Akhalkalaki (Georgian: ახალქალაქი
[ɑxɑlkʰɑlɑkʰi], for New City (from Georgian [ɑxɑli] meaning
"new" and [kʰɑlɑkʰi] meaning "city" or "town"); Armenian:
Ախալքալաք; Turkish: Ahılkelek) is a town in Georgia's
southern region of Samtskhe-Javakheti.
Akhalkalaki lies on the edge of
Javakheti Volcanic Plateau. The city is located about 30 km
from the border with Turkey. In 2002 over 90 percent of the city's
population were ethnic Armenians. The city was passed from
Russians after Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829). On January 4, 1900, an
earthquake destroyed much of the town and killed 1,000 people in the
area. As of the 2014 census the town had a population of 8,295.
5 Famous people
6 See also
8 External links
Akhalkalaki was founded in 1064. In 1066 the city was destroyed during
the Seljuq invasions of the Kingdom of Georgia.
alternated between Georgian and Armenian rule until it passed to the
Georgian Bagratids in the 11th century. In 11th century Akhalkalaki
became political and economical centre of Javakheti. In the 16th
century the city came under the rule of the
Ottoman Empire and became
a sanjak centre in Çıldır Eyaleti. Under the Ottoman rule, the town
was known as "Ahılkelek". The city was passed from the
Russians after the Russo-Turkish War in 1828–1829.
The population was mainly Georgian but had been converted to Islam by
1829. After Russian takeover most of the native Muslims left the
area for the
Ottoman Empire and in their place Christian Armenian
refugees from Erzurum and Bayazid settled here. Since then the city
and the region of
Javakheti has been largely populated by Armenians.
Population and ethnic composition of
Akhalkalaki from the late 19th
The fragment from the map By Antonio Zatta, published in Venice in
1784. The map shows Akhalkalaki, Georgia
The crossroads village meets from south the streets from the border to
Armenia and Turkey, from north to Borjomi–Gori and east-west from
Batumi to Tiflis south of the Lesser Caucasus.
A 160 km long railway line was constructed between 1982 and 1986
in three parts. The junction from the line Tiflis–Jerewan is in
In April 2005, an agreement was signed to build a new railway
Turkey with Georgia and Azerbaijan, passing nearby
Akhalkalaki. This would bypass an existing line through
Armenia which has been closed by Turkey, blockading Armenia, for
political reasons since the 1990s. The railway became operational
on October 30, 2017. It is here where the break-of-gauge is.
In compound with the military base was constructed an airport. With
military dismantling it was closed.
The city was a home to the Soviet-era 147th Motor Rifle Division (part
of the 9th Army of the Transcaucasian Military District) up until the
early 1990s. After the fall of the
Soviet Union the Division became
the Russian 62nd Military Base. It was officially transferred,
according to the Sochi agreement, to Georgia on June 27, 2007.
Derenik Demirchian, Armenian writer
Jivani, Armenian bard
Harutyun Khachatryan, Armenian film director
Ruben Ter-Minasian, Defense Minister of the First Republic of Armenia
Hamo Ohanjanyan, the third Prime Minister of the First Republic of
Ahmed bey Pepinov, Azerbaijani statesman
^ a b "Population Census 2014". www.geostat.ge. National Statistics
Office of Georgia. November 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
^ The Annual Register of World Events, 1900 (Longmans, Green, and Co.,
^ Suny, Ronald Grigor (1994), The Making of the Georgian Nation: 2nd
edition. Indiana University Press, p. 34
^ a b c
Richard G. Hovannisian
Richard G. Hovannisian (1971). The Republic of Armenia: The
first year, 1918-1919. University of California Press. p. 70.
^ "население грузии". Retrieved October 8, 2016.
^ "АХАЛКАЛАКСКИЙ УЕЗД (1897 г.)". Retrieved October
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved
Railway Gazette International February 2009, p54
^ "Baku-Tbilisi-Kars (BTK) railway track becomes operational to carry
Chinese goods to Europe". dnd.com.pk. 30 October 2017. Retrieved 27
^ Russia Transfers
Akhalkalaki Military Base to Georgia. Civil
Georgia. June 27, 2007. Accessed on June 29, 2007.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Akhalkalaki.
Coordinates: 41°24′20″N 43°29′10″E / 41.40556°N
43.48611°E / 41.40556; 43.48611
Cities, towns and townlets in Georgia
Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia
Autonomous Republic of Adjara
Cities with local government