Akhetaten, Gempaaten, Hwt-Benben
Ancient Egyptian religion
Akhenaten (/ˌækəˈnɑːtən/; also spelled Echnaton,
Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten; meaning "Effective
for Aten"), known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV
(sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning "
Satisfied"), was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the
18th Dynasty who
ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC. He is noted
for abandoning traditional Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship
centered on the Aten, which is sometimes described as monolatristic,
henotheistic, or even quasi-monotheistic. An early inscription likens
Aten to the sun as compared to stars, and later official language
avoids calling the
Aten a god, giving the solar deity a status above
Akhenaten tried to shift his culture from Egypt's traditional
religion, but the shifts were not widely accepted. After his death,
his monuments were dismantled and hidden, his statues were destroyed,
and his name excluded from the king lists. Traditional religious
practice was gradually restored, and when some dozen years later
rulers without clear rights of succession from the 18th Dynasty
founded a new dynasty, they discredited
Akhenaten and his immediate
successors, referring to
Akhenaten himself as "the enemy" or "that
criminal" in archival records.
He was all but lost from history until the discovery during the 19th
century of the site of Akhetaten, the city he built and designed for
the worship of Aten, at Amarna. Early excavations at
Flinders Petrie sparked interest in the enigmatic pharaoh, and a mummy
found in the tomb KV55, which was unearthed in 1907 in a dig led by
Edward R. Ayrton, is likely that of Akhenaten.
DNA analysis has
determined that the man buried in
KV55 is the father of King
Tutankhamun, but its identification as
Akhenaten has been
Modern interest in
Akhenaten and his queen
Nefertiti comes partly from
his connection with
Tutankhamun (even though Tutankhamun's mother was
not Nefertiti, but a woman named by archaeologists The Younger Lady),
partly from the unique style and high quality of the pictorial arts he
patronized, and partly from ongoing interest in the religion he
attempted to establish.
1 Early reign as Amenhotep IV
2 Name change
3 Religious policies
Pharaoh and family depictions
4.1 Family and relations
5 International relations
6 Death, burial and succession
7 Implementation of
Atenism and later collapse
8 Speculative theories
Akhenaten and monotheism in Abrahamic religions
8.2 Possible illness
9 In the arts
11 See also
12 Notes and references
12.3 Further reading
13 External links
Early reign as Amenhotep IV
Relief representing Amenhotep IV before he changed his name to
Akhenaten, Neues Museum, Berlin
Akhenaten was a younger son of
Amenhotep III and Chief
Queen Tiye. The eldest son
Crown Prince Thutmose
Crown Prince Thutmose was recognized as the
Amenhotep III but he died relatively young and the next in
line for the throne was a prince named Amenhotep.
Sandstone fragment from the temple of
Amenhotep III showing a young
Akhenaten before he became a king. 18th Dynasty. From
Thebes, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London
There is much controversy around whether Amenhotep IV succeeded to the
throne on the death of his father
Amenhotep III or whether there was a
coregency (lasting as long as 12 years according to some
Egyptologists). Current literature by Eric Cline, Nicholas Reeves,
Peter Dorman and other scholars comes out strongly against the
establishment of a long coregency between the two rulers and in favour
of either no coregency or a brief one lasting one to two years at the
most. Other literature by Donald Redford, William Murnane, Alan
Gardiner and more recently by Lawrence Berman in 1998 contests the
view of any coregency whatsoever between
Akhenaten and his father.
In February 2014, the Egyptian Ministry for Antiquities announced what
it called conclusive evidence that
Akhenaten shared power with his
father for at least 8 years. The evidence came from the inscriptions
found in the Luxor tomb of Vizier Amenhotep-Huy. A team of
Spanish archeologists has been working at this tomb.
Bronze plate with the titulary of Amenhotep IV before he changed his
name to Akhenaten, British Museum.
Amenhotep IV was crowned in Thebes and there he started a building
program. He decorated the southern entrance to the precincts of the
Amun-Re with scenes of his worshiping Re-Harakhti. He soon
decreed the construction of a temple dedicated to the
Aten in Eastern
Temple of Amenhotep IV
Temple of Amenhotep IV was called the Gempaaten ("The
Aten is found in the estate of the Aten"). The Gempaaten consisted of
a series of buildings, including a palace and a structure called the
Benben (named after the
Benben stone) which was dedicated to Queen
Aten temples constructed at
Karnak during this time
include the Rud-menu and the Teni-menu, which may have been
constructed near the Ninth Pylon. During this time he did not repress
the worship of Amun, and the High Priest of
Amun was still active in
the fourth year of his reign. The king appears as Amenhotep IV in
the tombs of some of the nobles in Thebes: Kheruef (TT192), Ramose
(TT55) and the tomb of
In the tomb of Ramose, Amenhotep IV appears on the west wall in the
traditional style, seated on a throne with Ramose appearing before the
king. On the other side of the doorway, Amenhotep IV and
shown in the window of appearance, with the
Aten depicted as the sun
disc. In the Theban tomb of Parennefer, Amenhotep IV and
seated on a throne with the sun disk depicted over the king and
Among the latter-known documents referring to Amenhotep IV are two
copies of a letter from the Steward Of Memphis Apy (or Ipy) to the
pharaoh. The documents were found in Gurob and are dated to regnal
year 5, third month of the Growing Season, day 19.
On day 13, Month 8, in the fifth year of his reign, the king arrived
at the site of the new city
Akhetaten (now known as Amarna). A month
before that Amenhotep IV had officially changed his name to
Akhenaten. Amenhotep IV changed most of his 5 fold titulary in
year 5 of his reign. The only name he kept was his prenomen or throne
name of Neferkheperure.
"Strong Bull of the Double Plumes"
"Strong Bull, Beloved of Aten"
"Great of Kingship in Karnak"
"Great of Kingship in Akhet-Aten"
Golden Horus name
"Crowned in Heliopolis of the South" (Thebes)
"Exalter of the Name of Aten"
"Beautiful are the Forms of Re, the Unique one of Re"
"Amenhotep god-ruler of Thebes"
"Effective for the Aten"
Fragment with cartouche of Akhenaten, which is followed by epithet
Great in his Lifespan and the title of
Nefertiti Great King's Wife.
Reign of Akhenaten. From Amarna, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian
Akhenaten (center) and his family worshiping the Aten, with
characteristic rays seen emanating from the solar disk.
Talatat blocks from Akhenaten's
Aten temple in Karnak
Some recent debate[when?] has focused on the extent to which Akhenaten
forced his religious reforms on his people. Certainly, as time
drew on, he revised the names of the Aten, and other religious
language, to increasingly exclude references to other gods; at some
point, also, he embarked on the wide-scale erasure of traditional
gods' names, especially those of Amun. Some of his court changed
their names to remove them from the patronage of other gods and place
them under that of
Aten (or Ra, with whom
Akhenaten equated the Aten).
Yet, even at
Amarna itself, some courtiers kept such names as Ahmose
("child of the moon god", the owner of tomb 3), and the sculptor's
workshop where the famous
Nefertiti bust and other works of royal
portraiture were found is associated with an artist known to have been
called Thutmose ("child of Thoth"). An overwhelmingly large number of
faience amulets at
Amarna also show that talismans of the
household-and-childbirth gods Bes and Taweret, the eye of Horus, and
amulets of other traditional deities, were openly worn by its
citizens. Indeed, a cache of royal jewelry found buried near the
Amarna royal tombs (now in the National Museum of Scotland) includes a
finger ring referring to Mut, the wife of Amun. Such evidence suggests
Akhenaten shifted funding away from traditional temples,
his policies were fairly tolerant until some point, perhaps a
particular event as yet unknown, toward the end of the reign.
Following Akhenaten's death, change was gradual at first. Within a
decade a comprehensive political, religious and artistic reformation
began promoting a return of Egyptian life to the norms it had followed
during his father's reign. Much of the art and building infrastructure
created during Akhenaten's reign was defaced or destroyed in the
period following his death, particularly during the reigns of Horemheb
and the early
19th Dynasty kings. Stone building blocks from
Akhenaten's construction projects were later used as foundation stones
for subsequent rulers' temples and tombs.
Pharaoh and family depictions
Limestone statuette of Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and a princess. Reign of
Akhenaten. From Amarna, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian
Limestone trial piece showing the distinctive Amarna-style elongation
of Akhenaten's face. Shallow sunk relief. From Amarna, Egypt. The
Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London
Styles of art that flourished during this short period are markedly
different from other Egyptian art. In some cases, representations are
more naturalistic, especially in depictions of animals and plants, of
commoners, and in a sense of action and movement for both nonroyal and
royal people. However, depictions of members of the court, especially
members of the royal family, are extremely stylized, with elongated
heads, protruding stomachs, heavy hips, thin arms and legs, and
exaggerated facial features. Significantly, and for the only time
in the history of Egyptian royal art, Akhenaten's family are shown
taking part in decidedly naturalistic activities, showing affection
for each other, and being caught in mid-action (in traditional art, a
pharaoh's divine nature was expressed by repose, even immobility). The
depictions of action may correspond to the emphasis on the active,
creative nurturing of the
Aten emphasized in the "Great Hymn to the
Aten" and elsewhere.
Small statue of
Akhenaten wearing the Egyptian Blue Crown of War
Nefertiti also appears, both beside the king and alone (or with her
daughters), in actions usually reserved for a pharaoh, suggesting that
she enjoyed unusual status for a queen. Early artistic representations
of her tend to be indistinguishable from her husband's except by her
regalia, but soon after the move to the new capital,
to be depicted with features specific to her. Questions remain whether
the beauty of
Nefertiti is portraiture or idealism.
Why representations of
Akhenaten depict him in a bizarre, strikingly
androgynous way, remains a vigorously debated question. Religious
reasons have been suggested, such as to emulate the creative nature of
the Aten, who is called in
Amarna tomb texts "mother and father" of
all that is. Or, it has been suggested, Akhenaten's (and his family's)
portraiture exaggerates his distinctive physical traits. Until
Akhenaten's mummy is positively identified, such theories remain
speculative. Some scholars do identify Mummy 61074, found in KV55, an
unfinished tomb in the Valley of the Kings, as Akhenaten's. If so,
or if the KV 55 mummy is that of his close relative, Smenkhkare, its
measurements tend to support the theory that Akhenaten's depictions
exaggerate his actual appearance. Though the mummy consists only of
disarticulated bones, the skull is long and has a prominent chin, and
the limbs are light and long. In 2007,
Zahi Hawass and a team of
researchers made CT Scan images of Mummy 61074. They have concluded
that the elongated skull, cheek bones, cleft palate, and impacted
wisdom tooth suggest that the mummy is the father of Tutankhamun, and
thus is Akhenaten.
The Wilbour Plaque, ca. 1352-1336 B.C.E,
Brooklyn Museum This relief
Nefertiti late in their reign.
Family and relations
See also: Family tree of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Brown quartzite inlay head of
Akhenaten or Nefertiti. Reign of
Akhenaten. From Amarna, Egypt. Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology,
Nefertiti and their children
As Amenhotep IV,
Akhenaten was married to
Nefertiti at the very
beginning of his reign, and six daughters were identified from
DNA analysis has revealed that with one of his
biological sisters, the "Younger Lady" mummy,
Tutankhaten (later Tutankhamen). The parentage of Smenkhkare, his
successor, is unknown, and
Akhenaten and an unknown wife have been
proposed to be his parents.
A secondary wife of
Kiya is known from inscriptions.
Some have theorized that she gained her importance as the mother of
Tutankhamen, Smenkhkare, or both.
This is a list of Akhenaten's children (known and theoretical) with
suggested years of birth:
Smenkhkare — year 35 or 36 of Amenhotep III's reign
Meritaten — year 1.
Meketaten — year 3, possibly earlier.
Ankhesenpaaten, later Queen of
Tutankhamun — year 4.
Neferneferuaten Tasherit — year 8.
Neferneferure — year 9.
Setepenre — year 9.
Tutankhaten — year 8 or 9 — renamed
His known consorts were:
Nefertiti, his Great Royal Wife.
Kiya, a lesser Royal Wife.
A daughter of Šatiya, ruler of Enišasi
A daughter of Burna-Buriash, king of Babylon
Alabaster sunken relief depicting Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and daughter
Aten cartouches on king's arm and chest. From Amarna,
Egypt. 18th Dynasty. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London
It has been proposed that
Akhenaten may have taken some of his
daughters as sexual consorts, to attempt to father a male heir by
them, but this is very debatable. It does seem certain that like his
father, Amenhotep III,
Akhenaten named at least one daughter as Great
Royal Wife, but this does not necessarily indicate she was his sexual
consort as the position was also an important ceremonial position.
Meritaten is recorded as
Great Royal Wife
Great Royal Wife to
Smenkhkare in the tomb of
Meryre II in Akhet-Aten. She is also listed alongside King Akhenaten
Great Royal Wife
Great Royal Wife on a box from the tomb of
Tutankhamen. Letters written to
Akhenaten from foreign rulers make
Meritaten as 'mistress of the house'.
Meketaten, Akhenaten's second daughter. Meketaten's death, at perhaps
the age of 10 to 12, is recorded in the royal tombs of
the year 13 or 14. Her death was attributed to possibly from
childbirth, because of a depiction of an infant with her. Because no
husband is known for Meketaten, the assumption has been that Akhenaten
was the father. The inscription giving the filiation of the child is
damaged, thereby preventing resolution of the issue; alternate
explanations proposed have been that
Meketaten died of plague, or that
the child is a portrayal of Meketaten's ka (soul).
Various monuments, originally for Kiya, were reinscribed for
Meritaten and Ankhesenpaaten; the revised
inscriptions list a Meritaten-tasherit ("junior") and an
Ankhesenpaaten-tasherit. Some view this to indicate that Akhenaten
fathered his own grandchildren. Others hold that, since these
grandchildren are not attested to elsewhere, they are fictions
invented to fill the space originally filled by Kiya's child.
Two other lovers have been suggested, but are not widely accepted:
Smenkhkare, Akhenaten's successor and/or co-ruler for the last years
of his reign. Rather than a lover, however,
Smenkhkare is likely to
have been a half-brother or a son to Akhenaten. Some have even
Smenkhkare was actually an alias of
Nefertiti or Kiya,
and therefore one of Akhenaten's wives (see below).
Tiye, his mother. Twelve years after the death of Amenhotep III, she
is still mentioned in inscriptions as queen and beloved of the king,
but kings' mothers often were. The few supporters of this theory
(notably Immanuel Velikovsky) consider
Akhenaten to be the historical
model of legendary King
Thebes, Greece and
Tiye the model
for his mother/wife Jocasta.
Akhenaten in the typical
Amarna period style.
Painted limestone miniature stela. It shows
Akhenaten standing before
2 incense stands,
Aten disc above. From Amarna, Egypt. 18th Dynasty.
The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London
Amarna Letters, a cache of diplomatic correspondence discovered in
modern times at el-
Amarna (the modern designation of the site of
Akhetaten), have provided important evidence about Akhenaten's reign
and foreign policy. This correspondence comprises a priceless
collection of incoming messages on clay tablets sent to
various subject rulers through Egyptian military outposts and from the
foreign rulers (recognized as "Great kings") of the kingdom of
Mitanni, of Babylon, of Assyria, and of Hatti. The governors and kings
of Egypt's subject domains also wrote frequently to plead for gold
from the pharaoh, and also complained that he had snubbed and cheated
Early in his reign,
Akhenaten had conflicts with Tushratta, the king
of Mitanni, who had courted favor with his father against the
Tushratta complains in numerous letters that
sent him gold-plated statues rather than statues made of solid gold;
the statues formed part of the bride-price which
for letting his daughter
Amenhotep III and then later
Amarna letter EA 27 preserves a complaint by
Akhenaten about the situation:
"I...asked your father Mimmureya for statues of solid cast gold, one
of myself and a second statue, a statue of Tadu-Heba [Tadukhepa], my
daughter, and your father said, 'Don't talk of giving statues just of
solid cast gold. I will give you ones made also of lapis lazuli. I
will give you too, along with the statues, much additional gold and
[other] goods beyond measure.' Every one of my messengers that were
staying in Egypt saw the gold for the statues with their own eyes.
Your father himself recast the statues [i]n the presence of my
messengers, and he made them entirely of pure gold...He showed much
additional gold, which was beyond measure and which he was sending to
me. He said to my messengers, 'See with your own eyes, here the
statues, there much gold and goods beyond measure, which I am sending
to my brother.' And my messengers did see with their own eyes! But my
brother [i.e., Akhenaten] has not sent the solid [gold] statues that
your father was going to send. You have sent plated ones of wood. Nor
have you sent me the goods that your father was going to send me, but
you have reduced [them] greatly. Yet there is nothing I know of in
which I have failed my brother. Any day that I hear the greetings of
my brother, that day I make a festive occasion... May my brother send
me much gold. [At] the kim[ru fe]ast...[...with] many goods [may my]
brother honor me. In my brother's country gold is as plentiful as
dust. May my brother cause me no distress. May he send me much gold in
order that my brother [with the gold and m]any [good]s may honor me."
Plaster portrait study of a pharaoh, Ahkenaten or a co-regent or
successor. Discovered within the workshop of the royal sculptor
Thutmose at Amarna, now part of the Ägyptisches Museum collection in
Akhenaten was certainly not a close friend of Tushratta, he was
evidently concerned at the expanding power of the Hittite Empire under
its powerful ruler Suppiluliuma I. A successful Hittite attack on
Mitanni and its ruler
Tushratta would have disrupted the entire
international balance of power in the Ancient Middle East at a time
when Egypt had made peace with Mitanni; this would cause some of
Egypt's vassals to switch their allegiances to the Hittites, as time
would prove. A group of Egypt's allies who attempted to rebel against
Hittites were captured, and wrote letters begging
troops, but he did not respond to most of their pleas. Evidence
suggests that the troubles on the northern frontier led to
difficulties in Canaan, particularly in a struggle for power between
Abdi-Heba of Jerusalem, which required the
pharaoh to intervene in the area by dispatching
Akhenaten pointedly refused to save his vassal Rib-Hadda
Byblos — whose kingdom was being besieged by the expanding state
of Amurru under
Abdi-Ashirta and later Aziru, son of
despite Rib-Hadda's numerous pleas for help from the pharaoh.
Rib-Hadda wrote a total of 60 letters to
Akhenaten pleading for aid
from the pharaoh.
Akhenaten wearied of Rib-Hadda's constant
correspondences and once told Rib-Hadda: "You are the one that writes
to me more than all the (other) mayors" or Egyptian vassals in EA
Rib-Hadda did not comprehend was that the Egyptian king
would not organize and dispatch an entire army north just to preserve
the political status quo of several minor city states on the fringes
of Egypt's Asiatic Empire.
Rib-Hadda would pay the ultimate price;
his exile from
Byblos due to a coup led by his brother Ilirabih is
mentioned in one letter. When
Rib-Hadda appealed in vain for aid from
Akhenaten and then turned to Aziru, his sworn enemy, to place him back
on the throne of his city,
Aziru promptly had him dispatched to the
king of Sidon, where
Rib-Hadda was almost certainly executed.
William L. Moran notes that the
Amarna corpus of 380+ letters
counters the conventional view that
Akhenaten neglected Egypt's
foreign territories in favour of his internal reforms. Several letters
from Egyptian vassals notify the pharaoh that they have followed his
To the king, my lord, my god, my Sun, the Sun from the sky: Message of
Yapahu, the ruler of Gazru, your servant, the dirt at your feet. I
indeed prostrate myself at the feet of the king, my lord, my god, my
Sun...7 times and 7 times, on the stomach and on the back. I am indeed
guarding the place of the king, my lord, the Sun of the sky, where I
am, and all the things the king, my lord, has written me, I am indeed
carrying out — everything! Who am I, a dog, and what is my house...
and what is anything I have, that the orders of the king, my lord, the
Sun from the sky, should not obey constantly? (EA 378)
When the loyal but unfortunate
Rib-Hadda was killed at the instigation
Akhenaten sent an angry letter to
Aziru containing a
barely veiled accusation of outright treachery on the latter's
Say to Aziru, ruler of Amurru: Thus the king, your lord [Akhenaten],
saying: The ruler of Gubla [Byblos], whose brother had cast him away
at the gate, said to you, "Take me and get me into the city. There is
much silver, and I will give it to you. Indeed there is an abundance
of everything, but not with me [here]." Thus did the ruler [Rib-Hadda]
speak to you. Did you not write to the king, my lord saying, "I am
your servant like all the previous mayors [i.e., vassals] in his
city"? Yet you acted delinquently by taking the mayor whose brother
had cast him away at the gate, from his city.
Head of Akhenaten
He [Rib-Hadda] was residing in
Sidon and, following your own judgment,
you gave him to [some] mayors. Were you ignorant of the
treacherousness of the men? If you really are the king's servant, why
did you not denounce him before the king, your lord, saying, "This
mayor has written to me saying, 'Take me to yourself and get me into
my city'"? And if you did act loyally, still all the things you wrote
were not true. In fact, the king has reflected on them as follows,
"Everything you have said is not friendly."
Now the king has heard as follows, "You are at peace with the ruler of
Qidsa. (Kadesh) The two of you take food and strong drink together."
And it is true. Why do you act so? Why are you at peace with a ruler
whom the king is fighting? And even if you did act loyally, you
considered your own judgment, and his judgment did not count. You have
paid no attention to the things that you did earlier. What happened to
you among them that you are not on the side of the king, your lord?
Consider the people that are training you for their own advantage.
They want to throw you into the fire...If for any reason whatsoever
you prefer to do evil, and if you plot evil, treacherous things, then
you, together with your entire family, shall die by the axe of the
king. So perform your service for the king, your lord, and you will
live. You yourself know that the king does not fail when he rages
against all of Canaan. And when you wrote saying, 'May the king, my
Lord, give me leave this year, and then I will go next year to the
king, my Lord [i.e., to Egypt]. If this is impossible, I will send my
son in my place' — the king, your lord, let you off this year in
accordance with what you said. Come yourself, or send your son [now],
and you will see the king at whose sight all lands live. (EA 162)
This letter shows that
Akhenaten paid close attention to the affairs
of his vassals in
Canaan and Syria.
Aziru to come
to Egypt and proceeded to detain him there for at least one year. In
Akhenaten was forced to release
Aziru back to his homeland
Hittites advanced southwards into Amki, thereby threatening
Egypt's series of Asiatic vassal states, including Amurru.
Sometime after his return to Amurru,
Aziru defected to the Hittite
side with his kingdom. While it is known from an
Amarna letter by
Rib-Hadda that the
Hittites "seized all the countries that were
vassals of the king of Mitanni" (EA 75)
Akhenaten managed to
preserve Egypt's control over the core of her Near Eastern Empire
(which consisted of present-day Israel as well as the Phoenician
coast) while avoiding conflict with the increasingly powerful Hittite
Empire of Suppiluliuma I. Only the Egyptian border province of Amurru
in Syria around the Orontes river was permanently lost to the Hittites
when its ruler
Aziru defected to the Hittites. Finally, contrary to
the conventional view of a ruler who neglected Egypt's international
Akhenaten is known to have initiated at least one campaign
into Nubia in his regnal Year 12, where his campaign is mentioned in
Amada stela CG 41806 and on a separate companion stela at Buhen.
Death, burial and succession
Akhenaten's sarcophagus reconstituted from pieces discovered in his
original tomb in Amarna, now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
The last dated appearance of
Akhenaten and the
Amarna family is in the
tomb of Meryra II, and dates from second month, year 12 of his
reign. After this the historical record is unclear, and only with
the succession of
Tutankhamun is somewhat clarified.
The desecrated royal coffin of
Akhenaten found in Tomb KV55
In December 2012, it was announced that a Year 16 III Akhet day 15
inscription dated explicitly to Akhenaten's reign which mentions, in
the same breath, the presence of a living Queen Nefertiti, was found
in a limestone quarry at
Deir el-Bersha just north of
Amarna. The text refers to a building project in Amarna,
and establishes that
Nefertiti were still a royal couple
just a year before Akhenaten's death.
Profile view of the skull of
Akhenaten recovered from KV55
Akhenaten planned to relocate Egyptian burials on the east side of the
Nile (sunrise) rather than on the west side (sunset) to the Royal Wadi
in Akhetaten. His body was removed after the court
returned to Thebes, and recent genetic tests have confirmed that the
body found buried in tomb
KV55 was the father of Tutankhamun, and is
therefore "most probably" Akhenaten, The tomb contained numerous
Amarna era objects, including a royal funerary mask which had been
deliberately destroyed. His sarcophagus was destroyed but has been
reconstructed and now sits outside in the Cairo Museum.
Fragmentary ushabtis of
Akhenaten from his original tomb in Amarna,
now in the Brooklyn Museum.
Similarly, although it is accepted that
Akhenaten himself died in Year
17 of his reign, the question of whether
Smenkhkare became co-regent
perhaps two or three years earlier or enjoyed a brief independent
reign is unclear. If
Smenkhkare outlived Akhenaten, and became
sole pharaoh, he likely ruled Egypt for less than a year. The next
successor was Neferneferuaten, a female pharaoh who reigned in Egypt
for two years and one month. She was, in turn, probably succeeded
Tutankhaten (later, Tutankhamun), with the country being
administered by the chief vizier, and future pharaoh, Ay. Tutankhamun
was believed to be a younger brother of
Smenkhkare and a son of
Akhenaten, and possibly
Kiya although one scholar has suggested that
Tutankhamun may have been a son of
Smenkhkare instead. DNA tests in
Tutankhamun was indeed the son of Akhenaten. It has
been suggested that after the death of Akhenaten,
with the name of Neferneferuaten but other scholars believe this
female ruler was rather Meritaten. The so-called Coregency Stela,
found in a tomb in
Amarna possibly shows his queen
Nefertiti as his
coregent, ruling alongside him, but this is not certain as the names
have been removed and recarved to show
Neferneferuaten.[not in citation given]
With Akhenaten's death, the
Aten cult he had founded gradually fell
out of favor.
Tutankhaten changed his name to
Tutankhamun in Year 2 of
his reign (1332 BC) and abandoned the city of Akhetaten, which
eventually fell into ruin. His successors Ay and
Akhenaten had built, including the temple at Thebes, using
them as a source of easily available building materials and
decorations for their own temples.
Finally, Akhenaten, Neferneferuaten, Smenkhkare, Tutankhamun, and Ay
were excised from the official lists of pharaohs, which instead
Amenhotep III was immediately succeeded by Horemheb.
This is thought to be part of an attempt by
Horemheb to delete all
Atenism and the pharaohs associated with it from the
historical record. Akhenaten's name does not appear on any of the
king lists compiled by later pharaohs and it was not until the late
19th century that his identity was re-discovered and the surviving
traces of his reign were unearthed by archaeologists.
The Inscription of Mes document which dates to Ramesside times refers
Akhenaten himself as "the enemy of Akhetaton" as Egyptians had
fully rejected his revolution by this time and the crisis which it
Atenism and later collapse
Main article: Atenism
Relief fragment showing a royal head, probably Akhenaten, and early
Aten extends Ankh (sign of life) to the figure. Reign
of Akhenaten. From Amarna, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian
Hieroglyphs on the backpillar of Amenhotep III's statue. There are 2
places where Akhenaten's agents erased the name Amun, later restored
on a deeper surface. The British Museum, London
In the early years of his reign, Amenhotep IV lived at Thebes with
Nefertiti and his six daughters. Initially, he permitted worship of
Egypt's traditional deities to continue but near the Temple of Karnak
(Amun-Ra's great cult center), he erected several massive buildings
including temples to the Aten.
Aten was usually depicted as a sun disk
with rays extending with long arms and tiny human hands at each
end. These buildings at Thebes were later dismantled by his
successors and used as infill for new constructions in the Temple of
Karnak; when they were later dismantled by archaeologists, some 36,000
decorated blocks from the original Aton building here were revealed
which preserve many elements of the original relief scenes and
Akhenaten depicted as a sphinx at Amarna.
In Year 5 of his reign, Amenhotep IV took decisive steps to establish
Aten as the sole god of Egypt: the pharaoh "disbanded the
priesthoods of all the other gods...and diverted the income from these
[other] cults to support the Aten". To emphasize his complete
allegiance to the Aten, the king officially changed his name from
Amenhotep IV to
Akhenaten or 'Living Spirit of Aten.' Akhenaten's
fifth year also marked the beginning of construction on his new
Akhetaten or 'Horizon of Aten', at the site known today as
Amarna. Very soon afterwards, he centralized Egyptian religious
practices in Akhetaten, though construction of the city seems to have
continued for several more years. In honor of Aten,
oversaw the construction of some of the most massive temple complexes
in ancient Egypt. In these new temples,
Aten was worshipped in the
open sunlight rather than in dark temple enclosures as had been the
Akhenaten is also believed to have composed the Great
Hymn to the Aten.
Inscribed limestone fragment showing early
Aten cartouches, "the
Living Ra Horakhty". Reign of Akhenaten. From Amarna, Egypt. The
Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London
Fragment of a stela, showing parts of 3 late cartouches of Aten. There
is a rare intermediate form of god's name. Reign of Akhenaten. From
Amarna, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London
Limestone fragment column showing reeds and an early
Reign of Akhenaten. From Amarna, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian
Aten as a variant of the familiar
Amun-Re (itself the result of an earlier rise to
prominence of the cult of Amun, resulting in Amun's becoming merged
with the sun god Ra), in an attempt to put his ideas in a familiar
Egyptian religious context. However, by Year 9 of his reign, Akhenaten
Aten was not merely the supreme god, but the only
worshipable god, and that he, Akhenaten, was the only intermediary
Aten and his people. He ordered the defacing of Amun's temples
throughout Egypt and, in a number of instances, inscriptions of the
plural 'gods' were also removed.
Siliceous limestone fragment of a statue. There are late Aten
cartouches on the draped right shoulder. Reign of Akhenaten. From
Amarna, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London
Aten's name also is written differently after Year 9 to emphasize the
radicalism of the new regime, which included a ban on images, with the
exception of a rayed solar disc, in which the rays (commonly depicted
ending in hands) appear to represent the unseen spirit of Aten, who by
then was evidently considered not merely a sun god, but rather a
universal deity. Representations of the
Aten were always accompanied
with a sort of hieroglyphic footnote, stating that the representation
of the sun as all-encompassing creator was to be taken as just that: a
representation of something that, by its very nature as something
transcending creation, cannot be fully or adequately represented by
any one part of that creation.
Archaeological discoveries at
Akhetaten show that many ordinary
residents of this city chose to gouge or chisel out all references to
Amun on even minor personal items that they owned, such as
commemorative scarabs or make-up pots, perhaps for fear of being
accused of having Amunist sympathies. References to Amenhotep III,
Akhenaten's father, were partly erased since they contained the
Amun form of his name:
As the Egytologist
Nicholas Reeves writes:
Such displays of frightening self-censorship and toadying loyalty are
ominous indicators of the paranoia which was beginning to grip the
country. Not only were the streets [of Akhetaten] filled with the
pharaoh's soldiers; it seems the population now had to contend with
the danger of malicious informers.
In the end, Akhenaten's revolution collapsed from within after his
death since the massive costs of founding a new capital city at
Amarna and the closing of the
Amun temples choked off the growth of
the Egyptian economy. A notable result of Akhenaten's centralisation
tendencies was the appearance of large-scale corruption among the
king's state officials who held unprecedented control over all the
wealth and produce of Egypt. This was a tendency that the last 18th
Horemheb was compelled to deal with by threatening to
cut off the nose of any officials who were found to be involved in
state corruption or abuses in a major stela erected near the 10th
pylon of Karnak. Nicolas Grimal states that Akhenaten's closure or
limitations on the activities of non-
Aten temples and his confiscation
of priestly goods for the benefit of the state directly led:
to an increase in centralization of both the administration and its
executive arm, the army. The neglect of local government increased the
problems of maintaining an effective administration and introduced a
whole new [state] system characterized by corruption and
arbitrariness... The construction of the new capital [at Akhetaten]
and new temples was to the detriment of the economy in general and the
temple-based economy in particular: the system of divine estates was,
from a centralizing viewpoint, harmful, but its abandonment in the
Amarna period led to the ruination of a whole [economic] system of
production and distribution without providing any new structure to
Sculptor's trial piece of Akhenaten.
Akhenaten's status as a religious revolutionary has led to much
speculation, ranging from scholarly hypotheses to non-academic fringe
theories. Although some believe the religion he introduced was mostly
monotheistic, many others see
Akhenaten as a practitioner of an Aten
monolatry, as he did not actively deny the existence of other
gods; he simply refrained from worshiping any but the
expecting the people to worship not
Aten but him.
Akhenaten and monotheism in Abrahamic religions
The idea of
Akhenaten as the pioneer of a monotheistic religion that
later became Judaism has been considered by various
scholars. One of the first to mention this was
Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, in his book Moses and
Monotheism. Basing his arguments on a belief that the Exodus story
was historical, Freud argued that Moses had been an Atenist priest
forced to leave Egypt with his followers after Akhenaten's death.
Freud argued that
Akhenaten was striving to promote monotheism,
something that the biblical Moses was able to achieve. Following
his book, the concept entered popular consciousness and serious
Freud commented on the connection between Adonai, the Egyptian Aten
and the Syrian divine name of Adonis as a primeval unity of language
between the factions; in this he was following the argument of
Egyptologist Arthur Weigall. Jan Assmann's opinion is that 'Aten' and
'Adonai' are not linguistically related.
It is widely accepted that there are strong stylistic similarities
between Akhenaten's Great Hymn to the
Aten and the Biblical Psalm 104,
though this form is found widespread in ancient Near Eastern hymnology
both before and after the period.
Others have likened some aspects of Akhenaten's relationship with the
Aten to the relationship, in Christian tradition, of
Jesus Christ with
God, particularly in interpretations that emphasize a more
monotheistic interpretation of
Atenism than henotheistic. Donald B.
Redford has noted that some have viewed
Akhenaten as a harbinger of
Jesus. "After all,
Akhenaten did call himself the son of the sole god:
'Thine only son that came forth from thy body'." James Henry
Breasted likened him to Jesus,
Arthur Weigall saw him as a failed
precursor of Christ and
Thomas Mann saw him "as right on the way and
yet not the right one for the way".
Redford argued that while
Akhenaten called himself the son of the
Sun-Disc and acted as the chief mediator between god and creation,
kings for thousands of years before Akhenaten's time had claimed the
same relationship and priestly role. However Akhenaten's case may be
different through the emphasis placed on the heavenly father and son
Akhenaten described himself as "thy son who came forth
from thy limbs", "thy child", "the eternal son that came forth from
the Sun-Disc", and "thine only son that came forth from thy body". The
close relationship between father and son is such that only the king
truly knows the heart of "his father", and in return his father
listens to his son's prayers. He is his father's image on earth, and
Akhenaten is king on earth, his father is king in heaven. As high
priest, prophet, king and divine he claimed the central position in
the new religious system. Because only he knew his father's mind and
Akhenaten alone could interpret that will for all mankind with
true teaching coming only from him.
Before much of the archaeological evidence from Thebes and from Tell
Amarna became available, wishful thinking sometimes turned
Akhenaten into a humane teacher of the true God, a mentor of Moses, a
christlike figure, a philosopher before his time. But these imaginary
creatures are now fading away as the historical reality gradually
emerges. There is little or no evidence to support the notion that
Akhenaten was a progenitor of the full-blown monotheism that we find
in the Bible. The monotheism of the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament
had its own separate development — one that began more than half a
millennium after the pharaoh's death.
See also: Aromatase excess syndrome § Notable cases
Hieratic inscription on a pottery fragment. It records year 17 of
Akhenaten's reign and reference to wine of the house of Aten. From
Amarna, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London
Limestone trial piece of a king, probably Akhenaten, and a smaller
head of uncertain gender. From Amarna, Egypt. 18th Dynasty. The Petrie
Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London
The rather strange and eccentric portrayals of Akhenaten, with a
sagging stomach, thick thighs, large breasts, and long, thin face —
so different from the athletic norm in the portrayal of pharaohs —
have led certain
Egyptologists to suppose that
Akhenaten suffered some
kind of genetic abnormality. Various illnesses have been put forward.
On the basis of his long jaw and his feminine appearance, Cyril
Aldred, following up earlier arguments of Grafton Elliot Smith
and James Strachey, suggested he may have suffered from Froelich's
Syndrome. However, this is unlikely because this disorder results in
Akhenaten is known to have fathered numerous children.
These children are repeatedly portrayed through years of
archaeological and iconographic evidence — at least six daughters by
Queen Nefertiti, well known as the King and Queen's six princesses of
Amarna, as well as his successor
Tutankhamun by a minor wife.[citation
Another suggestion by Burridge is that
Akhenaten may have suffered
from Marfan's Syndrome. Marfan's syndrome, unlike Froelich's, does not
result in any lack of intelligence or sterility. It is associated with
a sunken chest, long curved spider-like fingers (arachnodactyly),
occasional congenital heart difficulties, a high curved or slightly
cleft palate, and a highly curved cornea or dislocated lens of the
eye, with the requirement for bright light to see well. Marfan's
sufferers tend towards being taller than average, with a long, thin
face, and elongated skull, overgrown ribs, a funnel or pigeon chest,
and larger pelvis, with enlarged thighs and spindly calves.
Marfan's syndrome is a dominant characteristic, and sufferers have a
50% chance of passing it on to their children. All of these
symptoms arguably sometimes appear in depictions of
Akhenaten and of
his children. Recent CT scans of
Tutankhamun report a cleft palate and
a fairly long head, as well as an abnormal curvature of the spine and
fusion of the upper vertebrae, a condition associated with scoliosis,
all conditions associated with Marfan's syndrome. However, DNA tests
on Tutankhamun, in 2010, proved negative for Marfan Syndrome.
Homocystinuria was suggested as a possible
diagnosis. Patients suffering from homocystinuria have Marfan
habitus. However, as an autosomal recessive disease, it seems to fit
better into Akhenaten's family tree — Akhenaten's parents, Amenhotep
III and Tiye, were probably healthy, and Marfan Syndrome was ruled out
following DNA tests on
Tutankhamun in 2010.
Dominic Montserrat in Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and Ancient
Egypt states that "there is now a broad consensus among Egyptologists
that the exaggerated forms of Akhenaten's physical portrayal... are
not to be read literally". Montserrat and others argue that
the body-shape relates to some form of religious symbolism. Because
Aten was referred to as "the mother and father of all
humankind" it has been suggested that
Akhenaten was made to look
androgynous in artwork as a symbol of the androgyny of the god. This
required "a symbolic gathering of all the attributes of the creator
god into the physical body of the king himself", which will "display
on earth the Aten's multiple life-giving functions".
refer to himself as "The Unique One of Re", and he may have used his
control of artistic expression to distance himself from the common
people, though such a radical departure from the idealized traditional
representation of the image of the pharaoh would be truly
Another unfounded claim was made by Immanuel Velikovsky, who
hypothesized an incestuous relationship with his mother, Tiye.
Velikovsky also posited that
Akhenaten had swollen legs. Based on
this, he identified
Akhenaten as the history behind the
Oedipus being Greek for "swollen feet", and moved the setting from the
Greek Thebes to the Egyptian Thebes. As part of his argument,
Velikovsky uses the fact that
Akhenaten viciously carried out a
campaign to erase the name of his father, which he argues could have
Oedipus killing his father. This point was
disproved, in that
Akhenaten mummified and buried his father in the
honorable traditional Egyptian fashion prior to beginning his
religious revolution. Furthermore, an autopsy and genetic evidence in
2014 proved that his son
Tutankhamun was the product of a
brother-sister marriage, not a parent-child pairing.
In 2012, Hutan Ashrafian, a surgeon at Imperial College London,
published research into the early death of
Akhenaten and the premature
deaths of other
18th Dynasty pharaohs (including
Thutmose IV). He identifies that their early deaths were probably a
result of a Familial Temporal Epilepsy. This would account for the
untimely death of Akhenaten, his abnormal endocrine body shape on
sculptures and can also explain Akhenaten's religious conviction due
to this type of epilepsy’s association with intense spiritual
visions and religiosity. However, because there is currently no
definitive genetic test for epilepsy, the theory remains impossible to
Main article: Smenkhkare
Various uninscribed and damaged stelae depict
Akhenaten with what
appears to be a coregent wearing a king's crown in familiar if not
intimate settings (even naked). Since
Smenkhkare was known to be a
male, this led to the speculation that
Akhenaten was homosexual. These
notions were discarded once the coregent was identified as a female,
most likely his wife.
In the 1970s, John Harris identified the figure pictured alongside
Akhenaten as Nefertiti, arguing that she may have actually been
elevated to coregent and perhaps even succeeded temporarily as an
independent ruler, changing her name to Smenkhkare.
Nicholas Reeves and other
Egyptologists contend that
the same person as Neferneferuaten, who ruled together with Akhenaten
as coregent for the final one or two years of Akhenaten's reign. On
several monuments, the two are shown seated side by side. More
recent research by James Allen and Marc Gabolde has led to "a
fair degree of consensus" that
Neferneferuaten was a female ruler
apart from Smenkhkare.
In the arts
Drawing of Akhnaton Cairo Cast
Agatha Christie: play, Akhnaton (written in 1937, published by Dodd,
Mead and Company [New York], 1973, ISBN 0-396-06822-7; Collins
[London], 1973, ISBN 0-00-211038-5)
Pharaoh Akhenaton Theatr. Play. 1st ed. 1961
Athens. ISBN 960-7327-66-7
Thomas Mann, in his fictional biblical tetralogy Joseph and His
Brothers (1933–1943), makes
Akhenaten the "dreaming pharaoh" of
Mika Waltari: The Egyptian, first published in Finnish (Sinuhe
egyptiläinen) in 1945, translated by Naomi Walford (G.P. Putnam's
Sons, 1949; Chicago Review Press, 2002, paperback)
David Stacton: On a Balcony, London House & Maxwell, 1958
Gwendolyn MacEwen: King of Egypt, King of Dreams (1971)
A God Against the Gods (Doubleday, 1976) and Return to
Thebes (Doubleday, 1976)
Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth
Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth (العائش فى
Akhenaten and Nefertiti's Dream
Moyra Caldecott: Akhenaten: Son of the Sun (1989; eBook, 2000; 2003)
Pauline Gedge: The Twelfth Transforming (1984), set in the reign of
Akhenaten, details the construction of
Akhetaten and fictionalized
accounts of his sexual relationships with Nefertiti,
Philip Glass: opera, Akhnaten: An
Opera in Three Acts (1983; CBS
House Altar with Akhenaten,
Nefertiti and Three Daughters (Amarna
Period) (5:03), Smarthistory
The Lost Pharaoh: The Search for
Akhenaten (56:35), National Film
Board of Canada
Roy Campbell, Jr., The
Akhenaten Suite - A Modern Jazz Epic
The Egyptian, motion picture (1954, directed by Michael Curtiz,
Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation), based on the novel by Mika
Nefertiti, Queen of the Nile, motion picture (1961, directed by
Fernando Cherchio, starring
Jeanne Crain and Vincent Price).
Akhenaten, played by Amedeo Nazzari, is called "Amonophis" in the
La Reine Soleil
La Reine Soleil (2007 animated film by Philippe Leclerc), features
Tutankhaten (later Tutankhamun), Akhesa (Ankhesenepaten,
later Ankhesenamun), Nefertiti, and
Horemheb in a complex struggle
pitting the priests of
Amun against Atenism.
Donald Redford's excavation of one Akhenaten's temples was the subject
of a one-hour 1980
National Film Board of Canada
National Film Board of Canada documentary, The Lost
Pharaoh: The Search for Akhenaten.
Ancient Aliens Season 1 Episode 2 "The Visitors", as well as few other
episodes, which propose that
Akhenaten may have been an
Edgar P. Jacobs: comic book, Blake et Mortimer: Le Mystère de la
Grande Pyramide vol. 1+2 (1950), adventure story in which the mystery
Akhenaten provides much of the background.
Joshua Norton: Die! Akhnaten Die! series of sequential woodcut prints
and book recreates the story of
Akhenaten as a Wild West tale.
Ancestors of Akhenaten
16. Thutmose III
8. Amenhotep II
4. Thutmose IV
2. Amenhotep III
Pharaoh of the Exodus
Notes and references
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^ Beckerath (1997) p.190
^ a b Clayton (2006), p.120
^ a b c d Dodson, Aidan.
Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, Ay,
Horemheb, and the Egyptian Counter-Reformation. The American
University in Cairo Press. 2009, ISBN 978-977-416-304-3, p 170
^ a b "News from the Valley of the Kings: DNA Shows that
Probably Not Akhenaten". Kv64.info. 2010-03-02. Retrieved
^ Dominic Montserrat, Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and Ancient Egypt,
Psychology Press, 2003, pp 105, 111
^ "Akhenaton (king of Egypt) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia".
Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
^ Robert William Rogers, Cuneiform parallels to the Old Testament,
Eaton & Mains, 1912, p 252
^ K.A Kitchen, On the reliability of the Old Testament, Wm. B.
Eerdmans Publishing, 2003. p 486 Google Books
^ Joyce A. Tyldesley, Egypt: how a lost civilization was rediscovered,
University of California Press, 2005
^ Lise Manniche,
Akhenaten Colossi of
Karnak (Cairo 6G: American
University in Cairo Press, 2000), ix.
^ Trigger et al. (2001), pp.186-7
^ Egypt's Golden Empire: Pharaohs of the Sun (2002; New York, NY: PBS
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^ "See the KV 55 Mummy & Tutankhamen". Anubis4_2000.tripod.com.
^ "Ancient DNA: Curse of the Pharaoh's DNA". Nature. 472: 404–406.
^ NewScientist.com; January 2011; Royal Rumpus over King Tutankhamun's
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^ Bickerstaffe, D; The Long is dead. How Long Lived the King? in Kmt
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^ a b c Aldred, Cyril, Akhenaten: King of Egypt, Thames and Hudson,
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^ Reeves (2000) p.77
^ Berman (1998) p.23
Pharaoh power-sharing unearthed in Egypt Daily News Egypt. February
^ Proof found of Amenhotep III-
Akhenaten co-regency thehistoryblog.com
^ a b Charles F. Nims, The Transition from the Traditional to the New
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^ Murnane, William J., Texts from the
Amarna Period in Egypt, Society
of Biblical Literature, 1995 ISBN 1-55540-966-0 p 50-51
^ Dodson, Aidan,
Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, Ay, Horemheb,
and the Egyptian Counter-Reformation. The American University in Cairo
Press. 2009, ISBN 978-977-416-304-3 p 8, 170
^ Hornung, Erik (1992-01-01). "The Rediscovery of
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^ "The Age of Akhenaten". 2017-04-20. Retrieved 2017-04-24.
^ S. McAvoy, "Mummy 61074: a Strange Case of Mistaken Identity",
Antiguo Oriente 5 (2007): 183-194.
^ Schemm, Paul (2010-02-16). "A Frail King Tut Died From Malaria,
Broken Leg". USA Today.
^ "The family of Akhenaton". Retrieved 2008-10-02.
^ a b Grajetzki, Ancient Egyptian Queens: A Hieroglyphic Dictionary,
Golden House Publications, London, 2005, ISBN 978-0-9547218-9-3
^ Robins, G.; Women in Ancient Egypt,
Harvard University Press
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^ Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of
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^ Moran (1992), pp.87-89
^ Moran (1992), p.203
^ Ross, Barbara (November–December 1999). "
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from Byblos". Saudi Aramco World. 50 (6): 30–35.
^ a b Bryce (1998), p.186
^ Moran, (William L.) The
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^ Moran (2003) pp.368-69
^ Moran (1992), pp.248-250
^ Moran (1992), pp.248-249
^ Bryce (1998), p.188
^ Bryce (1998), p.p.189
^ Moran (1992), p.145
^ Schulman (1982), pp.299-316
^ Allen (2006), p.1
^ Athena Van der Perre, "Nofretetes (vorerst) letzte dokumentierte
Erwähnung," in: Im Licht von
Amarna - 100 Jahre Fund der Nofretete.
[Katalog zur Ausstellung Berlin, 07.12.2012 - 13.04.2013]. (December
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^ Dayr al-Barsha Project featured in new exhibit 'Im Licht von Amarna'
at the Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung in Berlin 12/06/2012
^ Van de Perre, Athena (2014). "The Year 16 graffito of
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^ Hawass, Zahi et al. "Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's
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^ Allen (2006), p.5
^ Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss and David Warburton (editors), Handbook of
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^ "A Frail King Tut Died From Malaria, Broken Leg - ABC News".
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^ Pocket Guides: Egypt History, p.37, Dorling Kindersley, London
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^ Nicholas Reeves. "Book Review: Rolf Krauss, Das Ende der Amarnazeit
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^ Joshua J. Mark. "Horemheb," Ancient History Encyclopedia. Last
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^ Alan H. Gardiner, The Inscriptions of Mes, A Contribution to the
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^ Molefi Kete Asante and Ama Mazama, Encyclopedia of African Religion
(Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2009)
^ a b David (1998), p.125
^ a b Nicholas Reeves, Akhenaten: Egypt's False Prophet, Thames &
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^ The Great Edict of
Horemheb by J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records of
Egypt, (1906) Part Three, §§ 50 to 67
^ Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, 1992 English edition,
Blackwell Publishers Ltd., p.232
^ Dominic Montserrat, Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and Ancient Egypt,
Routledge 2000, ISBN 0-415-18549-1, pp.36ff.
^ a b c Freud, S. (1939). Moses and Monotheism: Three Essays.
^ Gunther Siegmund Stent, Paradoxes of Free Will. American
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^ Jan Assmann, Moses the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in Western
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^ N. Shupak, The
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^ a b c d Montserrat, (2000)
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^ S. Freud, The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works
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^ Edward Chaney, ‘Freudian Egypt’, The London Magazine, April/May
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Corrado (Amsterdam, Rodopi, 2006), pp. 39-69.
^ Assmann, Jan. (1997). Moses the Egyptian. Cambridge, Massachusetts:
Harvard University Press; pp. 23-24, fn. 2.
^ a b "The
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Wikiquote has quotations related to: Akhenaten
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The Long Coregency Revisited: the Tomb of Kheruef by Peter Dorman,
University of Chicago
Royal Relations, Tut’s father is very likely Akhenaten. National
Geographic 09. 2010
"The Younger Lady"
Amarna Art Style
Protodynastic to First Intermediate Period (<3150–2040 BC)
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Ptolemy VIII Euergetes
Ptolemy IX Soter
Ptolemy X Alexander I
Ptolemy XI Alexander II
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos
Ptolemy XV Caesarion
21st to 23rd
List of pharaohs
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KV62 (Tutankhamun's tomb)
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Curse of the pharaohs
Steve Martin song
Of Time, Tombs and Treasures
Of Time, Tombs and Treasures (1977 documentary)
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