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Akhalkalaki
Akhalkalaki
(Georgian: ახალქალაქი [ɑxɑlkʰɑlɑkʰi], for New City (from Georgian [ɑxɑli] meaning "new" and [kʰɑlɑkʰi] meaning "city" or "town"); Armenian: Ախալքալաք; Turkish: Ahılkelek) is a town in Georgia's southern region of Samtskhe-Javakheti. Akhalkalaki
Akhalkalaki
lies on the edge of the Javakheti
Javakheti
Volcanic Plateau. The city is located about 30 km from the border with Turkey. In 2002 over 90 percent of the city's population were ethnic Armenians. The city was passed from Ottomans to Russians
Russians
after Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829). On January 4, 1900, an earthquake destroyed much of the town and killed 1,000 people in the area.[2] As of the 2014 census the town had a population of 8,295.[1]

Contents

1 History 2 Population 3 Transport 4 Bases 5 Famous people 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

History[edit] Akhalkalaki
Akhalkalaki
was founded in 1064. In 1066 the city was destroyed during the Seljuq invasions of the Kingdom of Georgia.[3] Akhalkalaki
Akhalkalaki
had alternated between Georgian and Armenian rule until it passed to the Georgian Bagratids in the 11th century.[4] In 11th century Akhalkalaki became political and economical centre of Javakheti. In the 16th century the city came under the rule of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and became a sanjak centre in Çıldır Eyaleti. Under the Ottoman rule, the town was known as "Ahılkelek". The city was passed from the Ottomans to the Russians
Russians
after the Russo-Turkish War in 1828–1829. Population[edit] The population was mainly Georgian but had been converted to Islam by 1829.[4] After Russian takeover most of the native Muslims left the area for the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and in their place Christian Armenian refugees from Erzurum and Bayazid settled here.[4] Since then the city and the region of Javakheti
Javakheti
has been largely populated by Armenians.

Population and ethnic composition of Akhalkalaki
Akhalkalaki
from the late 19th century[5]

Year Armenians Georgians Russians Total

1886 4,083 94.9% 51 1.2% 57 1.3% 4,303

1897[6] 4,136 76% 129 2.4% 479 8.8% 5,440

1926[7] 3,185 90.9% 197 5.7% 61 1.8% 3,475

1959[8] 6,522 74.1% 433 4.9% 1,424 16.2% 8,804

1989[9] - - - - - - 15,572

2014[10] - - - - - - 8,295

Transport[edit]

The fragment from the map By Antonio Zatta, published in Venice in 1784. The map shows Akhalkalaki, Georgia

The crossroads village meets from south the streets from the border to Armenia
Armenia
and Turkey, from north to Borjomi–Gori and east-west from Batumi
Batumi
to Tiflis south of the Lesser Caucasus. A 160 km long railway line was constructed between 1982 and 1986 in three parts. The junction from the line Tiflis–Jerewan is in Marabda. In April 2005, an agreement was signed to build a new railway connecting Turkey
Turkey
with Georgia and Azerbaijan, passing nearby Akhalkalaki. This would bypass an existing line through Gyumri
Gyumri
in Armenia
Armenia
which has been closed by Turkey, blockading Armenia, for political reasons since the 1990s.[11] The railway became operational on October 30, 2017.[12] It is here where the break-of-gauge is.[13] In compound with the military base was constructed an airport.[1] With military dismantling it was closed. Bases[edit] The city was a home to the Soviet-era 147th Motor Rifle Division (part of the 9th Army of the Transcaucasian Military District) up until the early 1990s. After the fall of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
the Division became the Russian 62nd Military Base. It was officially transferred, according to the Sochi agreement, to Georgia on June 27, 2007.[14] Famous people[edit]

Derenik Demirchian, Armenian writer Jivani, Armenian bard Harutyun Khachatryan, Armenian film director Ruben Ter-Minasian, Defense Minister of the First Republic of Armenia Hamo Ohanjanyan, the third Prime Minister of the First Republic of Armenia Ahmed bey Pepinov, Azerbaijani statesman

See also[edit]

Samtskhe-Javakheti

References[edit]

^ a b "Population Census 2014". www.geostat.ge. National Statistics Office of Georgia. November 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2016.  ^ The Annual Register of World Events, 1900 (Longmans, Green, and Co., 1901) p461 ^ Suny, Ronald Grigor (1994), The Making of the Georgian Nation: 2nd edition. Indiana University Press, p. 34 ^ a b c Richard G. Hovannisian
Richard G. Hovannisian
(1971). The Republic of Armenia: The first year, 1918-1919. University of California Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-520-01805-1.  ^ "население грузии". Retrieved October 8, 2016.  ^ "АХАЛКАЛАКСКИЙ УЕЗД (1897 г.)". Retrieved October 8, 2016.  ^ http://www.ethno-kavkaz.narod.ru/axalkalaki26.html ^ http://www.ethno-kavkaz.narod.ru/axalkalaki59.html ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved 2013-05-16.  ^ http://census.ge/files/results/english/1_Number%20of%20population%20by%20administrative-territorial%20units%20and%20sex.xls ^ Railway Gazette International February 2009, p54 ^ "Baku-Tbilisi-Kars (BTK) railway track becomes operational to carry Chinese goods to Europe". dnd.com.pk. 30 October 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2018.  ^ http://www.railwaygazette.com/news/passenger/single-view/view/stadler-signs-baku-tbilisi-kars-sleeping-car-contract.html ^ Russia Transfers Akhalkalaki
Akhalkalaki
Military Base to Georgia. Civil Georgia. June 27, 2007. Accessed on June 29, 2007.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Akhalkalaki.

Coordinates: 41°24′20″N 43°29′10″E / 41.40556°N 43.48611°E / 41.40556; 43.48611

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Cities, towns and townlets in Georgia

Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia

Sokhumi Akhali Atoni Gagra Gali Gudauta Ochamchire Tkvarcheli Bichvinta Gantiadi Gulripshi Leselidze Miusera

Autonomous Republic of Adjara

Batumi Kobuleti Makhinjauri Chakvi Ochkhamuri Keda Khelvachauri Shuakhevi Khulo

Guria

Ozurgeti Lanchkhuti Chokhatauri Kveda Nasakirali Laituri Naruja Ureki

Imereti

Kutaisi Chiatura Baghdati Khoni Sachkhere Samtredia Terjola Tkibuli Tsqaltubo Vani Zestaponi Kharagauli Kulashi Shorapani

Kakheti

Telavi Akhmeta Dedoplistsqaro Gurjaani Lagodekhi Sagarejo Sighnaghi Kvareli Tsnori Mirzaani

Mtskheta-Mtianeti

Mtskheta Dusheti Akhalgori Sioni Stepantsminda Tianeti Zhinvali

Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti

Zugdidi Abasha Anaklia Jvari Khobi Martvili Poti Senaki Tsalenjikha Chkhorotsqu Mestia Ushguli

Samtskhe-Javakheti

Akhaltsikhe Akhalkalaki Borjomi Ninotsminda Vale Abastumani Adigeni Akhaldaba Aspindza Bakuriani Bakurianis Andeziti Tsagveri

Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti

Ambrolauri Oni Tsageri Kharistvala Kvaisa Lentekhi

Kvemo Kartli

Rustavi Bolnisi Gardabani Dmanisi Tetritskaro Marneuli Tsalka Bediani Kazreti Manglisi Shaumiani Tamarisi Trialeti

Shida Kartli

Gori Kaspi Kareli Tskhinvali Khashuri Agara Java Surami Kornisi

Cities with local government

Tbilisi Batumi Kutaisi Rustavi Gori Zugdidi Poti Telavi Akhaltsikhe Ozurgeti Mtskheta Ambrolauri

Capital city

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