1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers
> 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river
2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes
(e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
Provence (French pronunciation: [ɛksɑ̃pʁɔvɑ̃s];
Provençal Occitan: Ais de Provença in classical norm, or Ais de
Prouvènço in Mistralian norm, pronounced [ˈajz de
pʀuˈvɛⁿsɔ], Latin: Aquae Sextiae), or simply Aix
(pronounced [ɛks]; medieval
Occitan Aics), is a city-commune in
the south of France, about 30 km (19 mi) north of Marseille.
A former capital of Provence, it is in the region of
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône,
of which it is a subprefecture. The population of Aix numbers
approximately 143,000. Its inhabitants are called Aixois or, less
2 Geography and climate
5.1.1 Festival d'Aix-en-Provence
5.1.2 Musique dans la Rue
5.3 European Capital of Culture
5.4 Museums and Libraries
5.5 Montagne Sainte-Victoire
10 International relations
11 People from Aix
11.2 Famous residents
13 See also
17 External links
See also: Timeline of Aix-en-Provence
For the ecclesiastical history, see Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Aix.
Rue Espariat in Aix-en-Provence.
Terrasse in Aix.
Aix (Aquae Sextiae) was founded in 123 BC by the
Roman consul Sextius
Calvinus, who gave his name to its springs, following the destruction
of the nearby Gallic oppidum at Entremont. In 102 BC its
neighbourhood was the scene of the Battle of Aquae Sextiae, where the
Gaius Marius defeated the
Cimbri and Teutones, with
mass suicides among the captured women, which passed into Roman
legends of Germanic heroism.
In the 4th century AD it became the metropolis of Narbonensis Secunda.
It was occupied by the
Visigoths in 477. In the succeeding century,
the town was repeatedly plundered by the
Franks and Lombards, and was
occupied by the
Saracens in 731 and by
Charles Martel in 737. Aix,
which during the
Middle Ages was the capital of Provence, did not
reach its zenith until after the 12th century, when, under the houses
of Barcelona/Aragon and Anjou, it became an artistic centre and seat
Aix passed to the crown of
France with the rest of
Provence in 1487,
and in 1501 Louis XII established there the parliament of Provence,
which existed until 1789. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the town was
the seat of the Intendance of Provence.
Current archeological excavations in the Ville des Tours, a medieval
suburb of Aix, have unearthed the remains of a Roman amphitheatre.
A deposit of fossil bones from the Upper Continental Miocene gave rise
to a Christian dragon legend.
Geography and climate
Provence is situated in the south of France, in a plain
overlooking the Arc, about a mile from the right bank of the river.
The city slopes gently from north to south and the Montagne
Sainte-Victoire can easily be seen to the east. Aix's position in the
France gives it a warm climate, though more extreme than
Marseille due to the inland location. It has an average January
temperature of 5 °C (41 °F) and a July average of
23 °C (73 °F). It has an average of 300 days of sunshine
and only 91 days of rain. While it is partially protected from the
Mistral, Aix still occasionally experiences the cooler and gusty
conditions it brings.
Unlike most of
France which has an oceanic climate, Aix-en-Provence
has a Mediterranean climate.
Climate data for Aix-en-
Provence (1981–2010, extremes
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Météo France
Les Deux Garçons.
Place de l'Hotel de Ville.
The Cathedral Cloisters.
Cours Mirabeau is a wide thoroughfare, planted with double rows of
plane trees, bordered by fine houses and decorated by fountains. It
follows the line of the old city wall, and divides the town into two
sections. The new town extends to the south and west; the old town,
with its narrow, irregular streets and its old mansions dating from
the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, lies to the north. Situated on this
avenue, which is lined on one side with banks and on the other with
cafés, is the Deux Garçons, the most famous brasserie in Aix. Built
in 1792, it was frequented by the likes of Paul Cézanne, Émile Zola
and Ernest Hemingway.
The Cathedral of the Holy Saviour (Aix Cathedral) is situated to the
north in the medieval part of Aix. Built on the site of a former Roman
forum and an adjacent basilica, it contains a mixture of all styles
from the 5th to the 17th century, including a richly decorated portal
in the Gothic style with doors elaborately carved in walnut. The
interior contains 16th-century tapestries, a 15th-century triptych,
depicting King René and his wife on the side panels, as well as a
Merovingian baptistery, its
Renaissance dome supported by original
Roman columns. The archbishop's palace (Palais de l'Archêveché) and
a Romanesque cloister adjoin the cathedral on its south side. The
Archbishopric of Aix is now shared with Arles.
Among its other public institutions, Aix also has the second most
important Appeal Court (Palais de Justice) outside of Paris, located
near the site of the former Palace of the Counts (Palais des Comtes)
The Hôtel de Ville, a building in the classical style of the middle
of the 17th century, looks onto a picturesque square (place de
l'Hôtel de Ville). It contains some fine woodwork and tapestries. At
its side rises a handsome clock-tower erected in 1510. Also on the
Place de l'Hôtel de Ville is the former Corn Exchange (1759–1761)
(Halle de Grains). This ornately decorated 18th-century building was
designed by the Vallon brothers. Nearby are the remarkable thermal
springs, containing lime and carbonic acid, that first drew the Romans
to Aix and gave it the name Aquae Sextiae. A spa was built in 1705
near the remains of the ancient Roman baths of Sextius.
South of the
Cours Mirabeau is the Quartier Mazarin. This residential
district was constructed for the gentry of Aix by Archbishop Michele
Mazzarino brother of Cardinal Jules Mazarin in the last half of the
17th century and contains several notable hôtels particuliers. The
13th-century church of Saint-Jean-de-Malte contains valuable pictures
and a recently restored organ. Next to it is the Musée Granet,
devoted to European painting and sculpture.
Aix is often referred to as the city of a thousand fountains.
Among the most notable are the 17th-century Fontaine des Quatre
Dauphins (Fountain of the Four Dolphins) in the Quartier Mazarin,
designed by Jean-Claude Rambot, and three of the fountains down
the central Cours Mirabeau: At the top, a 19th-century fountain
depicts the "good king" René holding the Muscat grapes that he
Provence in the 15th century; halfway down is a natural
hot water fountain (34 °C), covered in moss, dating back to the
Romans; and at the bottom at la Rotonde, the hub of modern Aix, stands
a monumental fountain from 1860 beneath three giant statues
representing art, justice and agriculture. In the older part of Aix,
there are also fountains of note in the Place d'Albertas and the Place
The Institute of Political Studies.
Aix has long been a university town: Louis II of
Anjou granted a royal
charter for a university in 1409. Today Aix remains an important
educational centre, with many teaching and research institutes:
Arts et Métiers ParisTech, an engineering graduate school that
settled a campus in the city in 1843. This teaching and research
center (CER) let the students attend courses focused on industrial and
Marseille University, consisting of the faculty and former
Marseille I, specialising in the
Université de la Méditerranée Aix-
Marseille II, specialising in
Paul Cézanne Aix-
Marseille III, specialising principally
in law, economics, political science and administration.
Institut d'études politiques d'Aix-en-
Provence (IEP), an Institute of
Institut de l'Aménagement Régional, an institute in the Université
Paul Cézanne for town and country planning.
IAU College, a not-for-profit study abroad institute for American
students with programs in art, art history, business, communication,
French language and culture, international relations, psychology and
many others. Offers internships and homestays.
Aix also has several training collèges, lycées, and a college of art
and design. It has also become a centre for many international study
programmes. Several lycées offer CPGE.
Sir Simon Rattle
Sir Simon Rattle conducting
Das Rheingold in 2006.
Aix holds two significant musical events each year. These are:
An important opera festival, the Festival international d'Art Lyrique,
founded in 1948, now ranks with those in Bayreuth, Salzburg and
Glyndebourne. The current director is Bernard Foccroulle, director of
la Monnaie in Brussels. The festival takes place in late June and July
each year. The main venues in Aix itself are the outdoor Théâtre de
l'Archévêché in the former garden of the archbishop's palace, the
recently restored 18th-century Théâtre du Jeu de Paume, and the
newly built Grand Théâtre de Provence; operas are also staged in the
outdoor Théâtre du Grand Saint-Jean outside Aix. Linked to the
festival is the Académie européenne de musique, a summer school for
young musicians with master classes by celebrated artists. Over the
four-year period from 2006 until 2009, Sir Simon Rattle's version of
Ring Cycle with the
Berlin Philharmonic was performed at the
Musique dans la Rue
This takes place each year in June to coincide with the national
'Fête de la Musique.' There is a week of classical, jazz and popular
concerts held in different street venues and courtyards in the city.
Some of these events are held in the Conservatoire Darius Milhaud,
named in honour of the French composer, a native of Aix.
The dance company Ballet Preljocaj of the French dancer and
Angelin Preljocaj has been located in Aix since 1996. In
2007 it took up residence in the Pavillon Noir, a centre for dance
performance, designed in 1999 by the architect Rudy Ricciotti. The
centre is one of nineteen of its kind in France, designated Centre
European Capital of Culture
Provence was part of Marseille-
Provence 2013, the year-long
cultural festival when the region served as the European Capital of
Culture. Aix hosted several major cultural events including one half
of the Grand Atelier du Midi gala exhibition and an episode of the
Révélations pyrotechnical performance. The city also unveiled major
new cultural infrastructure to coincide with Marseille-
Darius Milhaud Conservatory designed by Kengo Kuma.
Museums and Libraries
Granet's "Pumpkin Harvest" at the Musée Granet.
Aix has several museums and galleries:
Le Musée du Vieil Aix (Museum of Old Aix), housed in two period
"hôtels particuliers" and devoted to the history and provencal
heritage of Aix.
Le Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle (Natural History Museum).
Le Musée de Tapisseries (Tapestry Museum), housed in the Archbishop's
Palace and with a collection of tapestries and furniture from the 17th
and 18th centuries.
Le Musée Paul Arbaud (Faïence/Pottery).
Le Musée Granet, a museum devoted to painting, sculpture and the
archeology of Aix. It recently underwent significant restoration
and reorganization, prior to the international exhibition in 2006
marking the centenary of Cézanne's death. Due to lack of space,
the large archeological collection, including many recent discoveries,
will be displayed in a new museum, still in the planning stages. The
museum contains major paintings by
Jean-Dominique Ingres (among which
the monumental "Jupiter and Thetis"), an authentic self-portrait by
Rembrandt and works by Anthony van Dyck, Paul Cézanne, Alberto
Giacometti and Nicolas de Staël. In June 2011, the first part of the
collection of the Fondation Jean et Suzanne Planque opened at the
Musée Granet, containing over 180 artworks. This legacy of the Swiss
painter, dealer and art collector Jean Planque, a personal friend of
Pablo Picasso, has been donated to the city for an initial period of
15 years. The collection contains over 300 works of art, including
paintings and drawings by Degas, Renoir. Gauguin, Monet, Cézanne, Van
Gogh, Picasso, Pierre Bonnard, Paul Klee, Fernand Léger, Giacometti
and Dubuffet. The full collection will be housed in a specially
constructed annex in the Chapelle des Pénitents Blancs, situated
nearby: the expected opening is in 2013.
The Vendôme Pavilion in Aix-en-Provence.
Le Pavillon de Vendôme, a 17th-century mansion housing permanent and
touring art exhibitions.
The Vasarely Foundation a gallery dedicated to the works of the
Hungarian-born French abstract painter Victor Vasarely.
L'atelier Cézanne, the former studio of Paul Cézanne, now a museum,
located in the northern outskirts of Aix. It has been preserved as it
was at the time of the painter's death and contains many of his
personal items and props used in his paintings.
Jas de Bouffan, the house and grounds of Cézanne's father, now
partially open to the public.
Prior to 1989 Aix had several libraries, for example in the Parc
Jourdan and the Town Hall. In 1989, many of these were moved to the
Méjanes, an old match factory.
In 1993, the "Cité du Livre" was opened around the library. This has
media spaces for dance, cinema and music, and a training facility for
librarians. Adjacent to the Cité du Livre are the Grand Théâtre de
Provence and the
Pavillon Noir (see above).
Mont Sainte-Victoire and the
Viaduct of the Arc River Valley, Paul
Paul Cézanne 1904-1906.
To the east of Aix rises the
Montagne Sainte-Victoire (1011 m), one of
the landmarks of the Pays d'Aix. It is accessible from the centre of
Aix by road or on foot, taking the wooded footpath of Escrachou Pevou
to the plateau of Bibemus. It dramatically overshadows the small
dam built by Émile Zola's father and was a favourite subject and
Paul Cézanne throughout his lifetime. In the village of le
Tholonet on the precipitous southern side of Mont Sainte-Victoire,
there is a windmill that he used and beyond that a mountain hut, the
refuge Cézanne, where he liked to paint.
To the north, the mountain slopes gently down through woodland to the
village of Vauvenargues. The
Château of Vauvenargues
Château of Vauvenargues overlooking the
village was formerly occupied by the Counts of
René of Anjou) and the Archbishops of Aix before it became the family
home of the marquis de Vauvenargues. It was acquired by the
Pablo Picasso in 1958, who was resident there from 1959
until 1962, when he moved to Mougins. He and his wife Jacqueline are
buried in its grounds,  which are not usually open to the
public. From 2009 onwards, the château, which now belongs to
Jacqueline's daughter Catherine Hutin, has been open to the public
from June to September.
Mont Sainte-Victoire has a complex network of paths, leading to the
priory and Croix de
Provence at the summit, to the large man-made
reservoir of Bimont and to the Roman viaduct above le Tholonet.
Rugby union club
Provence Rugby (previously Aix Rugby Club and Pays
d'Aix Rugby Club) is based in the city. As of 2016/7[update], they
play in Fédérale 1, the second-tier French league.
Former world number one squash player
Grégory Gaultier lives in
The city hosted Ukraine's football base camp during Euro 2016.
Calissons, a specialty of Aix.
Industries formerly included flour-milling, the manufacture of
confectionery, iron-ware, hats, matches and the extraction of olive
Current economic activities include:
Entertainment, particularly opera and dance.
The semiconductor and electronics industry in Rousset, to the south of
Mont St Victoire, specializing in microchip technology for credit
Education and research. In Aix the University of Aix-Marseille
specializes in the humanities, law and economics.
The computer software industry.
The manufacture of santons, traditional hand-crafted figurines, often
associated with provencal Christmas creches.
The manufacture of olive oil.
The manufacture of calissons, a lozenge-shaped confection made from
almonds and crystallised melon. Each year in early September, there is
a mass in French and Provençal in the medieval church of St Jean de
Malte to bless the calissons – la bénédiction des calissons. This
ceremony has been held since the 17th century to mark the deliverance
of Aix from the plague. It is currently accompanied by a colourful
provencal pageant, involving most of the local calisson manufacturers
and their wares.
Viticulture: the local
Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée
Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée is Coteaux
Provence AOC, with many vineyards between Aix and the River
Durance to the north. The reputed appellation of
Palette AOC is
represented by the estates of Château Simone in
Meyreuil and Château
Crémade in Le Tholonet, to the east of Aix. There is a
fair of local wine producers every year on the last Sunday in July on
the Cours Mirabeau. Grape varieties include grenache, syrah, cabernet
sauvignon, and notably vermentino.
Chocolate: the well known
Puyricard is situated in the
hills to the north of Aix.
Twin Jet has its head office in Aix-en-Provence.
Provence TGV railway station.
A set of ancient roads radiate out from Aix to the surrounding
countryside, the Pays d'Aix. There are also a large number of modern
autoroutes connecting Aix to nearby towns. There are autoroutes
northwards to Avignon and to the Luberon; southwards to Marseille; and
Aubagne and the Mediterranean coast of Provence; and to
Nice and other towns on the French Riviera. Aix and
equidistant from the
Provence Airport (MRS) at
Etang de Berre
Etang de Berre which features domestic and international scheduled
passenger service. There is another airport at Les Milles, which is
mostly used by general aviation. There is a frequent bus shuttle
service from the main bus station in Aix which also serves the nearby
TGV station at l'Arbois, in the middle of the countryside about 10
miles (16 km) from Aix.
At Aix, the line from Paris branches to
Marseille and Nice; it takes
about 3 hours to get from Paris to Aix by TGV. Aix also has a railway
station near the centre, Gare d'Aix-en-Provence, with connections to
Briançon in the French Alps. A frequent and
rapid shuttle bus service for commuters operates between the bus
station in Aix and Marseille. There are many other long distance and
local buses from the bus station. The city also offers a "city pass"
available in 24, 48, and 72 hour packages for visiting tourists.
The "pass tourisitque" is offered at the Aix-en-
Office, the Atelier de Cézanne, and the official Aix tourism
In the town itself, there is an inexpensive municipal bus service,
including a dial-a-bus service ("proxibus"), a park-and-ride service
and tiny electrified buses for those with mobility problems. Those are
six seater vehicles that circulate at a speed of 10 mph
(16.09 km/h). The central old town of Aix is for the most
part pedestrianised. There are large underground and overground
parking structures placed at regular intervals on the "boulevard
exterieur", the predominantly one-way ring road that encircles the old
town. Access to the old town is by a series of often narrow one-way
streets that can be confusing to navigate for the uninitiated.
As in many other French cities, a short-term bicycle hire scheme
nicknamed V'Hello, free for trips of less than half an hour, has
recently been put in place by the town council: and has been popular
with tourists. As well as overland routes, two "rivers" flow
through Aix, the Arc and the Torse, but neither of which can remotely
be described as navigable.
The local Aix dialect, rarely used and spoken by a rapidly decreasing
number of people, is part of the provencal dialect of the Occitan
language. The provencal for "Aix-en-Provence" is "Ais de Prouvènço"
[ˈaj de pʀuˈvɛ̃sɔ]. Most of the older streets in Aix have names
in both Provençal and French.
Aix hosted the ninth International Congress of Modern Architecture in
Aix is the home town of the rugby union team
Provence Rugby. It played
host to the
All Blacks during the early stages of the 2007 Rugby World
Ysabel, the tenth novel of the best-selling Canadian author Guy
Gavriel Kay, was set and written in Aix.
Italian electroacoustic artist Giuseppe Ielasi's album Aix was
produced in Aix-en-Provence, hence the title.
This is also the site of an alleged sighting and landing of a UFO in
1981 that is taken seriously by GEIPAN, the department within the
French Space Agency responsible for investigating aerospace
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France
Twin towns - Sister cities
Provence is officially twinned with the following seven
cities (in alphabetical order):
Israel since 1995
England since 1977
Tunisia since 1993
Portugal since 1982
Spain since 1978
Italy since 1970
Germany since 1960
In addition, Aix has international cooperations, partnerships and
exchanges with the following cities from all over the world:
Morocco since 1997
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
Coral Gables, Florida, United States
United States since 1998
Kumamoto, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan
People from Aix
François Marius Granet.
Provence was the birthplace of:
Provence (died 1291), queen consort of King Henry III of
Charles Annibal Fabrot
Charles Annibal Fabrot (1580–1659), French jurist, born in Aix
David-Augustin de Brueys
David-Augustin de Brueys (1640–1723), theologian and playwright
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (1656–1708), botanist
André Campra (1660–1744), composer and conductor
Jean-Baptiste van Loo
Jean-Baptiste van Loo (1684–1745), painter
Laurent Belissen (1693–1762), baroque composer
Joseph Lieutaud (1703–1780), doctor to Louis XV of France
Luc de Clapiers, marquis de Vauvenargues
Luc de Clapiers, marquis de Vauvenargues (1715–1747), writer and
Joseph Sec (1715–1794), carpenter and architect
Jean-François Pierre Peyron
Jean-François Pierre Peyron (1744–1814), painter
Jean-Baptiste Giraud (1752–1830), sculptor
Toussaint-Bernard Éméric-David (1755–1839), archeologist and arts
Antoine Balthazar Joachim d'André
Antoine Balthazar Joachim d'André (1759–1825), member of the
National Constituent Assembly of 1789
François Marius Granet
François Marius Granet (1775–1849), painter
Charles-Joseph-Eugene de Mazenod
Charles-Joseph-Eugene de Mazenod (1782–1861), bishop of Marseille
and founder of the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate
Eliza Courtney (1792–1859), illegitimate daughter of the Prime
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey and Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess
François Mignet (1796–1884), historian
François Vincent Latil
François Vincent Latil (1796–1890), French painter
Achille Emperaire (1829–1898), French painter, friends with Paul
François Vidal (1832–1911),
Occitan poet, musician, activist
Paul Cézanne (1839–1906), painter who lived and painted in the city
Philippe Solari (1840–1906), French sculptor
Baptistin Baille (1841–1918), professor of optics and acoustics
Maurice Rouvier (1842–1911), politician
Alfred Capus (1858–1922), playwright, member of the Académie
Henri Brémond (1864–1933), theologian
Armand Lunel (1892–1977), last known speaker of Shuadit
Darius Milhaud (1892–1984), composer and teacher
Paul Veyne (born 1930), historian and archeologist
Jacques Pellegrin (born 1944), painter
Frédéric Fekkai (born 1958), celebrity hairstylist
Jean-Paul Delfino (born 1964), writer
Julia Zemiro (born 1967), French-Australian actor and host of
Australian television program RocKwiz
Hélène Grimaud (born 1969), concert pianist
Franck Cammas (born 1972), professional racing sailor
Norodom Rattana Devi (born 1974), Cambodian princess
Arnaud Clément (born 1977), professional tennis player, finalist at
the Australian Open in 2001
Mylène Jampanoï (born 1980), French actress
Didier Delsalle (born 1957), pilot
Édouard Manet, Portrait of Émile Zola, 1868, Musée d'Orsay
Saint Maximin, the early Christian disciple and first bishop of Aix,
who according to provencal tradition evangelised Aix with Mary
Saint Mitre, the Christian martyr who died in Aix in 466 and whose
relics are preserved in the Cathedral
Barthélemy d'Eyck, painter
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, (1580–1637), a scientist best known
for his correspondence
Jean Daret, (1613–1668), the French painter, who died in Aix
Pierre Joseph Garidel, (1658–1737), the botanist
Claude Arnulphy, (1697–1786), painter
Jean-Baptiste Marie de Piquet, Marquis of Méjanes, (1729–1786), who
bequeathed to the town his collection of between 60 and 80 thousand
books, which later became the municipal library, the Bibliothèque
Jean de Dieu-Raymond de Cucé de Boisgelin
Jean de Dieu-Raymond de Cucé de Boisgelin (1732–1804), Archbishop
Victor d'Hupay, (1746–1818), writer and philosopher
Nina Simone, (1933-2003), American singer, songwriter, pianist, civil
rights activist, lived in Aix-en-
Provence from 1993 for the remainder
of her life.
Jean-Antoine Constantin, (1756–1844), painter
Antoine de L'Hoyer (1768–1852), Composer, Guitarist, Soldier
Ambroise Roux-Alphéran, (1776–1858), a clerk of court and historian
Émile Zola (1840–1902), the novelist, who was born in Paris but
spent his childhood in Aix
Joseph Ravaisou, (1865–1925), French painter, who died in Aix
Louise Germain, (1874–1939), French painter, who died in Aix
Joseph d'Arbaud, (1874–1950), French poet, who died in Aix
Christophe Rousset, (born 1961), French conductor and harpsichordist,
who grew up in Aix
Charles Trenet, (1942–2001), French poet, painter and singer, wrote
"I Wish You Love" and several evergreens in Aix
Bradley Cooper, (1995–1996), American film, theater, and television
actor, who spent his 6 months as an exchange student from Georgetown
Grégory Gaultier (born 1982), 2015 squash world champion
Medieval town wall near Roman baths
Place des Tanneurs
Statue of le Roi René
Detail of le Roi René
Place des Quatre Dauphins, towards the Boulevard extérieur
The archbishop's palace, opera house and tapestry museum
Clock tower, Hotel de Ville
Detail of mechanical clock
Bureau de Poste
Aix Cathedral, Dome
St Jean de Malte, rue Cardinale
Eglise de la Madeleine, place des Precheurs
Jas de Bouffan, Paul Cézanne
Jas de Bouffan, Paul Cézanne
The Pavillon Vendôme
Atlas on a doorway in Aix
The place d'Albertas
Fountain in the place d'Albertas
Door carving in Aix
Mechanical clock, place des Precheurs
Daily vegetable market, place Richelme
Baroque fountain in Aix
The modern spa in Aix
The Vasarely Foundation
Rue des Cordeliers
Provence possessions: In 1611, Father Louis Gaufridi was
accused of causing demonic possession in the Ursuline nuns at Aix.
Speech and language laboratory (CNRS)
List of works by Auguste Carli
List of works by Louis Botinelly
^ However, with the preposition a ~ à 'to', the forms are as Ais ~
^ a b c d Chisholm 1911, p. 447.
^ « Histoire d'Aix », site de l'office du tourisme
^ cf Jerome, letter cxxiii, To Ageruchia, 8, 409 A.D.
^ Théâtre antique d’Aquae Sextiae (in French)
^ "Tourist office; the climate of Aix". Aixenprovencetourism.com.
Retrieved 15 April 2010.
^ "Aix en
Provence (13)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques
1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the
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This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Aix".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
See also: Bibliography of the history of Aix-en-Provence
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