Battle of the Camel
‘Ā’ishah bint Abī Bakr (613/614 – 678 CE; Arabic:
عائشة transliteration: ‘Ā’ishah [ʕaːʔɪʃa], also
transcribed as A'ishah, Aisyah, Ayesha, A'isha, Aishat, Aishah, or
Aisha /ˈɑːiʃɑː/) was one of Muhammad's wives. In Islamic
writings, her name is thus often prefixed by the title "Mother of the
Believers" (Arabic: أمّ المؤمنين umm al-mu'minīn), per the
Muhammad's wives in the Qur'an.
Aisha had an important role in early Islamic history, both during
Muhammad's life and after his death. In Sunni tradition,
thought to be scholarly and inquisitive. She contributed to the spread
of Muhammad's message and served the
Muslim community for 44 years
after his death. She is also known for narrating 2210 hadiths,
not just on matters related to Muhammad's private life, but also on
topics such as inheritance, pilgrimage, and eschatology. Her
intellect and knowledge in various subjects, including poetry and
medicine, were highly praised by early luminaries such as al-Zuhri and
her student Urwa ibn al-Zubayr.
Her father, Abu Bakr, became the first caliph to succeed Muhammad, and
after two years was succeeded by Umar. During the time of the third
Aisha had a leading part in the opposition that grew
against him, though she did not agree either with those responsible
for his assassination nor with the party of Ali. During the reign
of Ali, she wanted to avenge Uthman's death, which she attempted to do
in the Battle of the Camel. She participated in the battle by giving
speeches and leading troops on the back of her camel. She ended up
losing the battle, but her involvement and determination left a
lasting impression. Afterwards, she lived quietly in
more than twenty years, took no part in politics, became reconciled to
Ali and did not oppose caliph Mu'awiya.
The majority of traditional hadith sources state that
Muhammad at the age of six or seven, but she stayed in her
parents' home until the age of nine, or ten according to Ibn
Hisham, when the marriage was consummated with Muhammad, then 53,
in Medina. This timeline has been challenged by a number
of scholars in modern times.
The Shia have a generally negative view of Aisha. They accuse her of
Ali and defying him during his caliphate in the Battle of the
Camel, when she fought men from Ali's army in Basra.
1 Early life
1.1 Marriage to Muhammad
1.2 Age at marriage
2 Personal life
2.1 Relationship with Muhammad
2.2 Accusation of adultery
2.3 Story of the honey
2.4 Death of Muhammad
3 Political career
3.1 Role during caliphate
3.1.1 Role during first and second caliphates
3.1.2 Role during the third caliphate
3.2 First Fitna
3.3 Contributions to Islam and influence
3.4 Political influence
5.1 Sunni view of Aisha
5.2 Shia view of Aisha
6 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
Aisha was born in late 613 or early 614. She was the daughter
Umm Ruman and
Abu Bakr of Mecca, two of Muhammad's most trusted
Aisha was the third and youngest wife of Muhammad.
No sources offer much more information about Aisha's childhood
Marriage to Muhammad
The idea to match
Muhammad was suggested by Khawlah bint
Hakim. After this, the previous agreement regarding the
Jubayr ibn Mut'im was put aside by common
Abu Bakr was uncertain at first "as to the propriety or even
legality of marrying his daughter to his 'brother'." British
William Montgomery Watt
William Montgomery Watt suggests that
Muhammad hoped to
strengthen his ties with Abu Bakr; the strengthening of ties
commonly served as a basis for marriage in Arabian culture.
Age at marriage
See also: Criticism of
Muhammad (Aisha), Islam and children
§ Marriage, and Child marriage
Aisha's age at the time she was married to
Muhammad has been of
interest since the earliest days of Islam, and references to her age
by early historians are frequent. According to Sunni scriptural
Aisha was six or seven years old when she was married
Muhammad with the marriage not being consummated until she had
reached the age of nine or ten years old  which is interpreted
by many observers to indicate that she reached puberty at this
age. For example, Sahih al-Bukhari
Aisha narrated that the Prophet married her when she was
six years old and he consummated his marriage when she was nine years
old, and then she remained with him for nine years (i.e., till his
death).Sahih al-Bukhari, 7:62:64
Recording of Aisha's age in the hadith collections came a couple of
centuries after the Prophet's death, since the hadith are (it is
claimed) records of early Islam through a verified unbroken chain of
reliable witnesses (see:
Hadith studies for more information). The
hadith in this regard come from collections with sahih (fully
authentic) status. However, some other traditional sources (without
the same status) disagree.
Ibn Hisham wrote in his biography of
Muhammad that she may have been ten years old at the consummation.
Ibn Hisham also wrote about two hundred years after Muhammad, basing
his biography on the now-lost work of Ibn Ishaq, who was born about 72
years after Muhammad's death.
Aisha was recorded as nine years old at
marriage, and twelve at consummation, by both Ibn Khallikan
Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi (784-845), the latter citing as
Hisham ibn Urwah (a grandson of Muhammad's companion Zubayr
Child marriage was not uncommon in many places at the time, Arabia
included. It often served political purposes, and Aisha's marriage to
Muhammad would have had a political connotation.
Muslim authors calculate Aisha's age as being much higher.
For example Asma Barlas, in her book "Unreading Patriarchal
Interpretations of the Qur'an", uses information about her sister Asma
to estimate that
Aisha was over thirteen and perhaps between seventeen
and nineteen at the time of her marriage.
Arabshahi, an Iranian Islamic scholar and historian, has considered
six different approaches[clarification needed] to determining Aisha's
age and concluded that she was engaged in her late teens. Using
the age of
Fatimah as a reference point, the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement
Ali has estimated that
Aisha was over ten years old
at the time of marriage and over fifteen at the time of its
Denise Spellberg has reviewed Islamic literature on
Aisha's virginity, age at marriage and age when the marriage was
consummated and speculates that Aisha's youth might have been
exaggerated to exclude any doubt about her virginity. Spellberg
states, "Aisha's age is a major pre-occupation in Ibn Sa'd where her
marriage varies between six and seven; nine seems constant as her age
at the marriage's consummation." She notes one exception in Ibn
Hisham's biography of the Prophet, which suggests that consummation
may have occurred when
Aisha was age 10, summarizing her review with
the note that "these specific references to the bride's age reinforce
Aisha's pre-menarcheal status and, implicitly, her virginity. They
also suggest the variability of Aisha's age in the historical
record." Early Muslims regarded Aisha's youth as demonstrating her
virginity and therefore her suitability as a bride of Muhammad. This
issue of her virginity was of great importance to those who supported
Aisha's position in the debate of the succession to Muhammad. These
supporters considered that as Muhammad's only virgin wife,
divinely intended for him, and therefore the most credible regarding
Relationship with Muhammad
Aisha freeing the daughter of a tribal chief
Aisha is described as Muhammad's most
beloved or favored wife after his first wife, Khadija bint Khuwaylid,
who died before the migration to
place. There are several hadiths, or stories or
sayings of Muhammad, that support this belief. One relates that when a
companion asked Muhammad, "who is the person you love most in the
world?" he responded, "Aisha." Others relate that
Aisha’s apartment so that her door opened directly into the
mosque, and that she was the only woman with whom Muhammad
received revelations. They bathed in the same water and he
prayed while she lay stretched out in front of him.
There are also various traditions that reveal the mutual affection
Muhammad and Aisha. He would often just sit and watch her and
her friends play with dolls, and on occasion he would even join
them. Additionally, they were close enough that each was
able to discern the mood of the other, as many stories relate.
It is also important to note that there exists evidence that Muhammad
did not view himself as entirely superior to Aisha, at least not
enough to prevent
Aisha from speaking her mind, even at the risk of
angering Muhammad. On one such instance, Muhammad's "announcement of a
revelation permitting him to enter into marriages disallowed to other
men drew from her [Aisha] the retort, 'It seems to me your Lord
hastens to satisfy your desire!'" Furthermore,
Muhammad and Aisha
had a strong intellectual relationship.
Muhammad valued her keen
memory and intelligence and so instructed his companions to draw some
of their religious practices from her.
Accusation of adultery
The story of accusation of adultery levied against
Aisha can be traced
to sura (chapter)
An-Nur of the Qur'an. As the story goes,
her howdah in order to search for a missing necklace. Her slaves
mounted the howdah and prepared it for travel without noticing any
difference in weight without Aisha's presence. Hence the caravan
accidentally departed without her. She remained at the camp until the
next morning, when Safwan ibn al-Mu‘attal, a nomad and member of
Muhammad's army, found her and brought her back to
Muhammad at the
army's next camp. Rumours that
Aisha and Safwan had committed adultery
were spread, particularly by Abd-
Allah ibn Ubayy, Hassan ibn Thabit,
Mistah ibn Uthatha and
Hammanah bint Jahsh (sister of Zaynab bint
Jahsh, another of Muhammad's wives). Usama ibn Zayd, son of Zayd ibn
Harithah, defended Aisha's reputation; while
Ali ibn Abi Talib advised
"Women are plentiful, and you can easily change one for another."
Muhammad came to speak directly with
Aisha about the rumours. He was
still sitting in her house when he announced that he had received a
revelation from God confirming Aisha's innocence. Surah 24 details the
Islamic laws and punishment regarding adultery and slander. Aisha's
accusers were subjected to punishments of 80 lashes.
Story of the honey
After the daily Asr prayer,
Muhammad would visit each of his wives'
apartments to inquire about their well-being.
Muhammad was just in the
amount of time he spent with them and attention he gave to them.
Once, Muhammad's fifth wife, Zaynab bint Jahsh, received some honey
from a relative which
Muhammad took a particular liking to. As a
result, every time Zaynab offered some of this honey to him he would
spend a longer time in her apartment. This did not sit well with Aisha
and Hafsa bint Umar.
Hafsa and I decided that when the Prophet entered upon either of us,
she would say, "I smell in you the bad smell of Maghafir (a bad
smelling raisin). Have you eaten Maghafir?" When he entered upon one
of us, she said that to him. He replied (to her), "No, but I have
drunk honey in the house of Zainab bint Jahsh, and I will never drink
it again."..."But I have drunk honey." Hisham said: It also meant his
saying, "I will not drink anymore, and I have taken an oath, so do not
inform anybody of that'
Muhammad al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Bukhari
Soon after this event,
Muhammad reported that he had received a
revelation in which he was told that he could eat anything permitted
by God. Some Sunni commentators on the
Qur'an sometimes give this
story as the "occasion of revelation" for At-Tahrim, which opens with
the following verses:
O Prophet! Why holdest thou to be forbidden that which
Allah has made
lawful to thee? Thou seekest to please thy consorts. But
Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Allah has already ordained for you, (O men), the dissolution of your
oaths (in some cases): and
Allah is your Protector, and He is Full of
Knowledge and Wisdom.
— Qur'an, surah 66 (At-Tahrim), ayat 1–2
Word spread to the small
Muslim community that
Muhammad's wives were
speaking sharply to him and conspiring against him. Muhammad, saddened
and upset, separated from his wives for a month. ‘Umar, Hafsa's
father, scolded his daughter and also spoke to
Muhammad of the matter.
By the end of this time, his wives were humbled; they agreed to "speak
correct and courteous words" and to focus on the afterlife.
Death of Muhammad
Aisha remained Muhammad's favorite wife throughout his life. When he
became ill and suspected that he was probably going to die, he began
to ask his wives whose apartment he was to stay in next. They
eventually figured out that he was trying to determine when he was due
with Aisha, and they then allowed him to retire there. He remained in
Aisha's apartment until his death, and his last breath was taken as he
lay in the arms of Aisha, his most beloved wife.
After Muhammad's death, which ended
Aisha and Muhammad's 14-year-long
Aisha lived fifty more years in and around Medina. Much of
her time was spent learning and acquiring knowledge of the
the sunnah of Muhammad.
Aisha was one of three wives (the other two
being Hafsa bint
Umar and Umm Salama) who memorized the Qur'an. Like
Aisha had her own script of the
Quran written after Muhammad's
death. During Aisha's life many prominent customs of Islam, such
as veiling and seclusion of women, began.
Aisha's importance to revitalizing the Arab tradition and leadership
among the Arab women highlights her magnitude within Islam. Aisha
became involved in the politics of early Islam and the first three
caliphate reigns: Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman. During a time in
Islam when women were not expected, or wanted, to contribute outside
Aisha delivered public speeches, became directly
involved in war and even battles, and helped both men and women to
understand the practices of Muhammad.[additional citation(s)
Role during caliphate
Role during first and second caliphates
After Muhammad's death in 632,
Abu Bakr was appointed as the first
caliph. This matter of succession to
Muhammad is extremely
controversial to the Shia who believe that
Ali had been appointed by
Muhammad to lead while Sunni maintain that the public elected Abu
Abu Bakr had two advantages in achieving his new role: his
long personal friendship with
Muhammad and his role as father-in-law.
Abu Bakr was the first to set guidelines for the new
position of authority.
Aisha garnered more special privilege in the Islamic community for
being known as both a wife of
Muhammad and the daughter of the first
caliph. Being the daughter of
Abu Bakr tied
Aisha to honorable titles
earned from her father's strong dedication to Islam. For example, she
was given the title of al-siddiqa bint al-siddiq, meaning 'the
truthful woman, daughter of the truthful man', a reference to Abu
Bakr's support of the Isra and Mi'raj.
Abu Bakr fell sick and was unable to recover. Prior to his
death, he appointed ‘Umar, one of his chief advisers, as the second
caliph Throughout ‘Umar's time in power
Aisha continued to play
the role of a consultant in political matters.
Role during the third caliphate
Umar died, ‘Uthmān was chosen to be the third caliph. He
wanted to promote the interests of the Umayyads.
Aisha had little
involvement with ‘Uthmān for the first couple years, but eventually
she found a way into the politics of his reign. She eventually grew to
despise ‘Uthmān, and many are unsure of what specifically triggered
her eventual opposition towards him. A prominent opposition that arose
towards him was when ‘Uthmān mistreated ‘Ammar ibn Yasir
(companion of Muhammad) by beating him.
Aisha became enraged and spoke
out publicly, saying, "How soon indeed you have forgotten the practice
(sunnah) of your prophet and these, his hairs, a shirt, and sandal
have not yet perished!".
As time continued issues of antipathy towards ‘Uthmān continued to
arise. Another instance of opposition arose when the people came to
Aisha, after Uthmān ignored the rightful punishment for Walid idn
Uqbah (Uthmān's brother).
Aisha and Uthmān argued with each other,
Uthmān eventually made a comment on why
Aisha had come and how she
was "ordered to stay at home". Arising from this comment, was the
question of whether Aisha, and for that matter women, still had the
ability to be involved in public affairs. The
Muslim community became
split: "some sided with Uthmān, but others demanded to know who
indeed had better right than
Aisha in such matters".
The caliphate took a turn for the worse when Egypt was governed by
Abdullah ibn Saad. Abbott reports that
Muhammad ibn Abi Hudhayfa of
Egypt, an opponent of ‘Uthmān, forged letters in the Mothers of the
Believers' names to the conspirators against ‘Uthmān. The people
cut off ‘Uthmān's water and food supply. When
Aisha realized the
behavior of the crowd, Abbott notes,
Aisha could not believe the crowd
"would offer such indignities to a widow of Mohammad". This refers
Safiyya bint Huyayy (one of Muhammad's wives) tried to help
‘Uthmān and was taken by the crowd.
Malik al-Ashtar then approached
her about killing Uthmān and the letter, and she claimed she would
never want to "command the shedding of the blood of the Muslims and
the killing of their Imām"; she also claimed she did not write
the letters. The city continued to oppose ‘Uthmān, but as for
Aisha, her journey to
Mecca was approaching. With the journey to Mecca
approaching at this time, she wanted to rid herself of the situation.
‘Uthmān heard of her not wanting to hurt him, and he asked her to
stay because of her influence on the people, but this did not persuade
Aisha, and she continued on her journey.
Main article: Battle of the Camel
Rashidun Caliphate under four caliphs. The divided phase
relates to the
Rashidun Caliphate of
Ali during the First Fitna.
Strongholds of the
Rashidun Caliphate of
Ali during the
Region under the control of
Muawiyah I during the First
Region under the control of
Amr ibn al-As
Amr ibn al-As during the First
In 655, Uthman's house was put under siege by about 1000 rebels.
Eventually the rebels broke into the house and murdered Uthman,
provoking the First Fitna. After killing Uthman, the rebels asked
Ali to be the new caliph, although
Ali was not involved in the murder
Uthman according to many reports.
Ali reportedly initially
refused the caliphate, agreeing to rule only after his followers
Ali could not execute those merely accused of Uthman's murder,
Aisha delivered a fiery speech against him for not avenging the death
of Uthman. The first to respond to
Aisha was Abdullah ibn Aamar
al-Hadhrami, the governor of
Mecca during the reign of Uthman, and
prominent members of the Banu Umayya. With the funds from the "Yemeni
Aisha set out on a campaign against the
of Ali.
Aisha, along with an army including
Zubayr ibn al-Awam
Zubayr ibn al-Awam and Talha ibn
Ubayd-Allah, confronted Ali's army, demanding the prosecution of
Uthman's killers who had mingled with his army outside the city of
Basra. When her forces captured
Basra she ordered the execution of 600
Muslims and 40 others, including Hakim ibn Jabala, who were put to
death in the Grand Mosque of Basra. Aisha's forces are
also known to have tortured and imprisoned Othman ibn Hanif the
Basra appointed by Ali.
Aisha battling the fourth caliph
Ali in the Battle of the Camel
Ali rallied supporters and fought Aisha's forces near
Basra in 656.
The battle is known as the Battle of the Camel, after the fact that
Aisha directed her forces from a howdah on the back of a large camel.
Aisha's forces were defeated and an estimated 10,000 Muslims were
killed in the battle, considered the first engagement where
Muslims fought Muslims.
After 110 days of conflict the
Ali ibn Abi Talib met
Aisha with reconciliation. He sent her back to
Medina under military
escort headed by her brother
Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, one of Ali's
commanders. She subsequently retired to
Medina with no more
interference with the affairs of state. She was also awarded a pension
Although she retired to Medina, her forsaken efforts against the
Rashidun Caliphate of
Ali did not end the First Fitna.
Contributions to Islam and influence
After 25 years of a monogamous relationship with his first wife,
Khadija bint Khuwaylid,
Muhammad participated in nine years of
polygyny, marrying at least nine further wives. Muhammad's subsequent
marriages were depicted purely as political matches rather than unions
of sexual indulgence. In particular, Muhammad's unions with
Umar associated him with two of the most significant
leaders of the early
Muslim community, Aisha's and Hafsa's fathers,
Abu Bakr and ‘
Umar ibn al-Khattāb, respectively.
Aisha's marriage has given her significance among many within Islamic
culture, becoming known as the most learned woman of her time. Being
Muhammad's favorite wife,
Aisha occupied an important position in his
Aisha in her youth, she was accessible
"...to the values needed to lead and influence the sisterhood of
Muslim women." After the death of Muhammad,
Aisha was discovered
to be a renowned source of hadiths, due to her qualities of
intelligence and memory.
Aisha conveyed ideas expressing
Muhammad's practice (sunnah). She expressed herself as a role model to
women, which can also be seen within some traditions attributed to
her. The traditions regarding
Aisha habitually opposed ideas
unfavorable to women in efforts to elicit social change.
According to Reza Aslan:
Muslim women’s movement is predicated on the idea that
Muslim men, not Islam, have been responsible for the suppression of
women’s rights. For this reason,
Muslim feminists throughout the
world are advocating a return to the society
envisioned for his followers. Despite differences in culture,
nationalities, and beliefs, these women believe that the lesson to be
Medina is that Islam is above all an
egalitarian religion. Their
Medina is a society in which Muhammad
designated women like Umm Waraqa as spiritual guides for the Ummah; in
which the Prophet himself was sometimes publicly rebuked by his wives;
in which women prayed and fought alongside the men; in which women
Aisha and Umm Salamah acted not only as religious but also as
political—and on at least one occasion military—leaders; and in
which the call to gather for prayer, bellowed from the rooftop of
Muhammad’s house, brought men and women together to kneel side by
side and be blessed as a single undivided community.
Not only was
Aisha supportive of Muhammad, but she contributed
scholarly intellect to the development of Islam. She was given the
title al-Siddiqah, meaning 'the one who affirms the truth'.
known for her "...expertise in the Quran, shares of inheritance,
lawful and unlawful matters, poetry,
Arabic literature, Arab history,
genealogy, and general medicine." Her intellectual contributions
regarding the verbal texts of Islam were in time transcribed into
written form, becoming the official history of Islam. After the
death of Muhammad,
Aisha was regarded as the most reliable source in
the teachings of hadith. Aisha's authentication of Muhammad's ways
of prayer and his recitation of the
Qur'an allowed for development of
knowledge of his sunnah of praying and reading verses of the
During Aisha's entire life she was a strong advocate for the education
of Islamic women, especially in law and the teachings of Islam. She
was known for establishing the first madrasa for women in her
home.[additional citation(s) needed] Attending Aisha's classes
were various family relatives and orphaned children. Men also attended
Aisha's classes, with a simple curtain separating the male and female
students.[additional citation(s) needed]
Some[who?] say that Aisha's political influence helped promote her
father, Abu Bakr, to the caliphate after Muhammad's death.
After the defeat at the Battle of the Camel,
Aisha retreated to Medina
and became a teacher. Upon her arrival in Medina,
from her public role in politics. Her discontinuation of public
politics, however, did not stop her political influence completely.
Aisha continued influencing those intertwined in the
Islamic political sphere. Amongst the Islamic community, she was known
as an intelligent woman who debated law with male companions.
Aisha was also considered to be the embodiment of proper rituals while
partaking in the pilgrimage to Mecca, a journey she made with several
groups of women. For the last two years of her life,
Aisha spent much
of her time telling the stories of Muhammad, hoping to correct false
passages that had become influential in formulating Islamic law. Due
to this, Aisha's political influence continues to impact those in
Aisha died at her home in
Medina on 17 Ramadan 58 AH (16 July 678).
She was 67 years old. Some such as Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, Hakim
Sanai, and Khwaja Mehboob Qasim Chishti Muhsarafee Qadiri say
that she was murdered by Muawiyah. Muhammad's companion Abu Hurairah
led her funeral prayer after the tahajjud (night) prayer, and she was
buried at Jannat al-Baqi‘.
Sunni view of Aisha
Sunnis believe she was Muhammad's favorite wife. They consider her
(among other wives) to be Umm al-Mu’minin and among the members of
the Ahl al-Bayt, or Muhammad's family. According to Sunni hadith
Aisha in two dreams in which he was
shown that he would marry her.
Shia view of Aisha
Main article: Shia view of Aisha
The Shia view
Aisha negatively. They accuse her of hating
defying him during his caliphate in the Battle of the Camel, when she
fought men from Ali's army in Basra.
List of people related to Quranic verses
The Jewel of Medina
^ a b
Al-Nasa'i 1997, p. 108
‘A’isha was eighteen years of age at the time when the Holy
Prophet (peace and blessings of
Allah be upon him) died and she
remained a widow for forty-eight years till she died at the age of
sixty-seven. She saw the rules of four caliphs in her lifetime. She
died in Ramadan 58 AH during the caliphate of Mu‘awiya...
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
^ a b c d Spellberg 1994, p. 3
^ Quran 33:6
^ Brockelmann 1947
^ a b c Abbott 1942
^ Aleem, Shamim (2007). Prophet Muhammad(s) and His Family: A
Sociological Perspective. AuthorHouse. p. 130.
^ Islamyat: a core text for students
^ a b Sayeed, Asma (2013-08-06). Women and the Transmission of
Religious Knowledge in Islam. Cambridge University Press.
pp. 27–9. ISBN 9781107031586.
^ a b c d Watt 1960
^ a b c d e f g h i Spellberg 1994, pp. 39–40
^ a b Armstrong 1992, p. 157
^ a b Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:58:234, 5:58:236, 7:62:64, 7:62:65, 7:62:88,
Sahih Muslim, 8:3309, 8:3310, 8:3311, 41:4915, Sunan Abu Dawood,
^ a b al-Tabari 1987, p. 7, al-Tabari 1990, p. 131
^ Abbott 1942, p. 1
^ Ibn Sa'd 1995, p. 55
Aisha was born at the beginning of the fourth year of prophethood
i.e., the year 613–614
^ a b Esposito
^ Watt 1961, p. 102
^ Abbott 1942, p. 7
^ Ahmed 1992
^ a b Abbott 1942, p. 3
^ Sonbol 2003, pp. 3–9
^ Sahih Bukhari
^ Barlas 2002, pp. 125–126
^ A.C. Brown, Jonathan (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and
Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications.
pp. 143–4. ISBN 978-1780744209.
^ A.C. Brown, Jonathan (2014). Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and
Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy. Oneworld Publications.
p. 316. n° 50. ISBN 978-1780744209. Evidence that the
Prophet waited for
Aisha to reach physical maturity before
consummation comes from al-Ṭabarī, who says she was too young for
intercourse at the time of the marriage contract;
^ Kadri, Sadakat (2012). Heaven on Earth. Farrar, Straus, Giroux.
^ a b Afsaruddin 2014: "according to the chronology of Ibn Khallikān
(d. 681/1282) she would have been nine at her marriage and twelve at
its consummation (Wafayāt al-aʿyān, 3:16), a chronology also
supported by a report from Hishām b. ʿUrwa recorded by Ibn Saʿd (d.
230/845; al-Ṭabaqāt, 8:61)."
^ Barlas, Asma (2012). "Believing Women" in Islam: Unreading
Patriarchal Interpretations of the Qur'an. University of Texas Press.
p. 126. On the other hand, however, Muslims who calculate
'Ayesha's age based on details of her sister Asma's age, about whom
more is known, as well as on details of the Hijra (the Prophet's
Mecca to Madina), maintain that she was over thirteen
and perhaps between seventeen and nineteen when she got married. Such
views cohere with those Ahadith that claim that at her marriage Ayesha
had "good knowledge of Ancient
Arabic poetry and genealogy" and
"pronounced the fundamental rules of
Arabic Islamic ethics.
^ Tarikh Sahih Islam et al.
According to these sources, we can conclude that
Aisha was much older
than what she claimed and narrated in some hadith... and she was 17 or
19 years old when she got engaged and she would be 20 or 22 when she
had sex. (Original: از اين روايات می توان چنين
نتيجه گرفت که عايشه بسيار بزرگتر از آن
چيزی است که خودش ادعا می کند و در روايت
ها نقل شده است؛...و در هنگام ازدواج 17 يا
19 ساله و در هنگام دخول 20 يا 22 ساله خواهد
Ali 1997, p. 150
^ Spellberg 1994, pp. 34–40
^ a b c Ahmed 1992, p. 51
^ Roded 1994, p. 36
^ Roded 2008, p. 23
^ Joseph 2007, p. 227
^ McAuliffe 2001, p. 55
^ Mernissi 1988, p. 65
^ Mernissi 1988, p. 107
^ Abbott 1942, p. 25
^ Roded 1994, p. 28
^ Abbott 1942, p. 46
^ Shaikh 2003, p. 33
^ Abbott 1942, p. 8
^ Lings 1983, pp. 133–134
^ Haykal 1976, pp. 183–184
^ Abbott 1942, pp. 67–68
^ Lings 1983, p. 371
^ Ahmed 1992, pp. 51–52
^ Mernissi 1988, p. 104
^ Mernissi 1988, p. 78
^ Ramadan 2007, p. 121
^ The story is told multiple times in the early traditions, nearly all
of the versions being ultimately derived from Aisha's own account.
Typical examples can be found in Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:462, Sahih
Muslim, 37:6673 and Guillaume 1955, pp. 494–499.
^ Great Women of Islam – Zaynab bint Jahsh
^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 8:78:682
^ Quran 66:1–2
^ Ibn Sa'd 1995, pp. 132–133
^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 3:43:648
^ Ahmed 1992, p. 58
^ Abbott 1942, p. 69
^ Lings 1983, p. 339
^ Haykal 1976, pp. 502–503
^ Guillaume 1955, p. 679 and 682
^ "Aishah bint Abu Bakr". Jannah.org. Retrieved 2013-12-31.
^ a b c Elsadda 2001, pp. 37–64
^ Spellberg & Aghaie, pp. 42–47
^ Spellberg 1994, pp. 4–5
^ Spellberg 1994, p. 33
^ Abbott 1942, p. 108
^ a b Abbott 1942, p. 111
^ a b Abbott 1942, p. 122
^ Abbott 1942, p. 123
Lapidus 2002, p. 47
Holt 1977, pp. 70–72
Tabatabaei 1979, pp. 50–57
al-Athir 1231, p. 19P.19
^ Holt 1977, pp. 67–68
^ Madelung 1997, p. 107 and 111
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^ Aslan 2005, pp. 58–136
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Importance of Women in
Muslim Life". Muslims Weekly. Pacific News
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^ Geissinger 2011, p. 42
^ Yusuf ibn Qazghali. Tadhkirat al-Khawas. p. 62.
^ Hakim Sanai. Hadoiqa Sanai. pp. 65–67.
^ Khwaja Mehboob Qasim Chishti Muhsarafee Qadiri. Musharaf al
Mehboobeen. pp. 216–218, 616.
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Wives of Muhammad
Khadija bint Khuwaylid
Khadija bint Khuwaylid (595-620)
Sawda bint Zamʿa
Sawda bint Zamʿa (620-632)
Aisha bint Abi Bakr (620-632)
Zaynab bint Khuzayma
Zaynab bint Khuzayma (626-627)
Hind bint Abi Umayya (627-632)
Zaynab bint Jahsh
Zaynab bint Jahsh (627-632)
Juwayriyya bint al-Harith (628-632)
Safiyya bint Huyayy (628-632)
Ramla bint Abi Sufyan (629-632)
Maymunah bint al-Harith (629-632)
Maria bint Sham'ūn
Rayhana bint Zayd
ISNI: 0000 0000 6691 1756