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AIRLANGGA (also spelled ERLANGGA), regnal name RAKAI HALU SRI LOKESWARA DHARMAWANGSA AIRLANGGA ANANTAWIKRAMOTTUNGGADEWA (born 991 in Bali
Bali
, Indonesia
Indonesia
– died 1049 in Java
Java
), was the only raja of the Kingdom of Kahuripan
Kahuripan
. The Kingdom was built from the territory of the Kingdom of Medang after Medang was sacked by king Wurawari of Lwaram. He gradually gained support, won back the kingdom once ruled by his uncle, and went on to become one of Java's most notable kings. Airlangga
Airlangga
literally means "jumping water", thus his name means "he who crossed the water", described his life story; born in the court of Bali
Bali
and during his youth crossed the Bali
Bali
Strait to stay in Java
Java
and later ruled the kingdom in East Java. He belongs to both Isyana and Warmadewa lineages.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life * 2 Struggle and establishment of Kahuripan
Kahuripan
Kingdom * 3 Abdication and death * 4 Notes

EARLY LIFE

Airlangga
Airlangga
was born from dynastic marriage between Isyana of Java
Java
and Warmadewa of Bali
Bali
. His mother, queen Mahendradatta , was a princess of the Isyana Dynasty , the sister of king Dharmawangsa of Medang , while his father, king Udayana Warmadewa of Bali, was a king of the Balinese Warmadewa Dynasty . :129–130 Bali
Bali
in 11th century probably was an ally or vassal of Java, the marriage of Airlangga's parents was probably meant as political means to seal Bali
Bali
as part of Medang's realm. Airlangga
Airlangga
has two younger brothers, Marakata (later become king of Bali
Bali
after the death of their father) and Anak Wungçu (ascend to Balinese throne after the death of Marakata). Later, in various inscriptions created by Airlangga, he claimed to be the descendant of Mpu Sindok of Isyana dynasty.

However, there is a speculation suggesting that Airlangga
Airlangga
was not the biological son of king Udayana, Mahendradatta was probably conceived Airlangga
Airlangga
from her previous union to an unknown man, that after her separation (either because of death or divorce) Mahendradatta was bethroted to Balinese king, thus she took the baby Airlangga
Airlangga
to Bali. Historical sources seems to be silenced on Mahendradatta's suspected earlier marriage, that it might be a scandal or not even took place. This suspicion was because although Airlangga
Airlangga
was the eldest son of Mahendradatta, curiously he is not chosen as the crown prince of Bali, his younger brother Marakata and later Anak Wungçu rose to Balinese throne instead. Moreover, Mahendradatta sent Airlangga
Airlangga
back to Java during his teenage. Mahendradatta was known to be promoting the cult of Durga
Durga
in Bali, and curiously later associated with Balinese legend of evil witch Rangda
Rangda
, which translates to "widow".

Airlangga
Airlangga
was born and grew up in Bali, groomed by his mother, queen Mahendradatta, to be a proper future ruler. In his teenage years his mother sent him back to her parents home in Java
Java
to be educated further in Watugaluh court, Medang, East Java, under the patronage of his uncle, king Dharmawangsa . Airlangga
Airlangga
was bethroted to his cousin, one of Dharmawangsa's daughter, thus arranged marriage was in place. At that time, Medang had become a powerful kingdom, allied or probably subjugated Bali, and had established a colony in West Kalimantan . Dharmawangsa aspired to ascend Medang as regional power by challenging Srivijaya
Srivijaya
Empire domination. In 990 he launched naval invasion against Srivijaya
Srivijaya
and unsuccessfully tried to capture Palembang. Srivijaya resiliently succeed on repelling Javanese Medang invaders.

The Calcutta Stone inscription (dated from 1041 CE), describes a terrible calamity which befell the East Javanese kingdom of Isyana dynasty in the early years of the 11th century. In 1006, a rebellion incited by a vassal king Wurawari from Lwaram resulted in the destruction of the capital of Watugaluh. The reigning king, Dharmawangsa, successor to Sri Makutawangsawardhana, was murdered along with his entire family and many of his subjects. Only the young Airlangga, who was aged about 16 at the time, managed to escape unharmed. According to tradition the calamity, dubbed as Pralaya (the death) of Medang, took place during Airlangga's wedding ceremony in Dharmawangsa palace.

Today historians strongly suggested that the invasion was actually a Srivijayan retaliation against Medang for the attacks upon the empire. After the failed Dharmawangsa's naval campaign against Palembang back in 990, Sri Culamanivarmadeva the Maharaja of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
saw Javanese Medang as a dangerous threat, thus arranged a stratagem to destroy Medang by inciting a revolt. King Wurawari of Lwaram was probably an ally of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
in Java
Java
and also the vassal of Medang. With Srivijaya's assistance Wurawari managed to sack and burn Watugaluh Palace during Medang's most unexpected time; the Airlangga's royal wedding. Airlangga, accompanied by his guard Narottama, escaped westward into the jungle and retreated as a hermit in Vanagiri (today Wonogiri , Central Java).

STRUGGLE AND ESTABLISHMENT OF KAHURIPAN KINGDOM

In 1019, after several years in self-imposed exile in a Mount Vanagiri hermitage, Airlangga
Airlangga
rallied supports from officials and regents that are loyal to the former Isyana dynasty and began to unite the areas that had formerly been ruled by Medang kingdom, which had disintegrated after Dharmawangsa's death. He consolidated his authority, established a new kingdom and made peace with Srivijaya. The new kingdom was called the Kingdom of Kahuripan, the location of his capital, :145–147 and stretched from Pasuruan
Pasuruan
in the east to Madiun
Madiun
in the west. In 1025, Airlangga
Airlangga
increased the power and influence of Kahuripan
Kahuripan
as the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
Empire began to decline. Airlangga
Airlangga
was known for his religious tolerance, and was a patron of both the Hindu and Buddhist religions.

In 1035 Airlangga
Airlangga
constructed a Buddhist monastery named Srivijayasrama dedicated for his queen consort Dharmaprasadottungadewi. The monastery bearing the name of Srivijaya suggests that his queen consort was probably a Srivijayan princess, a close relative, probably daughter, of the Srivijayan king Sangramavijayattungavarman. She had taken refuge in East Java
East Java
after her father was taken prisoner and her kingdom was raided through series of Indian Chola
Chola
raids. The king seems to be sympathetic to the poor fate of the Srivijayan princess, having lost her family and her kingdom, and probably genuinely fell in love and devoted to her, thus promoting her as prameswari (the queen consort ). Airlangga
Airlangga
went further, naming his daughter from queen Dharmaprasadottungadewi as heiress, the future queen regnant of Kahuripan. The decline of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
due to the Chola
Chola
invasion gave Airlangga
Airlangga
opportunity to consolidate his kingdom without foreign interference. Later, he extended his kingdom to Central Java
Java
and Bali
Bali
. The north coast of Java, particularly Surabaya
Surabaya
and Tuban
Tuban
, for the first time became important centres of trade.

Although there are few surviving archaeological remains dating from his time, Airlangga
Airlangga
is known to have been a keen patron of the arts, notably literature. In 1035, the court poet Mpu Kanwa composed the Kakawin Arjunawiwaha , which was adapted from the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
epic. This text told the story of Arjuna
Arjuna
, an incarnation of Indra
Indra
, but was also an allegory for Airlangga's own life. The tale of Airlangga's life was illustrated in the Belahan Temple
Temple
on the flanks of Mount Penanggungan, where he was portrayed in stone as Vishnu
Vishnu
on Garuda.

In 1037 the capital was moved from Watan Mas to Kahuripan, the king also reported to bestows titles for his loyal followers, such as Narottama promoted as Rakryan Kanuruhan (prime minister) and Niti as Rakryan Kuningan. According to Kelagen inscription (dated 1037 CE) Airlangga
Airlangga
also took a keen interest on agriculture development. He embarked on grand irrigation project by constructing the Wringin Sapta dam (located in today Jombang regency). By building a dam on Brantas river, he provides irrigation to surrounding paddy fields and maintaining hydraulic system in the area.

ABDICATION AND DEATH

Towards the end of his life, Airlangga
Airlangga
was faced with the problem of succession. His heiress, the crown princess Sanggramawijaya, decided to become a Bhikkuni Buddhist hermit rather than succeed Airlangga
Airlangga
as queen regnant . Sangramawijaya is the daughter of the queen consort Dharmaprasadottunggadewi. The story of a crown princess who renounced the throne to become a hermit is linked with the popular legend of Dewi Kilisuci that resides in the Selomangleng Cave beneath Mount Klothok, 5 kilometres to the west of the city of Kediri . Because the crown princess Sangramawijaya had renounced the throne, two of her younger half brothers were next in line of succession. Both are equally rightful as the heirs and both contesting the throne.

In 1045, Airlangga
Airlangga
divided Kahuripan
Kahuripan
into two kingdoms which were inherited by his two sons; Janggala and Kediri . Airlangga
Airlangga
himself abdicated the throne in 1045, returned to the hermit life by assuming a new name as Resi Gentayu, bestowed by Mpu Bharada, a famous hermit. The reasons behind the partition of a kingdom that Airlangga
Airlangga
himself did painstakingly unite during his younger years remain as a puzzle for historians. Some suggested that it was meant to avoid civil war since both of Airlangga
Airlangga
sons are equally rightful to the throne. A local legend, mixed with fantastic fiction, mentioned about the partition of the kingdom. It was said that Mpu Bharada was the one that conduct the partition; with his extraordinary skill he flew and pouring water from a jar that the water traces magically transformed into a river marking the boundary of the two new kingdoms. Accidentally he stuck on a kamal (tamarind ) tree, feeling upset he cursed the kamal tree to be forever short, thus become the name of the village where this event took place; kamal pandak ("the short tamarind tree").

Airlangga
Airlangga
died in 1049, and his ashes were probably scattered in Belahan tirtha (sacred bathing pool), on eastern slopes of Mount Penanggungan , where in one of waterspout statues he was portrayed as Vishnu
Vishnu
riding Garuda, :146 flanked by statues of two goddesses; Shri and Lakshmi
Lakshmi
portrayed the two queen consorts of Airlangga.

After the death of Airlangga, a civil war broke out between Janggala and Panjalu that continued until 1052. In that year King Mapanji Alanjung Ahyes of Panjalu succeed on conquering Janggala. However, in 1059 another king named Samarotsaha ascended the throne of Janggala, he was the son-in-law of Airlangga.

NOTES

* ^ "History of Bali". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 26 March 2013. * ^ A B C Cœdès, George (1968). The Indianized states of Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824803681 . * ^ A B East Java.com * ^ A B M. Habib Mustopo (2007). Sejarah: Untuk kelas 2 SMA (in Indonesian). Yudhistira. p. 22. Retrieved 25 March 2013.

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 280662649 * LCCN : n91090382 * SUDOC : 135824354

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Airlangga
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