancy in February 2006. The supporters of changes criticized the current law as it placed a burden on the few aging males old enough to perform royal duties as females left the family.

ICHTHYOLOGICAL RESEARCH

In extension of his father's interest in marine biology , the Emperor is a published ichthyological researcher, and has specialized in studies within the taxonomy of the family Gobiidae . He has written papers for scholarly journals such as Gene and the Japanese Journal of Ichthyology.

He has also written papers about the history of science during the Edo and Meiji eras , which were published in Science and Nature . In 2005, a newly described goby was named Exyrias akihito in his honour.

* Member of the Ichthyological Society of Japan * Foreign member of the Linnean Society of London
London
(1980) * Honorary member of the Linnean Society of London
London
(1986) * Research associate of the Australian Museum
Australian Museum
* Honorary member of the Zoological Society of London
London
(1992) * Honorary member of the Research Institute for Natural Science of Argentina (1997) * Honorary degree of the Uppsala University
Uppsala University
(2007)

TITLES, STYLES, HONOURS AND ARMS

Styles of EMPEROR AKIHITO

REFERENCE STYLE His Imperial Majesty

SPOKEN STYLE Your Imperial Majesty

ALTERNATIVE STYLE Sir

TITLES AND STYLES

* 23 DECEMBER 1933 – 10 NOVEMBER 1952: His Imperial Highness The Prince Tsugu of Japan * 10 NOVEMBER 1952 – 7 JANUARY 1989: His Imperial Highness The Crown Prince
Crown Prince
of Japan * 7 JANUARY 1989 – PRESENT: His Imperial Majesty The Emperor of Japan

HONOURS

See also: List of honours of the Japanese Imperial Family by country National honours

* Collar and Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum

* Grand Cordon of The Order of the Rising Sun with the Paulownia Blossoms (renamed Grand Cordon of the Order of the Paulownia Flowers from 2003) * Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure * Order of Culture * The Golden Medal of Merit of the Japanese Red Cross
Japanese Red Cross
* The Golden Medal of Honorary Member of the Japanese Red Cross
Japanese Red Cross

Foreign honours

COUNTRY AWARDS

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Order of the Supreme Sun

Austria
Austria
Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria
Austria
, Grand Star

Bahrain
Bahrain
Order of al-Khalifa , Collar

Belgium
Belgium
Order of Leopold , Grand Cordon

Botswana
Botswana
Presidential Order

Brazil
Brazil
Order of the Southern Cross , Grand Collar

Cambodia
Cambodia
Royal Order of Cambodia
Cambodia
, Grand Cross

Cameroon
Cameroon
Order of Valour , Grand Cordon

Chile
Chile
Order of the Merit of Chile
Chile
, Grand Collar

Colombia
Colombia
Order of Boyaca , Grand Collar

Côte d\'Ivoire National Order of the Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
, Grand Cordon

Czech Republic
Czech Republic
Order of the White Lion
Order of the White Lion
, 1st Class (Civil Division) with Collar Chain

Denmark
Denmark
Order of the Elephant
Order of the Elephant
(8 August 1953)

Egypt
Egypt
Order of the Nile , Grand Collar

Estonia
Estonia
Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana , The Collar of the Cross

Ethiopia
Ethiopia
Order of Solomon , Grand Collar

Finland
Finland
Order of the White Rose , Grand Cross with Collar

France
France
Légion d\'honneur , Grand Cross

The Gambia
The Gambia
Order of the Republic of the Gambia , Grand Commander

Germany
Germany
Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
, Grand Cross, Special
Special
Class

Greece
Greece
Order of the Redeemer , Grand Cross

Hungary
Hungary
Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary
Hungary
, Grand Cross with Chain

Iceland
Iceland
Order of the Falcon , Grand Cross with Collar

Indonesia
Indonesia
Star of Adipurna , 1st Class

Ireland Freedom of the City of Dublin , awarded by Lord Mayor of Dublin

Italy
Italy
Order of Merit of the Republic , Grand Cross with Cordon

Jordan
Jordan
Order of al-Hussein bin Ali , Collar

Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Order of the Golden Eagle

Kenya
Kenya
Order of the Golden Heart

Kuwait
Kuwait
Order of Mubarak the Great , Collar

Latvia
Latvia
Order of the Three Stars , Commander Grand Cross with Chain

Liberia
Liberia
Order of the Star of Africa , Knight Grand Band Order of the Pioneers of Liberia
Liberia
, Grand Cordon

Lithuania
Lithuania
Order of Vytautas the Great , the Great Grand Cross with Collar

Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau
Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau
, Knight

Malawi
Malawi
Order of the Lion , Grand Commander

Malaysia
Malaysia
Honorary Recipient of the Order of the Crown of the Realm

Mali
Mali
National Order of Mali
Mali
, Grand Cordon

Mexico
Mexico
Order of the Aztec Eagle , Grand Collar

Morocco
Morocco
Order of Muhammad , Grand Collar

Nepal
Nepal
Order of Ojaswi Rajanya , Member (19 April 1960) King Birendra Coronation Medal (24 February 1975)

Netherlands
Netherlands
Order of the Netherlands
Netherlands
Lion , Knight Grand Cross

Nigeria
Nigeria
Order of the Federal Republic , Grand Commander

Norway
Norway
Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav
Order of St. Olav
, Grand Cross with Collar

Oman
Oman
Order of Oman
Oman
, Superior Class

Pakistan
Pakistan
Nishan-e- Pakistan
Pakistan
, 1st Class

Panama
Panama
Order of Manuel Amador Guerrero , Gold Collar

Peru
Peru
Order of the Sun , Grand Cross in Brilliants

Philippines
Philippines
Philippine Legion of Honor , Chief Commander Order of Sikatuna , Rank of Raja Order of Lakandula , Grand Collar

Poland
Poland
Order of the White Eagle

Portugal
Portugal
Order of Saint James of the Sword , Grand Collar (2 December 1993) Order of Prince Henry , Grand Collar (12 May 1998)

Qatar
Qatar
Collar of Independence

Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
Badr Chain

Senegal
Senegal
Order of the Lion , Collar

South Africa
South Africa
Order of Good Hope , Grand Cross in Gold (4 July 1995)

Spain
Spain
Order of the Golden Fleece , Knight Order of Charles III , Grand Cross Order of Charles III , Collar

Sweden
Sweden
Royal Order of the Seraphim , Knight with Collar

Thailand
Thailand
The Most Auspicious Order of the Rajamitrabhorn The Most Illustrious Order of the Royal House of Chakri
The Most Illustrious Order of the Royal House of Chakri
Commemorative Medal on the Occasion of the 60th Anniversary of the Accession to the Throne of H.M. King Bhumibol Adulyadej

Ukraine
Ukraine
Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise , First Class

United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
Collar of the Federation

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Stranger Knight of Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
(985th member; 1998) Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
Royal Victorian Order
(?) Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal (2 June 1953)

FR Yugoslavia * Order of the Yugoslav Star

Zaire National Order of the Leopard , Grand Cordon

* FR Yugoslavia split into Serbia and Montenegro.

Other awards

* The Royal Society King Charles II Medal * Golden Pheasant Award of the Scout Association of Japan
Japan
(1971)

ARMS

Imperial Standard

ISSUE

See also: Line of succession to the Japanese throne The Emperor and Empress with their family in November 2013

NAME BIRTH MARRIAGE ISSUE

Naruhito, Crown Prince
Crown Prince
of Japan
Japan
23 February 1960 9 June 1993 Masako Owada Aiko, Princess Toshi

Fumihito, Prince Akishino 30 November 1965 29 June 1990 Kiko Kawashima Princess Mako of Akishino Princess Kako of Akishino Prince Hisahito of Akishino

Sayako, Princess Nori 18 April 1969 15 November 2005 Yoshiki Kuroda

ANCESTORS

ANCESTORS OF AKIHITO

16. Osahito, Emperor Kōmei

8. Mutsuhito, Emperor Meiji
Emperor Meiji

17. Lady Yoshiko Nakayama

4. Yoshihito, Emperor Taishō

18. Count Mitsunaru Yanagihara

9. Lady Naruko Yanagihara

19. Lady Utano Hasegawa

2. Hirohito, Emperor Shōwa

20. Prince Kujō Hisatada, Regent
Regent
of Japan
Japan

10. Prince Kujō Michitaka of the Fujiwara Clan

21. Lady Tsuneko Karahashi

5. Lady Sadako Kujō

22. Yorioki Noma

11. Lady Ikuko Noma

23. Lady Kairi Yamokushi

1. AKIHITO, 125TH EMPEROR OF JAPAN

24. Prince Fushimi Kuniie

12. Asahiko, 1st Imperial Prince Kuni

25. Lady Nobuko Toriikōji

6. Kuniyoshi, 2nd Imperial Prince Kuni

26. Sir Toshimasu Izumitei

13. Lady Makiko Izumi

27. Lady Mako Yatoshi

3. Princess Nagako of Kuni

28. Prince Shimazu Hisamitsu

14. Prince Shimazu Tadayoshi

29. Lady Chimoko Shimazu of Echizen-Shimazu

7. Princess Chikako Shimazu

15. Lady Sumako Yamazaki

PATRILINEAL DESCENT

PATRILINEAL DESCENT

Akihito's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son.

Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations, which means that Akihito
Akihito
is a member of the Imperial House of Japan
Japan
. Imperial House of Japan
Japan

* Descent prior to Keitai is unclear to modern historians, but traditionally traced back patrilineally to Emperor Jimmu * Emperor Keitai , ca. 450–534 * Emperor Kinmei , 509–571 * Emperor Bidatsu , 538–585 * Prince Oshisaka, ca. 556–??? * Emperor Jomei , 593–641 * Emperor Tenji , 626–671 * Prince Shiki, ???–716 * Emperor Kōnin , 709–786 * Emperor Kanmu , 737–806 * Emperor Saga
Emperor Saga
, 786–842 * Emperor Ninmyō , 810–850 * Emperor Kōkō , 830–867 * Emperor Uda , 867–931 * Emperor Daigo , 885–930 * Emperor Murakami , 926–967 * Emperor En\'yū , 959–991 * Emperor Ichijō , 980–1011 * Emperor Go-Suzaku , 1009–1045 * Emperor Go-Sanjō , 1034–1073 * Emperor Shirakawa , 1053–1129 * Emperor Horikawa , 1079–1107 * Emperor Toba
Emperor Toba
, 1103–1156 * Emperor Go-Shirakawa , 1127–1192 * Emperor Takakura
Emperor Takakura
, 1161–1181 * Emperor Go-Toba , 1180–1239 * Emperor Tsuchimikado
Emperor Tsuchimikado
, 1196–1231 * Emperor Go-Saga , 1220–1272 * Emperor Go-Fukakusa , 1243–1304 * Emperor Fushimi , 1265–1317 * Emperor Go-Fushimi , 1288–1336 * Emperor Kōgon , 1313–1364 * Emperor Sukō , 1334–1398 * Prince Yoshihito Fushimi , 1351–1416 * Prince Sadafusa Fushimi , 1372–1456 * Emperor Go-Hanazono , 1419–1471 * Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado , 1442–1500 * Emperor Go-Kashiwabara , 1464–1526 * Emperor Go-Nara , 1495–1557 * Emperor Ōgimachi , 1517–1593 * Prince Masahito , 1552–1586 * Emperor Go-Yōzei , 1572–1617 * Emperor Go-Mizunoo , 1596–1680 * Emperor Reigen , 1654–1732 * Emperor Higashiyama , 1675–1710 * Prince Naohito Kanin , 1704–1753 * Prince Sukehito Kanin , 1733–1794 * Emperor Kōkaku , 1771–1840 * Emperor Ninkō , 1800–1846 * Emperor Kōmei , 1831–1867 * Emperor Meiji
Emperor Meiji
, 1852–1912 * Emperor Taishō , 1879–1926 * Emperor Shōwa , 1901–1989 * Emperor Akihito, b. 1933

Akihito
Akihito
IMPERIAL HOUSE OF JAPAN BORN: 23 December 1933

REGNAL TITLES

Preceded by Shōwa (Hirohito) EMPEROR OF JAPAN 1989–present INCUMBENT Heir apparent: Naruhito

ORDER OF PRECEDENCE IN JAPAN

FIRST Gentlemen as the Sovereign Succeeded by The Crown Prince
Crown Prince

SEE ALSO

* The Emperor\'s Birthday * Imperial Household Agency
Imperial Household Agency
* Imperial House of Japan
Japan
* Japanese era name * List of Emperors of Japan
Japan
* List of longest reigning current monarchs

REFERENCES

* ^ A B "Emperor Akihito: Japan
Japan
considers moves to allow 2018 abdication - reports". BBC News. 2017-01-11. Retrieved 2017-01-11. * ^ "Members of the Order of the Garter". The British Monarchy. * ^ "National Day of Japan
Japan
to be celebrated". Embassy of Japan
Japan
in Pakistan. 7 December 2007. Archived from the original on 2 February 2008. Retrieved 28 December 2007. * ^ "Government panel outlines proposals on Emperor\'s abdication, titles". The Japan
Japan
Times Online. 14 April 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.

* ^ " Japan
Japan
may announce new Imperial era name in summer 2018". The Japan
Japan
Times . 19 May 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2017. * ^ A B C D E F "Their Majesties the Emperor and Empress". Imperial Household Agency. 2002. Archived from the original on 1 December 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2007. * ^ "Those Apprentice Kings and Queens Who May – One Day – Ascend a Throne," The New York Times. 14 November 1971. * ^ A B Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 44. * ^ "Press Conference on the Occasion of His Majesty\'s Birthday". Imperial Household Agency
Imperial Household Agency
. Archived from the original on 25 May 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2008. * ^ Chotiner, Isaac (8 August 2016). "What Does the Japanese Emperor Do? And will Japan
Japan
let him stop doing it?". Slate. * ^ " Akihito
Akihito
has successful cancer operation". BBC News. BBC. 18 January 2003. Retrieved 28 December 2007. * ^ "Six days later, Japanese still confronting magnitude of quake crisis". CNN. 29 April 2011. * ^ "Message from His Majesty The Emperor". The Imperial Household Agency. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2016. * ^ Japanese Emperor visits evacuation center Archived 14 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "Japan\'s Emperor Akihito
Akihito
leaves Tokyo
Tokyo
hospital". BBC News. 24 November 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2012. * ^ "Emperor Akihito
Akihito
to have coronary examination". Mainichi Daily News. 1 February 2012. * ^ "Report: Japan\'s Emperor undergoes successful cardiac bypass". CNN. 18 February 2012. * ^ "天皇陛下 「生前退位」の意向示される ("His Majesty The Emperor Indicates His Intention to \'Abdicate\'")" (in Japanese). NHK. 13 July 2016. Archived from the original on 13 July 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2016. * ^ "Japanese Emperor Akihito
Akihito
\'wishes to abdicate\'". BBC News. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016. * ^ "Message from His Majesty The Emperor". The Imperial Household Agency. 8 August 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016. * ^ "Japan\'s Emperor Akihito
Akihito
hints at wish to abdicate". BBC News. 8 August 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016. * ^ " Japan
Japan
may announce new Imperial era name in summer 2018". The Japan
Japan
Times . 19 May 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2017. * ^ " Japan
Japan
passes landmark bill for Emperor Akihito
Akihito
to abdicate". BBC News. 8 June 2017. * ^ Fukada, Takahiro, "Emperor — poise under public spotlight", Japan
Japan
Times , 24 November 2009, p. 3. * ^ « The Girl from Outside », Time, 23 March 1959 * ^ Herbert P. Bix , " Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan
Japan
", New York, 2001, p. 661 * ^ "Japan\'s Dowager Empress Dead At 97". CBS News
CBS News
. 2000-06-16. Retrieved 2016-10-21. * ^ Brooke, James (June 28, 2005). "Visiting Saipan, Japan\'s Emperor Honors Dead". New York Times. Retrieved August 9, 2013. * ^ Yoshida, Reiji (27 March 2007). "Life in the cloudy Imperial fishbowl". Japan
Japan
Times. Retrieved 28 May 2017. * ^ "The Future of Japan’s Dwindling Imperial Family". Retrieved 26 July 2014. * ^ Hamilton, Alan. "Palace small talk problem solved: royal guest is a goby fish fanatic", The Times (London). 30 May 2007 * ^ PubMed Search Results * ^ Akihito
Akihito
(October 1992). "Early cultivators of science in Japan". Science. 258 (5082): 578–80. PMID 1411568 . doi :10.1126/science.1411568 . * ^ His Majesty The Emperor of Japan
Emperor of Japan
(July 2007). "Linnaeus and taxonomy in Japan". Nature. 448 (7150): 139–140. PMID 17632886 . doi :10.1038/448139a . * ^ "Bundeskanzler Anfragebeantwortung" (PDF) (in German). p. 1298. Retrieved 27 January 2017. * ^ Persondetaljer - Hans Kejserlige Højhed Akihito. borger.dk. * ^ "Akihito". Bearers of decorations. president. Retrieved 18 January 2011. * ^ Presidency, table of recipients of the Order of the Three Stars since 2004. * ^ Decree 1K-974 * ^ Omsa.org * ^ Embassy of Japan
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in Nepal * ^ Volkskrant, State visit of Netherlands
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Japan
in Norway, May 2005, Photo * ^ OPS.gov.ph Archived 17 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
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Wayback Machine
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Spain
in Japan, November 2008 * ^ Getty Images, State visit of Sweden
Sweden
in Japan, 03/2007, Group photo * ^ reinanzaka-sc.o.oo7.jp/kiroku/documents/20140523-3-kiji-list.pdf * ^ "Ancestry in Genealogics.org".

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* Their Majesties the Emperor and Empress at the

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