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Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
is the imperial clan of Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty. The House of Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
ruled China from 1644 until the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
of 1911-12, which established a republican government in its place. The word aisin means gold in the Manchu language, and "gioro" is the name of the Aisin Gioro's ancestral home in present-day Yilan, Heilongjiang
Yilan, Heilongjiang
Province. In Manchu custom, families are identified first by their hala (哈拉), i.e. their family or clan name, and then by mukūn (穆昆), the more detailed classification, typically referring to individual families. In the case of Aisin Gioro, Aisin is the mukūn, and Gioro is the hala. Other members of the Gioro clan include Irgen Gioro
Irgen Gioro
(伊爾根覺羅), Susu Gioro (舒舒覺羅) and Sirin Gioro (西林覺羅). The Jin dynasty (jin means gold in Chinese) of the Jurchens, ancestors of the Manchus, was known as aisin gurun, and the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
was initially named () amaga aisin gurun, or Later Jin dynasty. Since the fall of the Qing Empire, a number of members of the family have changed their surnames to Jin (Chinese: 金) since it has the same meaning as "Aisin". For example, Puyi's younger brother changed his name from Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
Puren (愛新覺羅溥任) to Jin Youzhi (金友之) and his children in turn adopt Jin as their family name.

Contents

1 Family generation names

1.1 List of generation prefixes

2 Origins

2.1 Expansion under Nurhaci
Nurhaci
and Hong Taiji

3 Intermarriage and political alliances 4 Genetics 5 Notable Aisin-Gioros

5.1 Emperors 5.2 Iron-cap princes and their descendants 5.3 Prominent political figures 5.4 20th century – present

6 Gallery 7 See also 8 References

Family generation names[edit] Before the founding of the Qing dynasty, the naming of children in the Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan was essentially arbitrary and followed no particular rules. The Manchu people
Manchu people
originally did not use generation names before they moved into China proper; prior to the Shunzhi era, children of the imperial clan were given only a Manchu name, for example Dorgon.[2][3] After taking control of China, however, the family gradually incorporated Han Chinese
Han Chinese
naming conventions.[4][5] During the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, all of the emperor's sons were to be named with a generation prefix preceding the given name. There were three characters initially used, Cheng (承), Bao (保) and Chang (長), before finally settling on Yin (胤) over a decade into the Kangxi era. The generation prefix of the Yongzheng Emperor's sons switched from Fu (福) to Hong (弘). Following the Yongzheng Emperor, the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
decreed that all subsequent male offspring would have a generation prefix placed in their name according to a "generation poem", for which he composed the first four characters, Yong Mian Yi Zai (永綿奕載). Moreover, direct descendants of the emperor will often share a similar radical or meaning in the final character. A common radical was shared in the second character of the first name of princes who were in line to the throne, however, princes who were not in line to the throne did not necessarily share the radical in their name.[6] In one case, the Yongzheng Emperor
Yongzheng Emperor
changed the generation code of his brothers as a way of keeping his own name unique. Such practices apparently ceased to exist after the Daoguang era. List of generation prefixes[edit] The latest additions to the list were the last 12 characters, taken from a "generation poem" composed by Puyi
Puyi
in 1938.[citation needed]

Order Generation prefix Radical code Examples

Yongzheng Emperor Yin (胤; yìn), Yun (允; yǔn) Shi (示; shì) Yinzhen, Yunreng, Yunsi, Yunxiang, Yunti

Qianlong Emperor Hong (弘; hóng) Ri (日; rì) Hongli, Hongzhou

Jiaqing Emperor Yong (永/顒; yǒng) Yu (玉; yù) Yongyan, Yongqi

Daoguang Emperor Mian (綿; mián), Min (旻; mǐn) Xin (心; xīn) Minning, Mianyu

Xianfeng Emperor Yi (奕; yì) Yan (言; yán) Yizhu, Yicong, Yixin, Yixuan, Yikuang

Tongzhi Emperor
Tongzhi Emperor
/ Guangxu Emperor Zai (載; zài) Shui (水; shuǐ) Zaixun, Zaichun, Zaitian, Zaifeng, Zaitao, Zaiyi, Zaixun

Xuantong Emperor Pu (溥; pǔ) Ren (人; rén) Puyi, Pujie, Puren, Puru

N/A Yu (毓; yù) Shan (山; shān) Yuzhan, Yuyan

Heng (恆; héng) Jin (金; jīn) Hengxu

Qi (啟; qǐ)

Qicong, Qigong

Dao (焘; dào)

Kai (闓; kǎi)

Zeng (增; zēng)

Qi (祺; qí)

Jing (敬; jìng)

Zhi (志; zhì)

Kai (開; kāi)

Rui (瑞; ruì)

Xi (錫; xī)

Ying (英; yīng)

Yuan (源; yuán)

Sheng (盛; shèng)

Zheng (正; zhèng)

Zhao (兆; zhào)

Mao (懋; mào)

Xiang (祥; xiáng)

Origins[edit] The Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan, as a Manchu clan, claimed descent from the Jurchen people, who founded the Jin dynasty nearly five centuries earlier under the Wanyan
Wanyan
clan. However, the Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
and Wanyan clans are unrelated.[7] It was explicitly said "we are not the scions of the previous Jin emperors." by the Manchu leader Huangtaiji[8] to the Ming.[9] The Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
claimed that their progenitor, Bukūri Yongšon[10] (布庫里雍順), was conceived from a virgin birth. According to the legend, three heavenly maidens, namely Enggulen (恩古倫), Jenggulen (正古倫) and Fekulen (佛庫倫), were bathing at a lake called Bulhūri Omo near the Changbai Mountains. A magpie dropped a piece of red fruit near Fekulen, who ate it. She then became pregnant with Bukūri Yongšon The Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
also claimed descent from Mentemu of the Odoli clan, who served as chieftains of the Jianzhou Jurchens. Expansion under Nurhaci
Nurhaci
and Hong Taiji[edit] Under Nurhaci
Nurhaci
and his son Huangtaiji, the Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan of the Jianzhou tribe won hegemony among the rival Jurchen tribes of the northeast, then through warfare and alliances extended its control into Inner Mongolia. Nurhachi created large, permanent civil-military units called "banners" to replace the small hunting groups used in his early campaigns. A banner was composed of smaller companies; it included some 7,500 warriors and their households, including slaves, under the command of a chieftain. Each banner was identified by a coloured flag that was yellow, white, blue, or red, either plain or with a border design. Originally there were four, then eight, Manchu banners; new banners were created as the Manchu conquered new regions, and eventually there were Manchu, Mongol, and Chinese banners, eight for each ethnic group. By 1648, less than one-sixth of the bannermen were actually of Manchu ancestry. The Manchu conquest of the Ming dynasty was thus achieved with a multiethnic army led by Manchu nobles and Han Chinese
Han Chinese
generals. Han Chinese
Han Chinese
soldiers were organised into the Army of the Green Standard, which became a sort of imperial constabulary force posted throughout China and on the frontiers. Intermarriage and political alliances[edit] The Qing emperors arranged marriages between Aisin-Gioro noblewomen and outsiders to create political marriage alliances. During the Manchu conquest of the Ming Empire, the Manchu rulers offered to marry their princesses to Han Chinese
Han Chinese
military officers who served the Ming Empire as a means of inducing these officers into surrendering or defecting to their side. Aisin-Gioro princesses were also married to Mongol princes, for the purpose of forming alliances between the Manchus and Mongol tribes.[11] The Manchus successfully induced one Han Chinese
Han Chinese
general, Li Yongfang (李永芳), into defecting to their side by offering him a position in the Manchu banners. Li Yongfang also married the daughter of Abatai, a son of the Qing dynasty's founder Nurhaci. Many more Han Chinese abandoned their posts in the Ming Empire and defected to the Manchu side.[12] There were over 1,000 marriages between Han Chinese men and Manchu women in 1632 – due to a proposal by Yoto (岳托), a nephew of the Manchu emperor Huangtaiji.[13] Huangtaiji believed that intermarriage between Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and Manchus could help to eliminate ethnic conflicts in areas already occupied by the Manchus, as well as help the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
forget their ancestral roots more easily.[14] Manchu noblewomen were also married to Han Chinese
Han Chinese
men who surrendered or defected to the Manchu side.[15] Aisin-Gioro women were married to the sons of the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
generals Sun Sike (孫思克), Geng Jimao, Shang Kexi
Shang Kexi
and Wu Sangui.[16] The e'fu (額駙) rank was given to husbands of Manchu princesses. Geng Zhongming, a Han bannerman, was awarded the title " Prince
Prince
Jingnan", while his grandsons Geng Jingzhong, Geng Zhaozhong (耿昭忠) and Geng Juzhong (耿聚忠) married Hooge's daughter, Abatai's granddaughter, and Yolo's daughter respectively.[17][18] Sun Sike's son, Sun Cheng'en (孫承恩), married the Kangxi Emperor's fourth daughter, Heshuo Princess
Princess
Quejing (和硕悫靖公主)[19] Imperial Duke Who Assists the State (宗室輔國公) Aisin Gioro Suyan's (蘇燕) daughter was married to Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Banner General Nian Gengyao.[20][21][22] Genetics[edit] Haplogroup C3c has been identified as a possible marker of the Aisin Gioro and is found in ten different ethnic minorities in northern China, but completely absent from Han Chinese.[23][24][25][26] Notable Aisin-Gioros[edit] Emperors[edit] Main article: List of emperors of the Qing dynasty See also: Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
family tree

Nurhaci
Nurhaci
(1559–1626), founder of the Qing dynasty Huangtaiji (1592–1643), Nurhaci's eighth son Fulin (1638–1661), the Shunzhi Emperor, Huangtaiji's ninth son Xuanye (1654–1722), the Kangxi Emperor, the Shunzhi Emperor's third son Yinzhen (1678–1735), the Yongzheng Emperor, the Kangxi Emperor's fourth son Hongli (1711–1799), the Qianlong Emperor, the Yongzheng Emperor's fourth son Yongyan (1760–1820), the Jiaqing Emperor, the Qianlong Emperor's 15th son Minning (1782–1850), the Daoguang Emperor, the Jiaqing Emperor's second son Yizhu (1831–1861), the Xianfeng Emperor, the Daoguang Emperor's fourth son Zaichun (1856–1875), the Tongzhi Emperor, the Xianfeng Emperor's secondborn and only surviving son. Zaitian (1871–1908), the Guangxu Emperor, Yixuan's second son, symbolically adopted as the Tongzhi Emperor's brother and as the Xianfeng Emperor's son. Puyi
Puyi
(1906–1967), the Xuantong Emperor, Zaifeng's firstborn son, symbolically adopted as the Guangxu Emperor's son.

Iron-cap princes and their descendants[edit] Main article: Royal and noble ranks of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
§ Male members According to Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
imperial tradition, the sons of princes do not automatically inherit their fathers' titles in the same rank as their fathers. For example, Yongqi held the title " Prince
Prince
Rong of the First Rank", but when his title was passed on to his son, Mianyi, it became " Prince
Prince
Rong of the Second Rank". In other words, the title gets diminished by one rank as it is passed down to each subsequent generation, but generally to no lower than the rank of kesi-be tuwakiyara gurun-de aisilara gung (second class imperial duke). However, there were 12 princes who were awarded the shi xi wang ti ("iron-cap") privilege, which meant that their titles can be passed on to subsequent generations without the downgrading effect. The 12 "iron-cap" princely peerages are listed as follows. Some of them were renamed at different points in time, hence they had multiple names.

Prince
Prince
Li / Prince
Prince
Xun / Prince
Prince
Kang, the line of Daišan (1583–1648) Prince
Prince
Rui, the line of Dorgon
Dorgon
(1612–1650) Prince
Prince
Yu, the line of Dodo (1614–1649) Prince
Prince
Zheng / Prince
Prince
Jian, the line of Jirgalang
Jirgalang
(1599–1655) Prince
Prince
Su / Prince
Prince
Xian, the line of Hooge (1609–1648) Prince
Prince
Chengze / Prince
Prince
Zhuang, the line of Šose (1629–1655) Prince
Prince
Shuncheng, the line of Lekdehun (1619–1652) Prince
Prince
Yi, the line of Yinxiang (1686–1730) Prince
Prince
Gong, the line of Changning (1657–1703) and then Yixin (1833–1898) Prince
Prince
Chun, the line of Yixuan (1840–1891) Prince
Prince
Qing, the line of Yonglin (1766–1820) Prince
Prince
Keqin / Prince
Prince
Cheng / Prince
Prince
Ping / Prince
Prince
Yanxi, the line of Yoto (1599–1639)

Prominent political figures[edit]

Daišan
Daišan
(1583-1648), Nurhaci's second son, participated in the Qing conquest of the Ming Jirgalang
Jirgalang
(1599–1655), Nurhaci's nephew, co-regent with Dorgon during the Shunzhi Emperor's early reign Ajige (1605–1651), Nurhaci's 12th son, participated in the Qing conquest of the Ming Dorgon
Dorgon
(1612–1650), Nurhaci's 14th son, Prince-Regent and de facto ruler during the Shunzhi Emperor's early reign Dodo (1614–1649), Nurhaci's 15th son, participated in the Qing conquest of the Ming Yinsi (1681–1726), the Kangxi Emperor's eighth son, Yinzhen's competitor for the succession, expelled from the Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan later Yinxiang (1686–1730), the Kangxi Emperor's 13th son, Yinzhen's ally Yinti (1688–1756), the Kangxi Emperor's 14th son, Yinzhen's competitor for the succession, purported rightful heir to the throne Duanhua (1807–1861), descendant of Jirgalang, regent for the Tongzhi Emperor, ousted from power in the Xinyou Coup in 1861 Sushun
Sushun
(1816–1861), Duanhua's brother, regent for the Tongzhi Emperor, ousted from power in the Xinyou Coup in 1861 Zaiyuan (1816–1861), descendant of Yinxiang, regent for the Tongzhi Emperor, ousted from power in the Xinyou Coup in 1861 Yixin (1833–1898), the Daoguang Emperor's sixth son, Prince-Regent during the Tongzhi Emperor's reign Yikuang (1838–1917), descendant of Yonglin, Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet Yixuan (1840–1891), the Daoguang Emperor's seventh son, the Guangxu Emperor's biological father Zaiyi (1856–1922), Yicong's son, Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
leader Zaize (1876–1929), a sixth-generation descendant of the Kangxi Emperor, Finance Minister and Salt Policy Minister in the Imperial Cabinet Zaizhen
Zaizhen
(1876–1947), Yikuang's son, court minister Zaifeng (1883–1951), Yixuan's son, Puyi's biological father, Prince-Regent during Puyi's reign Zaixun (1885–1949), Yixuan's sixth son, Navy Minister in the Imperial Cabinet

20th century – present[edit]

Pujin (溥伒; 1893–1966), better known as Pu Xuezhai (溥雪齋), guqin player and Chinese painting
Chinese painting
artist, grandson of Yicong
Yicong
(Prince Dun) Puru (1896–1963), Taiwanese artist and calligrapher, grandson of Yixin ( Prince
Prince
Gong) Jin Guangping (1899–1966), born Aisin-Gioro Hengxu, scholar of the Jurchen and Khitan languages Yoshiko Kawashima, (1907-1948) born Aisin-Gioro Xianyu, a spy for the Japanese Empire
Japanese Empire
during the Sino-Japanese War Pujie
Pujie
(1907–1994), Puyi's brother, member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, nominal head of the Aisin Gioro clan from 1967–1994 Qigong (1912–2005), artist and calligrapher, descended from the Prince
Prince
He peerage Jin Qicong (1918–2004), Jin Guangping's son, historian and scholar of the Manchu and Jurchen languages Yuyan (1918–1997), calligrapher, distant nephew of Puyi Jin Youzhi
Jin Youzhi
(1918–2015), born Puren, Puyi's half-brother, nominal head of the Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan from 1994–2015 Aisin Gioro Yuhuan (1929–2003), sanxian player and Chinese painting artist Jin Yuzhang (b. 1942), Jin Youzhi's son, governor of Beijing's Chongwen District, nominal head of the Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan since 2015 Jin Pucong (b. 1956), Taiwanese politician, allegedly[27] descended from the Aisin-Gioro clan Aisin-Gioro Ulhicun, (b. 1958) Jin Qicong's daughter, historian and scholar of the Manchu, Jurchen and Khitan languages Zhao Junzhe (b. 1979), football player, descended from Boolungga, the fifth brother of Nurhaci's grandfather Giocangga Ariel Aisin-Gioro, (b. 1983) actress.

Gallery[edit]

Images

Nurhaci
Nurhaci
on his throne

Nurhaci

Nurhaci

Nurhaci

Nurhaci

Prince
Prince
Puyi

Zaitao

Zaitao
Zaitao
in the United States

Yixin ( Prince
Prince
Gong)

Yixin ( Prince
Prince
Gong)

Yixin ( Prince
Prince
Gong)

Zaixun ( Prince
Prince
Rui) in the United States

Zaixun ( Prince
Prince
Rui) in the United States

Zaixun ( Prince
Prince
Rui)

Yixuan ( Prince
Prince
Chun)

Yixuan ( Prince
Prince
Chun)

Yixuan ( Prince
Prince
Chun) and his wife

Yixuan ( Prince
Prince
Chun) with Li Hongzhang
Li Hongzhang
and Shanqing

Yixuan ( Prince
Prince
Chun) with his sons Zaixun and Zaifeng

Yixuan ( Prince
Prince
Chun)

Zaizhen
Zaizhen
( Prince
Prince
Qing)

Shanqi ( Prince
Prince
Su)

Shanqi ( Prince
Prince
Su)

Zaifeng ( Prince
Prince
Chun)

Zaifeng ( Prince
Prince
Chun)

Zaifeng ( Prince
Prince
Chun)

Zaifeng ( Prince
Prince
Chun) and his family

Zaifeng ( Prince
Prince
Chun) with his escorts and German officers in Qingdao

Zaifeng ( Prince
Prince
Chun) and his sons, Puyi
Puyi
and Pujie

Yikuang ( Prince
Prince
Qing)

Yikuang ( Prince
Prince
Qing)

Xuantong Emperor

See also[edit]

Irgen Gioro Manchu people

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aisin Gioro.

^ Heir to China's throne celebrates a modest life, The Age, November 27, 2004 ^ Edward J. M. Rhoads (2001). Manchus & Han: ethnic relations and political power in late Qing and early republican China, 1861-1928 (reprint, illustrated ed.). University of Washington Press. p. 55. ISBN 0-295-98040-0. In the beginning, among the first couple of generations, Manchu men had polysyllabic personal names (e.g., Nurhaci) that in their native language may have been meaningful but when transliterated by sound into Chinese characters were gibberish; furthermore, they did not arrange their personal names in generational order, as Han often did.  ^ Mark C. Elliott (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners
Eight Banners
and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China (illustrated, reprint ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 243. Manchu naming practices also differed when it came to naming the children of the same generation. Chinese practice, at least among elites, typically called for all children of the same lineage and same generation to share the same first character of the given name. All the brothers and cousins (or sisters and cousins) of the same generation would be identified by this character (sometimes called beifen yongzi), which greatly simplified the determination of re  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Mark C. Elliott (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners
Eight Banners
and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China (illustrated, reprint ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 244. lationships within the linage. The Manchus were not so careful about this sort of thing... The Chinese practice of using the same first character for the given names of children of same generation was initially adopted during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor. The children of Kangxi all sported the same prefix-character, yin (written "in" in Manchu), and every generation afterward was marked by the same initial character (or, in Manchu, the same initial sounds) in the given name. While some Manchu families followed suit, many others did not, or did so inconsistently: for example, the brother of an early-eighteenth-century general, Erentei, was named Torio, while the Xi'an general Cangseli named his son Cangyung, using the same sound, "cang" ("chang" in Chinese), for his and the following generation.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Edward J. M. Rhoads (2001). Manchus & Han: ethnic relations and political power in late Qing and early republican China, 1861-1928 (reprint, illustrated ed.). University of Washington Press. p. 55. With the imperial clan itself taking the lead, Manchus started to shorten their personal names to disyllabic ones (e.g., Yinzhen, for the future Yongzheng emperor), to adopt names that were meaningful and felicitous in Chinese, and to assign names on a generaltional basis. By the time of the Guangxu emperor (r. 1875-1908), all the males of his generation in the imperial clan had the character zai in their personal names, such as Zaitian (the emperor), Zaifeng (1883-1952; his brother and future regent), and Zaizhen
Zaizhen
(1876-1948; his cousin). By contrast, the previous generation had used the character yi (e.g., Yikuang, Yixin, and Yihuan), while the following generation used the character pu (e.g., the future Xuantong emperor Puyi
Puyi
[1906-67] and his brother Pujie [1907-94]).  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Edward J. M. Rhoads (2001). Manchus & Han: ethnic relations and political power in late Qing and early republican China, 1861-1928 (reprint, illustrated ed.). University of Washington Press. p. 56. ISBN 0-295-98040-0. In a further refinement of the generational principle, the second character in the personal name of each person in the direct line of succession contained a radical that distinguished these name from all others of their generation in the imperial clan. Thus, the tian character in "Zaiyian" and the feng character in "Zaifeng" shared the "water" radical; hiweverm the zhen in "Zaizhen" (written with the "hand" radical) did not, because as the son of Yikuang ( Prince
Prince
Qing), Zaizhen
Zaizhen
was not in the direct line of succession.  ^ 滿洲源流考 Qing ding Man Zhou Yuan Liu Kao, 本朝者謂雖與大金俱在東方而非其同部則所見殊小我朝得姓曰愛新覺羅氏國語謂金曰愛新可為金源同派之証盖我朝在大金時未嘗非完顔氏之服屬猶之完顔 氏在今日皆為我朝之臣 ^ Stevan Harrell (15 January 2013). Cultural Encounters on China's Ethnic Frontiers. University of Washington Press. pp. 190–. ISBN 978-0-295-80408-8.  ^ Nicholas Thomas; Caroline Humphrey (1996). Shamanism, History, and the State. University of Michigan Press. pp. 209–. ISBN 0-472-08401-1.  ^ Pamela Kyle Crossley (15 February 2000). A Translucent Mirror: History and Identity in Qing Imperial Ideology. University of California Press. pp. 198–. ISBN 978-0-520-92884-8.  ^ Anne Walthall (2008). Anne Walthall, ed. Servants of the dynasty: palace women in world history. Volume 7 of The California world history library (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. p. 148. Whereas the emperor and princes chose wives or concubines from the banner population through the drafts, imperial daughters were married to Mongol princes, Manchu aristocrats, or, on some occasions, Chinese high officials... To win the support and cooperation of Ming generals in Liaodong, Nurhaci
Nurhaci
gave them Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
women as wives. In 1618, before he attacked Fushun city, he promised the Ming general defending the city a woman from the Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan in marriage if he surrendered. After the general surrendered, Nurhaci
Nurhaci
gave him one of his granddaughters. Later the general joined the Chinese banner.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Frederic E. Wakeman (1977). The fall of imperial China (illustrated, reprint ed.). Simon and Schuster. p. 79. ISBN 0-02-933680-5. Chinese elements had joined the Manchu armies as early as 1618 when the Ming commander Li Yung-fang surrendered at Fu-shun. Li was made a banner general, was given gifts of slaves and serfs, and was betrothed to a young woman of the Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan. Although Li's surrender at the time was exceptional, his integration into the Manchu elite was only the first of many such defections by border generals and their subordinates, who shaved their heads and accepted Manchu customs. It was upon these prisoners, then, that Abahai relied to form new military units to fight their former master, the Ming Emperor.  ^ Anne Walthall (2008). Anne Walthall, ed. Servants of the dynasty: palace women in world history. Volume 7 of The California world history library (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. p. 148. In 1632, Hongtaiji accepted the suggestion of Prince Yoto, his nephew, and assigned one thousand Manchu women to surrendered Chinese officials and generals for them to marry. He also classified these Chinese into groups by rank and gave them wives accordingly. "First-rank officials were given Manchu princes' daughters as wives; second rank officials were given Manchu ministers' daughters as wives."  ^ Anne Walthall (2008). Anne Walthall, ed. Servants of the dynasty: palace women in world history. Volume 7 of The California world history library (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. p. 148. Hongtaiji believed that only through intermarrige between Chinese and Manchus would he be able to eliminate ethnic conflicts in the areas he conquered; and "since the Chinese generals and Manchu women lived together and ate together, it would help these surrendered generals to forget their motherland"  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Anne Walthall (2008). Anne Walthall, ed. Servants of the dynasty: palace women in world history. Volume 7 of The California world history library (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. p. 148. During their first years in China, the Manchu rulers continued to give imperial daughters to Chinese high officials. These included the sons of the Three Feudatories—the Ming defectors rewarded with large and almost autonomous fiefs in the south.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ eds. Watson, Ebrey 1991, pp. 179-180. ^ Wakeman 1986, p. 1017. ^ FREDERIC WAKEMAN JR. (1985). The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-century China. University of California Press. pp. 1018–. ISBN 978-0-520-04804-1.  ^ Rubie Sharon Watson (1991). Marriage and Inequality in Chinese Society. University of California Press. pp. 179–. ISBN 978-0-520-07124-7.  ^ 唐博 (2010). 清朝權臣回憶錄. 遠流出版. pp. 108–. ISBN 978-957-32-6691-4.  ^ 施樹祿 (17 May 2012). 世界歷史戰事傳奇. 華志文化. pp. 198–. ISBN 978-986-5936-00-6.  ^ "清代第一战神是谁? 年羹尧和岳钟琪谁的成就更高?". 历史网. 2016-03-07. Archived from the original on 2016-08-28.  ^ Xue, Y; Zerjal, T; Bao, W; Zhu, S; Lim, SK; Shu, Q; Xu, J; Du, R; Fu, S; Li, P; Yang, H; Tyler-Smith, C (2015-09-28). "Recent Spread of a Y-Chromosomal Lineage in Northern China and Mongolia". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 77: 1112–6. doi:10.1086/498583. PMC 1285168 . PMID 16380921.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ Xue, Y; Zerjal, T; Bao, W; Zhu, S; Lim, SK; Shu, Q; Xu, J; Du, R; Fu, S; Li, P; Yang, H; Tyler-Smith, C (2005). "Recent Spread of a Y-Chromosomal Lineage in Northern China and Mongolia". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 77: 1112–1116. doi:10.1086/498583. PMC 1285168 . PMID 16380921. Retrieved 2015-11-26.  ^ [2] Archived November 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ 曹長青 (2009-12-14). 金溥聰是不是溥儀的堂弟? [King Pu-tsung is not the cousin of Henry Puyi?] (in Chinese). Taiwan: Liberty Times. Archived from the original on 2009-12-17. 

v t e

Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
topics

History

Seven Grievances First Manchu invasion of Korea Second Manchu invasion of Korea Qing conquest of the Ming

Battle of Shanhai Pass

Great Clearance Revolt of the Three Feudatories High Qing era Sino-Russian border conflicts Dzungar–Qing War Chinese expedition to Tibet (1720) Chinese Rites controversy Ten Great Campaigns Miao Rebellion (1735–36) Lhasa riot of 1750 Sino-Burmese War (1765–69) Battle of Ngọc Hồi-Đống Đa Sino-Nepalese War Miao Rebellion (1795–1806) White Lotus Rebellion First Opium War Sino-Sikh War Taiping Rebellion Nian Rebellion Red Turban Rebellion (1854–1856) Miao Rebellion (1854–73) Nepalese–Tibetan War Panthay Rebellion Second Opium War Amur Acquisition Self-Strengthening Movement Tongzhi Restoration Dungan Revolt (1862–77) Mudan Incident (1871) Tianjin Massacre Margary Affair Northern Chinese Famine Qing reconquest of Xinjiang Sino-French War Sikkim Expedition Jindandao Incident First Sino-Japanese War Gongche Shangshu movement Dungan Revolt (1895–96) Hundred Days' Reform Boxer Rebellion

Red Lanterns

Eight-Nation Alliance New Policies British expedition to Tibet 1905 Tibetan Rebellion 1909 Provincial Assembly elections Chinese expedition to Tibet (1910) Railway Protection Movement Xinhai Revolution

Wuchang Uprising Xinhai Lhasa turmoil Mongolian Revolution of 1911 Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
in Xinjiang

Manchu Restoration

Government

Emperor

List Family tree

Amban Cup of Solid Gold Deliberative Council Flag of the Qing dynasty Grand Council Great Qing Legal Code Imperial Clan Court Imperial Commissioner Imperial Household Department Lifan Yuan Ministry of Posts and Communications Nine Gates Infantry Commander Provincial governor Provincial military commander Qinding Xianfa Dagang Royal and noble ranks of the Qing dynasty Viceroys

Zhili Shaan-Gan Liangjiang Huguang Sichuan Min-Zhe Liangguang Yun-Gui Three Northeast Provinces

Zongli Yamen

Military

Military of the Qing dynasty Beiyang Army Chu Army Eight Banners Ever Victorious Army Green Standard Army Huai Army Hushenying Imperial Guards Brigade New Army Peking Field Force Shuishiying Wuwei Corps Xiang Army

Special
Special
regions

Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in Inner Asia Manchuria under Qing rule Mongolia under Qing rule

Administrative divisions

Tibet under Qing rule

Golden Urn List of imperial residents

Xinjiang under Qing rule

General of Ili

Taiwan under Qing rule

Provincial Administration Hall

Palaces & mausoleums

Chengde
Chengde
Mountain Resort Forbidden City Mukden Palace Old Summer Palace Summer Palace Eastern Qing tombs Fuling Mausoleum Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties Western Qing tombs

Society & culture

Booi Aha Changzhou School of Thought Dibao Four Wangs Gujin Tushu Jicheng History of Ming Islam during the Qing dynasty Kangxi Dictionary Kaozheng Literary Inquisition Manchu Han Imperial Feast Peiwen Yunfu Pentaglot Dictionary Qing official headwear Qing poetry Quan Tangshi Queue Researches on Manchu Origins Sacred Edict of the Kangxi Emperor Shamanism in the Qing dynasty Siku Quanshu

Zongmu Tiyao

Treaties

Treaty of Kyakhta (1727) Treaty of Nerchinsk Unequal treaty

Boxer Protocol Burlingame Treaty Chefoo Convention Convention Between Great Britain and China Respecting Tibet Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory Convention of Peking Convention of Tientsin Li–Lobanov Treaty Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking Treaty of Aigun Treaty of the Bogue Treaty of Canton Treaty of Kulja Treaty of Nanking Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1881) Treaty of Shimonoseki Treaty of Tarbagatai Treaty of Tientsin Treaty of Wanghia Treaty of Whampoa

Other topics

Aisin Gioro Anti-Qing sentiment Canton System Chuang Guandong Draft History of Qing Imperial hunt of the Qing dynasty Manchu people Names of the Qing dynasty New Qing History Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
coinage Qing conquest theory Timeline of late anti-Qing rebellions Treaty ports Willow Palisade

v t e

Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
qinwangs (first-rank princes)

Absorbed into the Crown

Prince
Prince
Yong Prince
Prince
Bao Prince
Prince
Jia Prince
Prince
Zhi

Non-downgrading peerages ("iron-cap" princes)

Prince
Prince
Li ** Prince
Prince
Xun ** Prince
Prince
Kang Prince
Prince
Rui Prince
Prince
Yu Prince
Prince
Zheng ( Prince
Prince
Jian) Prince
Prince
Su ( Prince
Prince
Xian) Prince
Prince
Chengze ( Prince
Prince
Zhuang) Prince
Prince
Shuncheng Prince
Prince
Yi Prince
Prince
Gong Prince
Prince
Chun Prince
Prince
Qing

Demoted but non-downgrading peerages

Prince
Prince
Cheng

Downgrading peerages

Prince
Prince
Jingjin Prince
Prince
Ying (穎) Prince
Prince
Ying (英) Prince
Prince
Duanzhong Prince
Prince
An Prince
Prince
Xiang Prince
Prince
Yu Prince
Prince
Gong Prince
Prince
Chun (純) Prince
Prince
Li Prince
Prince
Heng Prince
Prince
Chun (淳) Prince
Prince
Lian Prince
Prince
Prince
Prince
Guo Prince
Prince
Xian Prince
Prince
He Prince
Prince
Ding Prince
Prince
Rong Prince
Prince
Zhi Prince
Prince
Yi Prince
Prince
Cheng Prince
Prince
Dun Prince
Prince
Rui Prince
Prince
Hui

Posthumous titles

Prince
Prince
Rong Prince
Prince
Duan Prince
Prince
Huai Prince
Prince
Zhe

v t e

Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
junwangs (second-rank princes)

Non-downgrading peerages ("iron-cap" princes)

Prince
Prince
Keqin ** Prince
Prince
Ping ** Prince
Prince
Yanxi Prince
Prince
Shuncheng

Promoted and non-downgrading peerages

Prince
Prince
Xin

Promoted but downgrading peerages

Prince
Prince
Raoyu Prince
Prince
Wuying Prince
Prince
Guo

Downgrading peerages

Prince
Prince
Min Prince
Prince
Qian Prince
Prince
Xi Prince
Prince
Qin Prince
Prince
Wen Prince
Prince
Hui Prince
Prince
Zhi Prince
Prince
Cheng Prince
Prince
Dun Prince
Prince
Ning Prince
Prince
Xun (恂) Prince
Prince
Tai Prince
Prince
Yu Prince
Prince
Shen ( Prince
Prince
Zhi) Prince
Prince
Xun (循) Prince
Prince
Yinzhi Prince
Prince
Zhong Prince
Prince
Fu

Posthumous titles

Prince
Prince
Wugong Prince
Prince
Huizhe Prince
Prince
Xuanxian Prince
Prince
Tongda Prince
Prince
Mu Prince
Prince
Shun Pri

.