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The Akal Takht
Akal Takht
(Punjabi: ਅਕਾਲ ਤਖ਼ਤ), meaning throne of the timeless one,[2] is one of five takhts (seats of power) of the Sikhs . It is located in the Harmandir Sahib
Harmandir Sahib
(Golden Temple) complex in Amritsar, Punjab. The Akal Takht
Akal Takht
was built by Guru Hargobind
Guru Hargobind
as a place of justice and consideration of temporal issues; the highest seat of earthly authority of the Khalsa
Khalsa
(the collective body of the Sikhs) and the place of the Jathedar, the highest spokesman of the Sikhs. The current Jathedar
Jathedar
of Akal Takht
Akal Takht
is Jathedar
Jathedar
Jagtar Singh Hawara.

Contents

1 History 2 Design 3 Operation Blue Star 4 Re-building 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 External links

History[edit]

Akal Takht
Akal Takht
illuminated on Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
Gurpurab, Harmandir Sahib complex, Amritsar.

Akal Takht
Akal Takht
and Harmandir Sahib, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

Originally known as Akal Bunga,[3] the building directly opposite the Harmandir Sahib
Harmandir Sahib
was founded by sixth Sikh
Sikh
Guru, Guru Hargobind, as a symbol of political sovereignty and where spiritual and temporal concerns of the Sikh
Sikh
people could be addressed.[2] Along with Baba Buddha and Bhai Gurdas, the sixth Sikh
Sikh
Guru built a 9 foot high concrete slab. When Guru Hargobind
Guru Hargobind
revealed the platform on 15 June 1606, he put on two swords: one indicated his spiritual authority (piri) and the other, his temporal authority (miri).[4][5] In the 18th century, Ahmed Shah Abdali
Ahmed Shah Abdali
and Massa Rangar led a series of attacks on the Akal Takht
Akal Takht
and Harmandir Sahib.[2] Hari Singh Nalwa, a general of Ranjit Singh, the maharaja, decorated the Akhal Takht with gold.[6] On 4 June 1984, the Akal Takht
Akal Takht
was damaged when the Indian Army stormed Harmandir Sahib
Harmandir Sahib
during Operation Blue Star. Design[edit] The Akal Takht
Akal Takht
was built on a site where there existed only a high mound of earth across a wide open space. It was a place where Guru Hargobind played as a child. The original Takht was a simple platform, 3.5 metres (11 ft) high, on which Guru Hargobind
Guru Hargobind
would sit in court to receive petitions and administer justice. He was surrounded by insignia of royalty such as the parasol and the flywhisk. Later, there was an open-air semi-circular structure built on marble pillars and a gilded interior section. There were also painted wall panels depicting Europeans.[7] The modern building is a five story structure with marble inlay and a gold-leafed dome. Three of the stories were added by Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
in the 1700s. Contemporary restoration work found a layer of paint decorated lime plaster that might have been part of the original structure but later than the time of Harminder. Operation Blue Star[edit] Main article: Operation Blue Star Between 3 June and 8 June 1984, the Indian army
Indian army
conducted an operation, ordered by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in order to establish control over the Harmandir Sahib
Harmandir Sahib
Complex in Amritsar, Punjab, and remove Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, the jathedar of the Akal Takht
Akal Takht
and his followers from the complex buildings. In the process, many other Sikh
Sikh
Gurdwaras were destroyed.[8][9] Re-building[edit] The Indian government began to rebuild the Akal Takht. Sikhs called the new structure the Sarkari Takht (the word sarkar in Hindi and Punjabi means "government") to indicate it had been built by the government and was not Akal (sacred). The Sikh
Sikh
home minister, Buta Singh, was excommunicated for his role in building the new Takht. He was accepted back into the community after a period of penitence (cleaning the devotees's utensils and shoes at the Golden Temple).[10] See also[edit] Jathedar
Jathedar
of Akal Takht References[edit]

^ Nabha, Kahan Singh (13 April 1930). Gur Shabad Ratanakar Mahankosh (1 ed.). Languages Department of Punjab, Patiala. p. ਅਕਾਲਬੁੰਗਾ. Retrieved 21 October 2016.  ^ a b c Fahlbusch E. (ed.) "The encyclopedia of Christianity." Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8028-2417-2 ^ "Akal Bunga". The Sikh
Sikh
Encyclopedia. Gateway to Sikhism Foundation. Retrieved 21 October 2016.  ^ Singh, Dr Kuldip. Akal Takht
Akal Takht
Ate Khalsa
Khalsa
Panth. Chandigarh. p. 2.  ^ Dilgeer, Harjinder Singh (1980). The Akal Takht. Jalandhar: Sikh University Press.  ^ Sohan Lal Suri. 19th century. Umdat-ut-tawarikh, Daftar III, Part 2, trans. V.S. Suri, (1961) 2002, Amritsar: Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
Dev University, f. 260 ^ G.S., Randhir (1990). Sikh
Sikh
shrines in India. New Delhi: The Director of Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. pp. 13–14.  ^ "Akāl Takht" Britannica website. Accessed 5 January 2013. ^ "Around Harmandir Sahib" Shiromani Gurdwara
Gurdwara
Parbandhak Committee Accessed 5 January 2013 ^ "Buta" Rediff.com, March 1l

Sources[edit]

Harjinder Singh Dilgeer The Akal Takht, Sikh
Sikh
University Press, 1980. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer Sikh
Sikh
Twareekh Vich Akal Takht
Akal Takht
Sahib Da Role, Sikh
Sikh
University Press 2005. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer Akal Takht
Akal Takht
Sahib, concept and role, Sikh University Press 2005. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer Sikh
Sikh
Twareekh, Sikh
Sikh
University Press 2008. Mohinder Singh Josh Akal Takht
Akal Takht
Tay is da Jathedar
Jathedar
2005. Darshi A. R. The Gallant Defender Singh P. The Golden Temple. South Asia Books 1989. ISBN 978-962-7375-01-2. Singh K. (ed.) New insights into Sikh
Sikh
art. Marg Publications. 2003. ISBN 978-81-85026-60-2. Nomination of Sri Harimandir Sahib for inclusion on the UNESCO World Heritage List Vol.1 Nomination Dossier, India 2003. Macauliffe, M. A. The Sikh
Sikh
religion: Its gurus sacred writings and authors Low Price Publications, 1903. ISBN 978-81-7536-132-4.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Akal Takht.

WorldGurudwara.com Akal Takht, Amritsar
Amritsar
established in 1606 Takht Sri Darbar Sahib Akal Takht Shri Akaal Takhat images

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Akal Takht Damdama Sahib Kesgarh Sahib Hazur Sahib Patna Sahib

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Coordinates: 31°37′14″N 74°52′31″E / 31.62056°N 74.87528°E /

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