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First Fitna

Battle of the Camel

‘Ā’ishah bint Abī Bakr (613/614 – 678 CE;[1] Arabic: عائشة‎ transliteration: ‘Ā’ishah [ʕaːʔɪʃa], also transcribed as A'ishah, Aisyah, Ayesha, A'isha, Aishat, Aishah, or Aisha
Aisha
/ˈɑːiʃɑː/)[2] was one of Muhammad's wives.[3] In Islamic writings, her name is thus often prefixed by the title "Mother of the Believers" (Arabic: أمّ المؤمنين umm al-mu'minīn), per the description of Muhammad's wives
Muhammad's wives
in the Qur'an.[4][5][6] Aisha
Aisha
had an important role in early Islamic history, both during Muhammad's life and after his death. In Sunni tradition, Aisha
Aisha
is thought to be scholarly and inquisitive. She contributed to the spread of Muhammad's message and served the Muslim
Muslim
community for 44 years after his death.[7] She is also known for narrating 2210 hadiths,[8] not just on matters related to Muhammad's private life, but also on topics such as inheritance, pilgrimage, and eschatology.[9] Her intellect and knowledge in various subjects, including poetry and medicine, were highly praised by early luminaries such as al-Zuhri and her student Urwa ibn al-Zubayr.[9] Her father, Abu Bakr, became the first caliph to succeed Muhammad, and after two years was succeeded by Umar. During the time of the third caliph Uthman, Aisha
Aisha
had a leading part in the opposition that grew against him, though she did not agree either with those responsible for his assassination nor with the party of Ali.[10] During the reign of Ali, she wanted to avenge Uthman's death, which she attempted to do in the Battle of the Camel. She participated in the battle by giving speeches and leading troops on the back of her camel. She ended up losing the battle, but her involvement and determination left a lasting impression.[6] Afterwards, she lived quietly in Medina
Medina
for more than twenty years, took no part in politics, became reconciled to Ali
Ali
and did not oppose caliph Mu'awiya.[10] The majority of traditional hadith sources state that Aisha
Aisha
was married to Muhammad
Muhammad
at the age of six or seven, but she stayed in her parents' home until the age of nine, or ten according to Ibn Hisham,[11] when the marriage was consummated with Muhammad, then 53, in Medina.[12][13][14] This timeline has been challenged by a number of scholars in modern times. The Shia have a generally negative view of Aisha. They accuse her of hating Ali
Ali
and defying him during his caliphate in the Battle of the Camel, when she fought men from Ali's army in Basra.

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Marriage to Muhammad 1.2 Age at marriage

2 Personal life

2.1 Relationship with Muhammad 2.2 Accusation of adultery 2.3 Story of the honey 2.4 Death of Muhammad

3 Political career

3.1 Role during caliphate

3.1.1 Role during first and second caliphates 3.1.2 Role during the third caliphate

3.2 First Fitna 3.3 Contributions to Islam and influence 3.4 Political influence

4 Death 5 Views

5.1 Sunni view of Aisha 5.2 Shia view of Aisha

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Early life Aisha
Aisha
was born in late 613 or early 614.[15][16] She was the daughter of Umm Ruman and Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
of Mecca, two of Muhammad's most trusted companions.[17] Aisha
Aisha
was the third and youngest wife of Muhammad.[17] No sources offer much more information about Aisha's childhood years.[18][19] Marriage to Muhammad The idea to match Aisha
Aisha
with Muhammad
Muhammad
was suggested by Khawlah bint Hakim.[20][21] After this, the previous agreement regarding the marriage of Aisha
Aisha
with Jubayr ibn Mut'im was put aside by common consent. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was uncertain at first "as to the propriety or even legality of marrying his daughter to his 'brother'."[21] British historian William Montgomery Watt
William Montgomery Watt
suggests that Muhammad
Muhammad
hoped to strengthen his ties with Abu Bakr;[10] the strengthening of ties commonly served as a basis for marriage in Arabian culture.[22] Age at marriage See also: Criticism of Muhammad
Muhammad
(Aisha), Islam and children § Marriage, and Child marriage Aisha's age at the time she was married to Muhammad
Muhammad
has been of interest since the earliest days of Islam, and references to her age by early historians are frequent.[11] According to Sunni scriptural Hadith
Hadith
sources, Aisha
Aisha
was six or seven years old when she was married to Muhammad
Muhammad
with the marriage not being consummated until she had reached the age of nine or ten years old [23][24] which is interpreted by many observers to indicate that she reached puberty at this age.[10][11][12][13][14][25][26][27] For example, Sahih al-Bukhari states that Aisha
Aisha
narrated that the Prophet married her when she was six years old and he consummated his marriage when she was nine years old, and then she remained with him for nine years (i.e., till his death).Sahih al-Bukhari, 7:62:64 Recording of Aisha's age in the hadith collections came a couple of centuries after the Prophet's death,[28] since the hadith are (it is claimed) records of early Islam through a verified unbroken chain of reliable witnesses (see: Hadith
Hadith
studies for more information). The hadith in this regard come from collections with sahih (fully authentic) status. However, some other traditional sources (without the same status) disagree. Ibn Hisham wrote in his biography of Muhammad
Muhammad
that she may have been ten years old at the consummation.[11] Ibn Hisham also wrote about two hundred years after Muhammad, basing his biography on the now-lost work of Ibn Ishaq, who was born about 72 years after Muhammad's death. Aisha
Aisha
was recorded as nine years old at marriage, and twelve at consummation, by both Ibn Khallikan (1211-1282), and Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi (784-845), the latter citing as his source Hisham ibn Urwah (a grandson of Muhammad's companion Zubayr ibn al-Awam).[29] Child marriage
Child marriage
was not uncommon in many places at the time, Arabia included. It often served political purposes, and Aisha's marriage to Muhammad
Muhammad
would have had a political connotation.[29] Some modern Muslim
Muslim
authors calculate Aisha's age as being much higher. For example Asma Barlas, in her book "Unreading Patriarchal Interpretations of the Qur'an", uses information about her sister Asma to estimate that Aisha
Aisha
was over thirteen and perhaps between seventeen and nineteen at the time of her marriage.[30] Muhammad
Muhammad
Niknam Arabshahi, an Iranian Islamic scholar and historian, has considered six different approaches[clarification needed] to determining Aisha's age and concluded that she was engaged in her late teens.[31] Using the age of Fatimah
Fatimah
as a reference point, the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement scholar Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
has estimated that Aisha
Aisha
was over ten years old at the time of marriage and over fifteen at the time of its consummation.[32] American historian Denise Spellberg
Denise Spellberg
has reviewed Islamic literature on Aisha's virginity, age at marriage and age when the marriage was consummated and speculates that Aisha's youth might have been exaggerated to exclude any doubt about her virginity.[11] Spellberg states, "Aisha's age is a major pre-occupation in Ibn Sa'd where her marriage varies between six and seven; nine seems constant as her age at the marriage's consummation." She notes one exception in Ibn Hisham's biography of the Prophet, which suggests that consummation may have occurred when Aisha
Aisha
was age 10, summarizing her review with the note that "these specific references to the bride's age reinforce Aisha's pre-menarcheal status and, implicitly, her virginity. They also suggest the variability of Aisha's age in the historical record."[11] Early Muslims regarded Aisha's youth as demonstrating her virginity and therefore her suitability as a bride of Muhammad. This issue of her virginity was of great importance to those who supported Aisha's position in the debate of the succession to Muhammad. These supporters considered that as Muhammad's only virgin wife, Aisha
Aisha
was divinely intended for him, and therefore the most credible regarding the debate.[33] Personal life Relationship with Muhammad

Muhammad
Muhammad
and Aisha
Aisha
freeing the daughter of a tribal chief

In many Muslim
Muslim
traditions, Aisha
Aisha
is described as Muhammad's most beloved or favored wife after his first wife, Khadija bint Khuwaylid, who died before the migration to Medina
Medina
took place.[34][35][36][37][38] There are several hadiths, or stories or sayings of Muhammad, that support this belief. One relates that when a companion asked Muhammad, "who is the person you love most in the world?" he responded, "Aisha."[39] Others relate that Muhammad
Muhammad
built Aisha’s apartment so that her door opened directly into the mosque,[40][41] and that she was the only woman with whom Muhammad received revelations.[42][43] They bathed in the same water and he prayed while she lay stretched out in front of him.[44] There are also various traditions that reveal the mutual affection between Muhammad
Muhammad
and Aisha. He would often just sit and watch her and her friends play with dolls, and on occasion he would even join them.[45][46][47] Additionally, they were close enough that each was able to discern the mood of the other, as many stories relate.[48][49] It is also important to note that there exists evidence that Muhammad did not view himself as entirely superior to Aisha, at least not enough to prevent Aisha
Aisha
from speaking her mind, even at the risk of angering Muhammad. On one such instance, Muhammad's "announcement of a revelation permitting him to enter into marriages disallowed to other men drew from her [Aisha] the retort, 'It seems to me your Lord hastens to satisfy your desire!'"[50] Furthermore, Muhammad
Muhammad
and Aisha had a strong intellectual relationship.[51] Muhammad
Muhammad
valued her keen memory and intelligence and so instructed his companions to draw some of their religious practices from her.[52][53] Accusation of adultery The story of accusation of adultery levied against Aisha
Aisha
can be traced to sura (chapter) An-Nur of the Qur'an. As the story goes, Aisha
Aisha
left her howdah in order to search for a missing necklace. Her slaves mounted the howdah and prepared it for travel without noticing any difference in weight without Aisha's presence. Hence the caravan accidentally departed without her. She remained at the camp until the next morning, when Safwan ibn al-Mu‘attal, a nomad and member of Muhammad's army, found her and brought her back to Muhammad
Muhammad
at the army's next camp. Rumours that Aisha
Aisha
and Safwan had committed adultery were spread, particularly by Abd- Allah
Allah
ibn Ubayy, Hassan ibn Thabit, Mistah ibn Uthatha and Hammanah bint Jahsh (sister of Zaynab bint Jahsh, another of Muhammad's wives). Usama ibn Zayd, son of Zayd ibn Harithah, defended Aisha's reputation; while Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib advised "Women are plentiful, and you can easily change one for another." Muhammad
Muhammad
came to speak directly with Aisha
Aisha
about the rumours. He was still sitting in her house when he announced that he had received a revelation from God confirming Aisha's innocence. Surah 24 details the Islamic laws and punishment regarding adultery and slander. Aisha's accusers were subjected to punishments of 80 lashes.[54] Story of the honey After the daily Asr prayer, Muhammad
Muhammad
would visit each of his wives' apartments to inquire about their well-being. Muhammad
Muhammad
was just in the amount of time he spent with them and attention he gave to them.[55] Once, Muhammad's fifth wife, Zaynab bint Jahsh, received some honey from a relative which Muhammad
Muhammad
took a particular liking to. As a result, every time Zaynab offered some of this honey to him he would spend a longer time in her apartment. This did not sit well with Aisha and Hafsa bint Umar.

Hafsa and I decided that when the Prophet entered upon either of us, she would say, "I smell in you the bad smell of Maghafir (a bad smelling raisin). Have you eaten Maghafir?" When he entered upon one of us, she said that to him. He replied (to her), "No, but I have drunk honey in the house of Zainab bint Jahsh, and I will never drink it again."..."But I have drunk honey." Hisham said: It also meant his saying, "I will not drink anymore, and I have taken an oath, so do not inform anybody of that' —  Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Bukhari[56]

Soon after this event, Muhammad
Muhammad
reported that he had received a revelation in which he was told that he could eat anything permitted by God. Some Sunni commentators on the Qur'an
Qur'an
sometimes give this story as the "occasion of revelation" for At-Tahrim, which opens with the following verses:

O Prophet! Why holdest thou to be forbidden that which Allah
Allah
has made lawful to thee? Thou seekest to please thy consorts. But Allah
Allah
is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. Allah
Allah
has already ordained for you, (O men), the dissolution of your oaths (in some cases): and Allah
Allah
is your Protector, and He is Full of Knowledge and Wisdom. — Qur'an, surah 66 (At-Tahrim), ayat 1–2[57]

Word spread to the small Muslim
Muslim
community that Muhammad's wives
Muhammad's wives
were speaking sharply to him and conspiring against him. Muhammad, saddened and upset, separated from his wives for a month. ‘Umar, Hafsa's father, scolded his daughter and also spoke to Muhammad
Muhammad
of the matter. By the end of this time, his wives were humbled; they agreed to "speak correct and courteous words"[58] and to focus on the afterlife.[59] Death of Muhammad Aisha
Aisha
remained Muhammad's favorite wife throughout his life. When he became ill and suspected that he was probably going to die, he began to ask his wives whose apartment he was to stay in next. They eventually figured out that he was trying to determine when he was due with Aisha, and they then allowed him to retire there. He remained in Aisha's apartment until his death, and his last breath was taken as he lay in the arms of Aisha, his most beloved wife.[60][61][62][63][64] Political career After Muhammad's death, which ended Aisha
Aisha
and Muhammad's 14-year-long marriage, Aisha
Aisha
lived fifty more years in and around Medina. Much of her time was spent learning and acquiring knowledge of the Quran
Quran
and the sunnah of Muhammad. Aisha
Aisha
was one of three wives (the other two being Hafsa bint Umar
Umar
and Umm Salama) who memorized the Qur'an. Like Hafsa, Aisha
Aisha
had her own script of the Quran
Quran
written after Muhammad's death.[65] During Aisha's life many prominent customs of Islam, such as veiling and seclusion of women, began. Aisha's importance to revitalizing the Arab tradition and leadership among the Arab women highlights her magnitude within Islam.[66] Aisha became involved in the politics of early Islam and the first three caliphate reigns: Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman. During a time in Islam when women were not expected, or wanted, to contribute outside the household, Aisha
Aisha
delivered public speeches, became directly involved in war and even battles, and helped both men and women to understand the practices of Muhammad.[34][additional citation(s) needed] Role during caliphate Role during first and second caliphates After Muhammad's death in 632, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was appointed as the first caliph. This matter of succession to Muhammad
Muhammad
is extremely controversial to the Shia who believe that Ali
Ali
had been appointed by Muhammad
Muhammad
to lead while Sunni maintain that the public elected Abu Bakr.[67] Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
had two advantages in achieving his new role: his long personal friendship with Muhammad
Muhammad
and his role as father-in-law. As caliph, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was the first to set guidelines for the new position of authority.[68] Aisha
Aisha
garnered more special privilege in the Islamic community for being known as both a wife of Muhammad
Muhammad
and the daughter of the first caliph. Being the daughter of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
tied Aisha
Aisha
to honorable titles earned from her father's strong dedication to Islam. For example, she was given the title of al-siddiqa bint al-siddiq, meaning 'the truthful woman, daughter of the truthful man',[11] a reference to Abu Bakr's support of the Isra and Mi'raj.[69] In 634 Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
fell sick and was unable to recover. Prior to his death, he appointed ‘Umar, one of his chief advisers, as the second caliph[11] Throughout ‘Umar's time in power Aisha
Aisha
continued to play the role of a consultant in political matters.[11] Role during the third caliphate After ‘ Umar
Umar
died, ‘Uthmān was chosen to be the third caliph. He wanted to promote the interests of the Umayyads. Aisha
Aisha
had little involvement with ‘Uthmān for the first couple years, but eventually she found a way into the politics of his reign. She eventually grew to despise ‘Uthmān, and many are unsure of what specifically triggered her eventual opposition towards him. A prominent opposition that arose towards him was when ‘Uthmān mistreated ‘Ammar ibn Yasir (companion of Muhammad) by beating him. Aisha
Aisha
became enraged and spoke out publicly, saying, "How soon indeed you have forgotten the practice (sunnah) of your prophet and these, his hairs, a shirt, and sandal have not yet perished!".[70] As time continued issues of antipathy towards ‘Uthmān continued to arise. Another instance of opposition arose when the people came to Aisha, after Uthmān ignored the rightful punishment for Walid idn Uqbah (Uthmān's brother). Aisha
Aisha
and Uthmān argued with each other, Uthmān eventually made a comment on why Aisha
Aisha
had come and how she was "ordered to stay at home".[71] Arising from this comment, was the question of whether Aisha, and for that matter women, still had the ability to be involved in public affairs. The Muslim
Muslim
community became split: "some sided with Uthmān, but others demanded to know who indeed had better right than Aisha
Aisha
in such matters".[71] The caliphate took a turn for the worse when Egypt was governed by Abdullah ibn Saad. Abbott reports that Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Hudhayfa of Egypt, an opponent of ‘Uthmān, forged letters in the Mothers of the Believers' names to the conspirators against ‘Uthmān. The people cut off ‘Uthmān's water and food supply. When Aisha
Aisha
realized the behavior of the crowd, Abbott notes, Aisha
Aisha
could not believe the crowd "would offer such indignities to a widow of Mohammad".[72] This refers to when Safiyya bint Huyayy (one of Muhammad's wives) tried to help ‘Uthmān and was taken by the crowd. Malik al-Ashtar
Malik al-Ashtar
then approached her about killing Uthmān and the letter, and she claimed she would never want to "command the shedding of the blood of the Muslims and the killing of their Imām";[72] she also claimed she did not write the letters.[73] The city continued to oppose ‘Uthmān, but as for Aisha, her journey to Mecca
Mecca
was approaching. With the journey to Mecca approaching at this time, she wanted to rid herself of the situation. ‘Uthmān heard of her not wanting to hurt him, and he asked her to stay because of her influence on the people, but this did not persuade Aisha, and she continued on her journey.[6] First Fitna Main article: Battle of the Camel

Domains of Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
under four caliphs. The divided phase relates to the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
of Ali
Ali
during the First Fitna.   Strongholds of the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
of Ali
Ali
during the First Fitna   Region under the control of Muawiyah I during the First Fitna   Region under the control of Amr ibn al-As
Amr ibn al-As
during the First Fitna

In 655, Uthman's house was put under siege by about 1000 rebels. Eventually the rebels broke into the house and murdered Uthman, provoking the First Fitna.[74] After killing Uthman, the rebels asked Ali
Ali
to be the new caliph, although Ali
Ali
was not involved in the murder of Uthman
Uthman
according to many reports.[75][76] Ali
Ali
reportedly initially refused the caliphate, agreeing to rule only after his followers persisted. When Ali
Ali
could not execute those merely accused of Uthman's murder, Aisha
Aisha
delivered a fiery speech against him for not avenging the death of Uthman. The first to respond to Aisha
Aisha
was Abdullah ibn Aamar al-Hadhrami, the governor of Mecca
Mecca
during the reign of Uthman, and prominent members of the Banu Umayya. With the funds from the "Yemeni Treasury" Aisha
Aisha
set out on a campaign against the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate of Ali.[citation needed] Aisha, along with an army including Zubayr ibn al-Awam
Zubayr ibn al-Awam
and Talha ibn Ubayd-Allah, confronted Ali's army, demanding the prosecution of Uthman's killers who had mingled with his army outside the city of Basra. When her forces captured Basra
Basra
she ordered the execution of 600 Muslims and 40 others, including Hakim ibn Jabala, who were put to death in the Grand Mosque of Basra.[77][78][79] Aisha's forces are also known to have tortured and imprisoned Othman ibn Hanif the governor of Basra
Basra
appointed by Ali.[80]

Aisha
Aisha
battling the fourth caliph Ali
Ali
in the Battle of the Camel

Ali
Ali
rallied supporters and fought Aisha's forces near Basra
Basra
in 656. The battle is known as the Battle of the Camel, after the fact that Aisha
Aisha
directed her forces from a howdah on the back of a large camel. Aisha's forces were defeated and an estimated 10,000 Muslims were killed in the battle,[81] considered the first engagement where Muslims fought Muslims.[82] After 110 days of conflict the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph
Caliph
Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib met Aisha
Aisha
with reconciliation. He sent her back to Medina
Medina
under military escort headed by her brother Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr, one of Ali's commanders. She subsequently retired to Medina
Medina
with no more interference with the affairs of state. She was also awarded a pension by Ali.[83] Although she retired to Medina, her forsaken efforts against the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
of Ali
Ali
did not end the First Fitna.[84] Contributions to Islam and influence After 25 years of a monogamous relationship with his first wife, Khadija bint Khuwaylid, Muhammad
Muhammad
participated in nine years of polygyny, marrying at least nine further wives. Muhammad's subsequent marriages were depicted purely as political matches rather than unions of sexual indulgence. In particular, Muhammad's unions with Aisha
Aisha
and Hafsa bint Umar
Umar
associated him with two of the most significant leaders of the early Muslim
Muslim
community, Aisha's and Hafsa's fathers, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and ‘ Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattāb, respectively.[85] Aisha's marriage has given her significance among many within Islamic culture, becoming known as the most learned woman of her time. Being Muhammad's favorite wife, Aisha
Aisha
occupied an important position in his life.[66] When Muhammad
Muhammad
married Aisha
Aisha
in her youth, she was accessible "...to the values needed to lead and influence the sisterhood of Muslim
Muslim
women."[86] After the death of Muhammad, Aisha
Aisha
was discovered to be a renowned source of hadiths, due to her qualities of intelligence and memory.[66] Aisha
Aisha
conveyed ideas expressing Muhammad's practice (sunnah). She expressed herself as a role model to women, which can also be seen within some traditions attributed to her. The traditions regarding Aisha
Aisha
habitually opposed ideas unfavorable to women in efforts to elicit social change.[87] According to Reza Aslan:[88]

The so-called Muslim
Muslim
women’s movement is predicated on the idea that Muslim
Muslim
men, not Islam, have been responsible for the suppression of women’s rights. For this reason, Muslim
Muslim
feminists throughout the world are advocating a return to the society Muhammad
Muhammad
originally envisioned for his followers. Despite differences in culture, nationalities, and beliefs, these women believe that the lesson to be learned from Muhammad
Muhammad
in Medina
Medina
is that Islam is above all an egalitarian religion. Their Medina
Medina
is a society in which Muhammad designated women like Umm Waraqa as spiritual guides for the Ummah; in which the Prophet himself was sometimes publicly rebuked by his wives; in which women prayed and fought alongside the men; in which women like Aisha
Aisha
and Umm Salamah acted not only as religious but also as political—and on at least one occasion military—leaders; and in which the call to gather for prayer, bellowed from the rooftop of Muhammad’s house, brought men and women together to kneel side by side and be blessed as a single undivided community.

Not only was Aisha
Aisha
supportive of Muhammad, but she contributed scholarly intellect to the development of Islam.[86] She was given the title al-Siddiqah, meaning 'the one who affirms the truth'. Aisha
Aisha
was known for her "...expertise in the Quran, shares of inheritance, lawful and unlawful matters, poetry, Arabic
Arabic
literature, Arab history, genealogy, and general medicine."[86] Her intellectual contributions regarding the verbal texts of Islam were in time transcribed into written form, becoming the official history of Islam.[89] After the death of Muhammad, Aisha
Aisha
was regarded as the most reliable source in the teachings of hadith.[86] Aisha's authentication of Muhammad's ways of prayer and his recitation of the Qur'an
Qur'an
allowed for development of knowledge of his sunnah of praying and reading verses of the Quran.[34] During Aisha's entire life she was a strong advocate for the education of Islamic women, especially in law and the teachings of Islam. She was known for establishing the first madrasa for women in her home.[86][additional citation(s) needed] Attending Aisha's classes were various family relatives and orphaned children. Men also attended Aisha's classes, with a simple curtain separating the male and female students.[86][additional citation(s) needed] Political influence Some[who?] say that Aisha's political influence helped promote her father, Abu Bakr, to the caliphate after Muhammad's death.[3] After the defeat at the Battle of the Camel, Aisha
Aisha
retreated to Medina and became a teacher.[3] Upon her arrival in Medina, Aisha
Aisha
retired from her public role in politics. Her discontinuation of public politics, however, did not stop her political influence completely. Privately, Aisha
Aisha
continued influencing those intertwined in the Islamic political sphere. Amongst the Islamic community, she was known as an intelligent woman who debated law with male companions.[90] Aisha
Aisha
was also considered to be the embodiment of proper rituals while partaking in the pilgrimage to Mecca, a journey she made with several groups of women. For the last two years of her life, Aisha
Aisha
spent much of her time telling the stories of Muhammad, hoping to correct false passages that had become influential in formulating Islamic law. Due to this, Aisha's political influence continues to impact those in Islam.[3] Death Aisha
Aisha
died at her home in Medina
Medina
on 17 Ramadan 58 AH (16 July 678). She was 67 years old.[1] Some such as Sibt ibn al-Jawzi,[91] Hakim Sanai,[92] and Khwaja Mehboob Qasim Chishti Muhsarafee Qadiri[93] say that she was murdered by Muawiyah. Muhammad's companion Abu Hurairah led her funeral prayer after the tahajjud (night) prayer, and she was buried at Jannat al-Baqi‘.[94] Views Sunni view of Aisha Sunnis believe she was Muhammad's favorite wife. They consider her (among other wives) to be Umm al-Mu’minin and among the members of the Ahl al-Bayt, or Muhammad's family. According to Sunni hadith reports, Muhammad
Muhammad
saw Aisha
Aisha
in two dreams[95][96] in which he was shown that he would marry her.[97][98] Shia view of Aisha Main article: Shia view of Aisha The Shia view Aisha
Aisha
negatively. They accuse her of hating Ali
Ali
and defying him during his caliphate in the Battle of the Camel, when she fought men from Ali's army in Basra.[99] See also

Islam portal Biography portal

List of people related to Quranic verses The Jewel of Medina

Notes

^ a b Al-Nasa'i
Al-Nasa'i
1997, p. 108

‘A’isha was eighteen years of age at the time when the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah
Allah
be upon him) died and she remained a widow for forty-eight years till she died at the age of sixty-seven. She saw the rules of four caliphs in her lifetime. She died in Ramadan 58 AH during the caliphate of Mu‘awiya...

^ "Aisha". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ a b c d Spellberg 1994, p. 3 ^ Quran 33:6 ^ Brockelmann 1947 ^ a b c Abbott 1942 ^ Aleem, Shamim (2007). Prophet Muhammad(s) and His Family: A Sociological Perspective. AuthorHouse. p. 130. ISBN 9781434323576.  ^ Islamyat: a core text for students ^ a b Sayeed, Asma (2013-08-06). Women and the Transmission of Religious Knowledge in Islam. Cambridge University Press. pp. 27–9. ISBN 9781107031586.  ^ a b c d Watt 1960 ^ a b c d e f g h i Spellberg 1994, pp. 39–40 ^ a b Armstrong 1992, p. 157 ^ a b Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:58:234, 5:58:236, 7:62:64, 7:62:65, 7:62:88, Sahih Muslim, 8:3309, 8:3310, 8:3311, 41:4915, Sunan Abu Dawood, 41:4917 ^ a b al-Tabari 1987, p. 7, al-Tabari 1990, p. 131 ^ Abbott 1942, p. 1 ^ Ibn Sa'd 1995, p. 55

Aisha
Aisha
was born at the beginning of the fourth year of prophethood

i.e., the year 613–614 ^ a b Esposito ^ Watt 1961, p. 102 ^ Abbott 1942, p. 7 ^ Ahmed 1992 ^ a b Abbott 1942, p. 3 ^ Sonbol 2003, pp. 3–9 ^ Sahih Bukhari 5:58:236,http://quranx.com/Hadith/Bukhari/USC-MSA/Volume-5/Book-58/Hadith-236/ ^ Sahih Muslim
Muslim
8:3309 ^ Barlas 2002, pp. 125–126 ^ A.C. Brown, Jonathan (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications. pp. 143–4. ISBN 978-1780744209.  ^ A.C. Brown, Jonathan (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications. p. 316. n° 50. ISBN 978-1780744209. Evidence that the Prophet waited for Aisha
Aisha
to reach physical maturity before consummation comes from al-Ṭabarī, who says she was too young for intercourse at the time of the marriage contract;  ^ Kadri, Sadakat (2012). Heaven on Earth. Farrar, Straus, Giroux. p. 30.  ^ a b Afsaruddin 2014: "according to the chronology of Ibn Khallikān (d. 681/1282) she would have been nine at her marriage and twelve at its consummation (Wafayāt al-aʿyān, 3:16), a chronology also supported by a report from Hishām b. ʿUrwa recorded by Ibn Saʿd (d. 230/845; al-Ṭabaqāt, 8:61)." ^ Barlas, Asma (2012). "Believing Women" in Islam: Unreading Patriarchal Interpretations of the Qur'an. University of Texas Press. p. 126. On the other hand, however, Muslims who calculate 'Ayesha's age based on details of her sister Asma's age, about whom more is known, as well as on details of the Hijra (the Prophet's migration from Mecca
Mecca
to Madina), maintain that she was over thirteen and perhaps between seventeen and nineteen when she got married. Such views cohere with those Ahadith that claim that at her marriage Ayesha had "good knowledge of Ancient Arabic
Arabic
poetry and genealogy" and "pronounced the fundamental rules of Arabic
Arabic
Islamic ethics.  ^ Tarikh Sahih Islam et al.

According to these sources, we can conclude that Aisha
Aisha
was much older than what she claimed and narrated in some hadith... and she was 17 or 19 years old when she got engaged and she would be 20 or 22 when she had sex. (Original: از اين روايات می توان چنين نتيجه گرفت که عايشه بسيار بزرگتر از آن چيزی است که خودش ادعا می کند و در روايت ها نقل شده است؛...و در هنگام ازدواج 17 يا 19 ساله و در هنگام دخول 20 يا 22 ساله خواهد بود)

^ Ali
Ali
1997, p. 150 ^ Spellberg 1994, pp. 34–40 ^ a b c Ahmed 1992, p. 51 ^ Roded 1994, p. 36 ^ Roded 2008, p. 23 ^ Joseph 2007, p. 227 ^ McAuliffe 2001, p. 55 ^ Mernissi 1988, p. 65 ^ Mernissi 1988, p. 107 ^ Abbott 1942, p. 25 ^ Roded 1994, p. 28 ^ Abbott 1942, p. 46 ^ Shaikh 2003, p. 33 ^ Abbott 1942, p. 8 ^ Lings 1983, pp. 133–134 ^ Haykal 1976, pp. 183–184 ^ Abbott 1942, pp. 67–68 ^ Lings 1983, p. 371 ^ Ahmed 1992, pp. 51–52 ^ Mernissi 1988, p. 104 ^ Mernissi 1988, p. 78 ^ Ramadan 2007, p. 121 ^ The story is told multiple times in the early traditions, nearly all of the versions being ultimately derived from Aisha's own account. Typical examples can be found in Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:462, Sahih Muslim, 37:6673 and Guillaume 1955, pp. 494–499. ^ Great Women of Islam – Zaynab bint Jahsh ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 8:78:682 ^ Quran 66:1–2 ^ Ibn Sa'd 1995, pp. 132–133 ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 3:43:648 ^ Ahmed 1992, p. 58 ^ Abbott 1942, p. 69 ^ Lings 1983, p. 339 ^ Haykal 1976, pp. 502–503 ^ Guillaume 1955, p. 679 and 682 ^ "Aishah bint Abu Bakr". Jannah.org. Retrieved 2013-12-31.  ^ a b c Elsadda 2001, pp. 37–64 ^ Spellberg & Aghaie, pp. 42–47 ^ Spellberg 1994, pp. 4–5 ^ Spellberg 1994, p. 33 ^ Abbott 1942, p. 108 ^ a b Abbott 1942, p. 111 ^ a b Abbott 1942, p. 122 ^ Abbott 1942, p. 123 ^ See:

Lapidus 2002, p. 47 Holt 1977, pp. 70–72 Tabatabaei 1979, pp. 50–57 al-Athir 1231, p. 19P.19

^ Holt 1977, pp. 67–68 ^ Madelung 1997, p. 107 and 111 ^ "Khalifa Ali
Ali
bin Abu Talib – Ayesha's Occupation of Basra
Basra
(Hakim b Jabala)". Alim.org. Archived from the original on 2013-11-15. Retrieved 2013-12-31.  ^ Ishaq, Mohammad. Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society. 3 (Part 1). CS1 maint: Untitled periodical (link) ^ Razwy 2001 ^ "Khalifa Ali
Ali
bin Abu Talib – Ayesha's Occupation of Basra
Basra
(War in Basra)". Alim.org. Archived from the original on 2013-11-15. Retrieved 2013-12-31.  ^ Glubb 1963, p. 320 ^ Goodwin 1994 ^ Muir 1892, p. 261 ^ Black 1994, p. 34 ^ Aslan 2005, pp. 58–136 ^ a b c d e f Anwar, Jawed (April 4, 2005). "History Shows the Importance of Women in Muslim
Muslim
Life". Muslims Weekly. Pacific News Service. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved June 19, 2012.  ^ Geissinger 2011, pp. 37–49 ^ Aslan 2005, p. 136 ^ Ahmed 1992, pp. 47–75 ^ Geissinger 2011, p. 42 ^ Yusuf ibn Qazghali. Tadhkirat al-Khawas. p. 62.  ^ Hakim Sanai. Hadoiqa Sanai. pp. 65–67.  ^ Khwaja Mehboob Qasim Chishti Muhsarafee Qadiri. Musharaf al Mehboobeen. pp. 216–218, 616.  ^ Ibn Kathir, p. 97 ^ Richard Crandall (2008). Islam: The Enemy. Xulon Press. p. 129.  ^ Kelly Bulkeley; Kate Adams; Patricia M. Davis (2009). "6 (Dreaming in the Life of the Prophet Muhammad)". Dreaming in Christianity and Islam: Culture, Conflict, and Creativity. Rutgers University Press. p. 87. ISBN 9780813546100.  ^ M. Fethullah Gülen
Fethullah Gülen
(2014). Questions and Answers About Islam Vol. 1. 4.4 (Why Was The Prophet Polygamous?): Işık Yayıncılık Ticaret. ISBN 9781597846189. This is surely why the Prophet was told in a dream that he would marry Aisha.  ^ "The Book of Marriage". SahihalBukhari.Com. SalafiPublications.Comlocation=Hadeeth No. 4745 & 4787. Archived from the original on 2015-11-23.  ^ "Objections to the Shia criticisms leveled at Ayesha". Shiapen.com. 2013-10-17. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 

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and M. V. McDonald. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-88706-344-2.  al-Tabari (1990). The Last Years of the Prophet (PDF) (in Arabic). 9. Translated by Ismail Poonawala. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-88706-691-7. 

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(1997). Muhammad
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the Prophet. Ahamadiyya Anjuman Ishaat Islam. ISBN 978-0913321072.  Amira, Sonbol (2003). "Rise of Islam: 6th to 9th century". In Joseph, Suad. Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures. 1. Brill Publishers. ISBN 978-9004113800. (Subscription required (help)).  Armstrong, Karen (1992). Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-250014-7.  Aslan, Reza (2005). No god but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-385-73975-7.  Barlas, Asma (2002). Believing Women in Islam: Unreading Patriarchal Interpretations of the Qur'an. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70904-8.  Read online Black, Edwin (1994). Banking on Baghdad: Inside Iraq's 7,000-year History of War, Profit, and Conflict. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0914153122. Retrieved 2013-12-31.  Brockelmann, Carl (1947). Geschichte der Islamischen Volker und Staaten [History of the Islamic Peoples, with a Review of Events, 1939–1947] (in German). Translated by Joel Carmichael and Moshe Perlmann. G. P. Putnam's Sons.  Elsadda, Hoda (Spring 2001). "Discourses on Women's Biographies and Cultural Identity: Twentieth-Century Representations of the Life of 'A'isha Bint Abi Bakr". Feminist Studies. Feminist Studies, Inc. 27 (1). JSTOR 3178448. (Subscription required (help)).  Esposito, John L. "A'ishah In the Islamic World: Past and Present". Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Retrieved November 12, 2012. (Subscription required (help)).  Geissinger, Aisha
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(January 2011). "'A'isha bint Abi Bakr and her Contributions to the Formation of the Islamic Tradition". Religion Compass. Blackwell Publishingdoi=10.1111/j.1749-8171.2010.00260.x. 5 (1): 37. doi:10.1111/j.1749-8171.2010.00260.x. (Subscription required (help)).  Glubb, John Bagot (1963). The Great Arab Conquests. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 9780340009383.  Goodwin, Jan (1994). Price of Honor: Muslim
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Further reading

Afshar, Haleh, Democracy and Islam, Hansard Society, 2006. Rodinson, Maxime, Muhammad, 1980 Random House reprint of English translation Aisha
Aisha
bint Abi Bakr, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University
Oxford University
Press, 2000 Rizvi, Sa'id Akhtar, The Life of Muhammad
Muhammad
The Prophet, Darul Tabligh North America, 1971. Askri, Mortaza, 'Role of Ayesha in the History of Islam' (Translation), Ansarian publication, Iran Chavel, Geneviève. Aïcha : La bien-aimée du prophète. Editions SW Télémaque. 11 October 2007. ISBN 978-2753300552

External links

"Biography of Aisha". Archived from the original on 2008-02-01. Retrieved 2004-11-22. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)

v t e

Wives of Muhammad

Khadija bint Khuwaylid
Khadija bint Khuwaylid
(595-620) Sawda bint Zamʿa
Sawda bint Zamʿa
(620-632) Aisha
Aisha
bint Abi Bakr (620-632) Hafsa bint Umar
Umar
(625-632) Zaynab bint Khuzayma
Zaynab bint Khuzayma
(626-627) Hind bint Abi Umayya (627-632) Zaynab bint Jahsh
Zaynab bint Jahsh
(627-632) Juwayriyya bint al-Harith (628-632) Safiyya bint Huyayy (628-632) Ramla bint Abi Sufyan (629-632) Maymunah bint al-Harith (629-632) Maria bint Sham'ūn Rayhana bint Zayd

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 21073782 LCCN: n84022227 ISNI: 0000 0000 6691 1756 GND: 118903888 SUDOC: 078064090 BNF:

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