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Air Canada
Canada
is the flag carrier and largest airline of Canada
Canada
by fleet size and passengers carried. The airline, founded in 1937, provides scheduled and charter air transport for passengers and cargo to 182 destinations worldwide. It is the world's eighth-largest passenger airline by fleet size, and is a founding member of the Star Alliance.[6] Air Canada's corporate headquarters are in Montreal, Quebec, while its largest hub is at Toronto
Toronto
Pearson International Airport.[7] Air Canada
Canada
had passenger revenues of CA$13.8 billion in 2015.[5] The airline's regional service is Air Canada
Canada
Express. Canada's national airline originated from the Canadian federal government's 1936 creation of Trans-Canada Airlines
Trans-Canada Airlines
(TCA), which began operating its first transcontinental flight routes in 1938. In 1965, TCA was renamed Air Canada
Canada
following government approval. After the deregulation of the Canadian airline market in the 1980s, the airline was privatized in 1988. On 4 January 2000, Air Canada
Canada
acquired its largest rival, Canadian Airlines. In 2003, the airline filed for bankruptcy protection and in the following year emerged and reorganized under the holding company ACE Aviation Holdings
ACE Aviation Holdings
Inc. In 2007, 34 million people flew with Air Canada
Canada
as the airline celebrated its 70th anniversary. Air Canada
Canada
has a fleet of Airbus A330, Boeing 767, Boeing 777, and Boeing 787 Dreamliner
Boeing 787 Dreamliner
wide-body aircraft on long-haul routes and uses the Airbus A320 family
Airbus A320 family
aircraft (including the A319, A320, and A321 variants), Boeing 737 MAX
Boeing 737 MAX
8, and Embraer E190 family aircraft on short-haul routes. The carrier's operating divisions include Air Canada
Canada
Cargo, Air Canada
Canada
Express, Air Canada Jetz
Air Canada Jetz
(private jet charters), and Air Canada Rouge
Air Canada Rouge
(leisure airline). Its subsidiary, Air Canada
Canada
Vacations, provides vacation packages to over 90 destinations. Together with its regional partners, the airline operates on average more than 1,530 scheduled flights daily.[8]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Trans- Canada
Canada
Air Lines 1.2 1970s and 1980s: early years 1.3 1990s: strategic changes 1.4 2000s: merger and reorganization

1.4.1 Bankruptcy and restructuring 1.4.2 Fleet modernization 1.4.3 Project XM

1.5 Financial difficulties 1.6 Late-2010s: New branding & fleet

2 Corporate affairs

2.1 Business trends 2.2 Headquarters 2.3 Executives 2.4 Subsidiaries

2.4.1 Air Canada
Canada
Cargo 2.4.2 Air Canada
Canada
Vacations 2.4.3 Air Canada
Canada
Rouge 2.4.4 Air Canada
Canada
Express 2.4.5 Air Canada
Canada
Jetz 2.4.6 Air Canada
Canada
Ground Handling Services

2.5 Former subsidiaries

3 Destinations

3.1 Codeshare agreements

4 Fleet

4.1 Historical fleet

5 Services

5.1 Cabins

5.1.1 International Business Class

5.1.1.1 Executive Pod 5.1.1.2 Classic Pod

5.1.2 North American Business Class 5.1.3 Premium Economy Class 5.1.4 Economy Class 5.1.5 Air Canada
Canada
Express

5.2 Cabin crew 5.3 Lounge

6 Frequent flyer program

6.1 Air Canada
Canada
Altitude 6.2 Status Requirements

7 Accidents and incidents 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

History[edit] See also: History of aviation in Canada Trans- Canada
Canada
Air Lines[edit] Main article: Trans- Canada
Canada
Air Lines

Lockheed Model 10A Electra "CF-TCC" in Trans-Canada Air Lines
Trans-Canada Air Lines
livery at the Western Canada
Canada
Aviation Museum

Air Canada's predecessor, Trans-Canada Air Lines
Trans-Canada Air Lines
(TCA), was created by federal legislation as a subsidiary of Canadian National Railway
Canadian National Railway
(CNR) on 11 April 1937.[1][2] The newly created Department of Transport under Minister C. D. Howe
C. D. Howe
desired an airline under government control to link cities on the Atlantic coast to those on the Pacific coast. Using $5 million in Crown seed money, two Lockheed Model 10 Electras and one Boeing Stearman biplane were purchased from Canadian Airways[9] and experienced airline executives from United Airlines
United Airlines
and American Airlines
American Airlines
were brought in.[1] Passenger flights began on 1 September 1937, with an Electra carrying two passengers and mail from Vancouver
Vancouver
to Seattle, a $14.20 round trip,[1] and, on 1 July 1938, TCA hired its first flight attendants.[10] Transcontinental routes from Montreal
Montreal
to Vancouver began on 1 April 1939, using 12 Lockheed Model 14 Super Electras and six Lockheed Model 18 Lodestars.[9] By January 1940, the airline had grown to about 579 employees.[10]

Trans-Canada Air Lines
Trans-Canada Air Lines
Lockheed 14H2 in 1938

Canadian Pacific Airlines
Canadian Pacific Airlines
(CP Air) suggested in 1942 a merger with TCA. Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King
William Lyon Mackenzie King
rejected the proposal and introduced legislation regulating TCA as the only airline in Canada
Canada
allowed to provide transcontinental flights. With the increase in air travel after World War II, CP Air
CP Air
was granted one coast-to-coast flight and a few international routes.[1] Originally headquartered in Winnipeg, which was also the site of the national maintenance base, the federal government moved TCA's headquarters to Montreal
Montreal
in 1949; the maintenance base later also moved east. With the development of the ReserVec in 1953, TCA became the first airline in the world to use a computer reservation system with remote terminals.[11][12] By 1964, TCA had grown to become Canada's national airline and, in 1964, Jean Chrétien
Jean Chrétien
submitted a private member's bill to change the name of the airline from Trans-Canada Airlines
Trans-Canada Airlines
to Air Canada, which TCA had long used as its French-language name. This bill failed but it was later resubmitted and passed, with the name change taking effect on 1 January 1965.[9] Elizabeth II, the reigning Queen of Canada, flew on the first aircraft to bear the name and livery of Air Canada
Canada
when she departed for the United Kingdom at the end of her 1964 tour of Prince Edward Island, Quebec, and Ontario in 1964.[13] 1970s and 1980s: early years[edit] Revenue
Revenue
Passenger-Kilometers, scheduled flights only, in millions

Year Traffic

1950 727

1955 1551

1960 3284

1965 5702

1969 9074

1971 10343

1975 16270

1980 23752

1985 21718

2000 448006

Source: ICAO Digest of Statistics for 1950-55, IATA World Air Transport Statistics 1960-2000

1 Place Ville-Marie, which previously housed Air Canada's headquarters

During the 1970s government regulations ensured Air Canada's dominance over domestic regional carriers and rival CP Air.[14] Short-haul carriers were each restricted to one of five regions, and could not compete directly with Air Canada
Canada
and CP Air.[14] CP Air
CP Air
was subject to capacity limits on intercontinental flights, and restricted from domestic operations. Air Canada's fares were also subject to regulation by the government.[14] In the late 1970s, with reorganization at CNR, Air Canada
Canada
became an independent Crown corporation. The Air Canada
Canada
Act of 1978 ensured that the carrier would compete on a more equal footing with rival regional airlines and CP Air, and ended the government's direct regulatory control over Air Canada's routings, fares, and services.[14] The act also transferred ownership from Canadian National Railway
Canadian National Railway
to a subsidiary of the national government.[1] Deregulation of the Canadian airline market, under the new National Transportation Act, 1987 officially opened the airline market in Canada
Canada
to equal competition.[15] The carrier's fleet expansion saw the acquisition of Boeing 727, Boeing 747, and Lockheed Tristar
Lockheed Tristar
jetliners.[12] In 1978 Judy Cameron became the first female pilot hired to fly for any major Canadian carrier when she was hired to fly by Air Canada.[16]

Air Canada
Canada
Vickers Viscount
Vickers Viscount
turboprop being prepared for departure from Toronto
Toronto
in 1971

Air Canada
Canada
Boeing 747-100 in 1965-1993 livery

With new fleet expenditures outpacing earnings, Air Canada
Canada
officials indicated that the carrier would need additional sources of capital to fund its modernization.[14] By 1985 the Canadian government was indicating a willingness to privatize both Canadian National Railways and Air Canada.[14] In 1988 Air Canada
Canada
was privatized, and 43% of shares were sold on the public market,[9] with the initial public offering completed in October of that year.[14] By this time, long-haul rival CP Air
CP Air
had become Canadian Airlines
Canadian Airlines
International following its acquisition by Pacific Western Airlines.[12] On 7 December 1987, Air Canada
Canada
became the first airline in the world with a fleet-wide non-smoking policy,[17] and in 1989 became completely privatized.[9] The successful privatization effort was aided by a public relations effort led by company president Claude I. Taylor and chief executive officer Pierre J. Jeanniot.[14] 1990s: strategic changes[edit]

1993-2004 livery on a Boeing 767-300ER

In the early 1990s, Air Canada
Canada
encountered financial difficulties as the airline industry slumped in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War.[12] In response, the airline restructured management by hiring former Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
executive Hollis L. Harris
Hollis L. Harris
as its CEO. Harris restructured the airline's operations, reduced management positions, moved the corporate headquarters to Dorval Airport,[12] and sold the enRoute card business to Diners Club
Diners Club
in 1992.[18] By 1994, Air Canada had returned to profitability.[12] The same year also saw the carrier winning route access to fly from Canada
Canada
to the new Kansai Airport
Kansai Airport
in Osaka, Japan.[12] In 1995, taking advantage of a new US- Canada
Canada
open skies agreement, Air Canada
Canada
added 30 new trans-border routes.[12] In May 1997, Air Canada became a founding member of the Star Alliance, with the airline launching codeshares with several of the alliance's members. The second half of the 1990s saw the airline earn consistent profits, totalling $1 billion for the 1997 to 1999 period.[12] On 2 September 1998, pilots for Air Canada
Canada
launched the company's first pilots' strike,[19] demanding higher wages.[14] At the end of 1999, the Canadian government relaxed some of the aviation regulations, aimed at creating a consolidation of the Canadian airline industry. That year, American Airlines
American Airlines
in conjunction with Canadian financial company Onex Corp, launched takeover bids for ailing rival Canadian Airlines
Canadian Airlines
and Air Canada, spurring Air Canada
Canada
to submit a competing offer for its largest rival.[12]

Boeing 747-400M landing at Frankfurt am Main Airport
Frankfurt am Main Airport
in 2003.

2000s: merger and reorganization[edit]

A former Canadian Airlines
Canadian Airlines
Boeing 747-400
Boeing 747-400
in hybrid livery at Hong Kong International Airport in 2001

In January 2001, Air Canada
Canada
acquired Canada's second largest air carrier, Canadian Airlines, merging the latter's operations, becoming the world's twelfth-largest airline in the first decade of the 21st century.[9] As Air Canada
Canada
gained access to its former rival's financial statements, officials learned that the carrier was in worse financial shape than was previously believed.[14] An expedited merger strategy was pursued, but in summer 2000 integration efforts led to flight delays, luggage problems and other frustrations.[14] However, service improved following Air Canada
Canada
officials' pledge to do so by January 2001.[14] The airline was confronted by the global aviation market downturn and increased competition, posting back-to-back losses in 2001 and 2002.[14] Bankruptcy and restructuring[edit] As Air Canada
Canada
had employed a scorched earth policy to prevent the Onex proposed acquisition as one of its lines of defence, it had burdened itself with onerous contracts with almost all of its suppliers. As a result, on 1 April 2003, Air Canada
Canada
filed for protection under the Companies' Creditors Arrangement Act; it emerged from this protection on 30 September 2004, 18 months later. During the period of bankruptcy protection, the company was subject to two competing bids from Cerberus Capital Management
Cerberus Capital Management
and Victor Li. The Cerberus bid would have seen former Prime Minister Brian Mulroney
Brian Mulroney
installed as chairman, being recruited by Cerberus' international advisory board chair Dan Quayle, the former Vice- President
President
of the United States. Cerberus was rejected because it had a reputation of changing existing employee pension agreements, a move strongly opposed by the CAW. At first, Air Canada selected Victor Li's Trinity Time Investments, which initially asked for a board veto and the chairmanship in return for investing $650 million in the airline. Li, who holds dual citizenship from Canada
Canada
and Hong Kong, later demanded changes to the pension plan (which was not in his original takeover bid), but since the unions refused to budge, the bid was withdrawn.[20]

Airbus A330-300 landing at London Heathrow Airport
London Heathrow Airport
with the 2005-2017 livery

Finally, Deutsche Bank
Deutsche Bank
unveiled an $850 million financing package for Air Canada, if it would cut $200 million in annual costs in addition to the $1.1 billion that the unions agreed on in 2003. It was accepted after last-minute talks between CEO Robert Milton and CAW president Buzz Hargrove got the union concessions needed to let the bid go through.[9][21][22] ACE Aviation Holdings
ACE Aviation Holdings
became the new parent company under which the reorganized Air Canada
Canada
was held.[23] However, in November 2012 ACE sold all shares and warrants it held in Air Canada. In October 2004, Canadian singer Celine Dion
Celine Dion
became the face of Air Canada, hoping to relaunch the airline and draw in a more international market after an 18-month period of bankruptcy protection.[24] She recorded her single, You and I, which subsequently appeared in several Air Canada
Canada
commercials.[25] Fleet modernization[edit] On 31 October 2004, the last Air Canada
Canada
Boeing 747
Boeing 747
flight landed in Toronto
Toronto
from Frankfurt
Frankfurt
as AC873, ending 33 years of 747 service with the airline. The Boeing 747-400
Boeing 747-400
fleet was replaced by the Airbus A340 fleet.[26] On 19 October 2004, Air Canada
Canada
unveiled a new aircraft colour scheme and uniforms. A Boeing 767-300ER
Boeing 767-300ER
was painted in the new silver-blue colour, and the dark green/almost black tail was replaced with a new version of the maple leaf known as the 'Frosted Leaf'.[24]

Air Canada's Boeing 777-200LR, the longest-ranged airliner in the world for long-haul flights.

On 9 November 2005, Air Canada
Canada
agreed to renew its widebody fleet by purchasing 16 Boeing 777s (10 -300ERs, 6 -200LRs), and 14 Boeing 787-8s. It placed options on 18 Boeing 777s and 46 Boeing 787-8s and -9s.[27] All of the 777s will be powered by GE90-115B or GE90-110B1 engines, and the 787-8s, by the GEnx engine.[28] Deliveries of the 777s began in March 2007 and deliveries of the 787s began in May 2014.[29] As the 777s and the 787s are delivered, the airline will gradually retire all Boeing 767s and Airbus A330s.[30]

Wikinews has related news: Boeing secures $11bn of aircraft deals

On 24 April 2007, Air Canada
Canada
exercised half of its options for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner. The firm order for the Dreamliners then stood at 37 plus 23 options, for a total of 60. The airline also cancelled orders for two Boeing 777Fs. In November 2007, Air Canada
Canada
leased an additional Boeing 777-300ER. Air Canada
Canada
has now taken delivery of the 18 Boeing 777s on order (12 -300ERs, 6 -200LRs) and still holds options for 16 more, totalling 34.[31][32] Air Canada
Canada
has also taken delivery of 15 Embraer 175s and 45 Embraer 190s. These aircraft are being used to expand intra- Canada
Canada
and Canada/USA routes. Air Canada
Canada
will transfer all 15 E175s to Sky Regional Airlines to fly them under the Air Canada Express
Air Canada Express
brand. It will also transfer all Airbus A319
Airbus A319
and Boeing 767-300ER
Boeing 767-300ER
aircraft to Air Canada
Canada
rouge. Project XM[edit]

A personal television on board an Air Canada
Canada
aircraft (Project XM)

Started in July 2006 and since completed, Project XM: Extreme Makeover, was a $300 million aircraft interior replacement project to install new cabins on all aircraft. New aircraft such as the Boeing 777 were delivered with the new cabins factory installed.[33] New cabin features included:[34][35][36][37][38]

In Executive First, new horizontal fully flat Executive First Suites (on Boeing 767s, Boeing 777s, and Airbus A330s). New cabins in all classes on all aircraft, with new entertainment options. Personal AVOD
AVOD
(8.9 in or 230 mm touchscreen LCD) in Economy class (domestic and international) and Executive Class (domestic). Larger AVOD
AVOD
(12 in or 300 mm touchscreen LCD) equipped with noise-cancelling Sennheiser
Sennheiser
headphones available in Executive First Suites. Interactive games at all seats in Executive and Economy; XM Radio Canada
Canada
available at every seat. USB ports to recharge electronic devices and for game controllers at all seats; 120 VAC plugs in most seats; In Economy (2 per triple) (1 per double) (3 per quad). In First Class/Executive (All seats)

Financial difficulties[edit] Since the late 2000s (decade), Air Canada
Canada
has been facing a number of financial difficulties, including the global recession, leading to speculation that it could file for bankruptcy, less than a decade after it exited bankruptcy on 30 September 2004.[39]

Air Canada
Canada
has 25 Embraer ERJ-190 aircraft

President
President
and CEO Montie Brewer was replaced by Calin Rovinescu effective 1 April 2009.[40] Rovinescu became the first Canadian President
President
since Claude Taylor in 1992. Rovinescu was Air Canada's chief restructuring officer during its 2003 bankruptcy (he resigned that year after unions rejected his demands) and is reported to be "an enforcer".[41] Federal finance minister Jim Flaherty
Jim Flaherty
appointed retired judge James Farley, who had presided over Air Canada's 2003 bankruptcy, to mediate pension issues between the company, the unions representing its employees, and retirees. The contracts with four of the unions also expired around this time. The airline stated that its $2.85-billion pension shortfall (which grew from $1.2 billion in 2007) was a "liquidity risk" in its first-quarter report, and it required new financing and pension "relief" to conserve cash for 2010 operations. The company was obligated to pay $650-million into the pension fund but it suffered a 2009 Q1 loss of $400 million, so it requested a moratorium on its pension payments in 2009. The unions had insisted on financial guarantees before agreeing on a deal. [42][43] In December 2010, ACE sold 44 million of Air Canada
Canada
shares,[44] followed by the remaining 31 million shares in November 2012 to Cormark Securities Inc.[45] In 2013, Air Canada's practice of systematic overbooking was exposed.[46] This much-criticized strategy, in which "the same seat is sold to more than one person,"[46] thereby causing ticket-holding passengers to be bumped and left stranded, persuaded the federal government to consider adopting an airline passenger bill of rights.[47] In November 2014 Air Canada
Canada
pilots voted by a majority of 84% in favour of a 10-year contract that allows the country’s biggest passenger carrier to use arbitration or mediation to resolve disputes.[48] A year later, the flight attendants also approved a 10-year agreement, apparently by a narrow (unstated) margin, with wage increases, increased job security and improvements to working conditions, according to Michel Cournoyer, the head of CUPE's Air Canada
Canada
unit.[49] Late-2010s: New branding & fleet[edit]

Airbus A321
Airbus A321
displaying the new Air Canada
Canada
livery

On 9 February 2017, a new retro red and black aircraft livery was launched, to coincide with Air Canada's 80th anniversary and Canada's 150th anniversary of Confederation. The update includes design aspects from the logo used between 1964 and 1992, with an overall white colour scheme, with a black underside, tail fin with red maple leaf rondelle, and black "Air Canada" lettering with a red maple leaf rondelle underneath.[50] Three newly delivered Boeing 787-9
Boeing 787-9
will arrive immediately with the new colour scheme while the remainder of the fleet will be repainted or delivered with the new scheme. Air Canada
Canada
has also placed orders for Boeing 737 MAX
Boeing 737 MAX
single-aisle narrow body aircraft to replace its existing fleet of Airbus A320 series aircraft with the first MAX 8 variant delivered on 2 November 2017.[51] Some Airbus Airbus A319s will be transferred to Air Canada's Rouge subsidiary, while the remaining fleet will be retired. As part of the deal, Boeing purchased 25 Embraer E190s from Air Canada that were retired in 2016. In 2016, Air Canada
Canada
signed an agreement with Bombardier Aerospace
Bombardier Aerospace
to replace the E190s with CSeries aircraft from 2019.[52] In July 2017, Air Canada
Canada
reintroduced Premium Economy on its North American wide-body flights.[53] Corporate affairs[edit] Business trends[edit] Air Canada
Canada
had been loss-making for several years, but has now been profitable since 2012.[54] The key trends for the Air Canada
Canada
group, including Jazz and Air Canada
Canada
rouge, are (years ending 31 December):

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Turnover (C$m) 10,646 11,082 9,739 10,786 11,612 12,114 12,382 13,272 13,868 14,677

Net Profits/Losses after tax (C$m) 429 −1,025 −24 −24 −249 131 10 105 308 876

Number of employees (average FTE) 23,900 24,200 22,900 23,200 23,700 24,000 24,500 24,400 24,900 26,100

Number of passengers (m) 33+ 33+ 30+ 32+ 33.9 34.9 35.8 38.5 41.1 44.8

Passenger load factor (%) 80.6 81.4 80.7 81.7 81.6 82.7 82.8 83.4 83.5 82.5

Number of aircraft (at year end) 340 333 332 328 331 351 352 364 370 381

Notes/sources [55] [56] [57] [57][58] [58] [54] [59] [60] [61] [62]

Headquarters[edit]

The Air Canada
Canada
headquarters (Building 2 or Centre Air Canada
Canada
at 7373 Boulevard Côte-Vertu Ouest) at Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport.

By federal law (Air Canada
Canada
Act), Air Canada
Canada
has been obligated to keep its head office in Montreal.[63] Its corporate headquarters is Air Canada
Canada
Centre[64] (French: Centre Air Canada[65]), also known as La Rondelle ("The Puck" in French),[66] a 7-storey building located on the grounds of Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport in Saint-Laurent.[67] In 1975, Air Canada
Canada
was headquartered at 1 Place Ville-Marie
Place Ville-Marie
in Montreal.[68] In 1990, the airline moved its headquarters to the airport to cut costs.[69] Executives[edit]

Airbus A330-300 in Star Alliance
Star Alliance
livery landing at Vancouver International Airport

Prior to 1976, Air Canada
Canada
was led by a department head of the Canadian National Railway (CNR), who reported to the President
President
of CNR. Since 1976, the following have been CEO and President:[14]

1976–1984: Claude Taylor (accountant; former Air Canada
Canada
reservation agent and executive) 1984–1990: Pierre Jeanniot (former aircraft mechanic and Air Canada executive) 1990–1992: Claude Taylor 1992–1996: Hollis L. Harris
Hollis L. Harris
( World Airways
World Airways
CEO 2001-04, Continental CEO and President, 1990–92, President
President
of Delta) 1996–1999: R. Lamar Durrett (former executive with Delta, Continental and System One) 1999–2004: Robert Milton (founding partner of Air Eagle Holdings Incorporated) 2004–2009: Montie Brewer (former United Airlines
United Airlines
executive) 2009–present: Calin Rovinescu[70]

Airbus A319
Airbus A319
in Calgary

Subsidiaries[edit] Air Canada
Canada
Cargo[edit] Air Canada Cargo
Air Canada Cargo
is the company's freight carrying division based at Toronto-Pearson, offering more than 150 shipping destinations through the Air Canada
Canada
airline network, ground logistics and airline partners.[71] Its route network has focused on European destinations through Eastern Canada
Canada
departure points, along with direct services from Vancouver
Vancouver
and Calgary
Calgary
to Frankfurt, Paris, and Zurich.[71] In Toronto, a new cargo terminal was completed in early 2002 which featured modernised inventory and conveyor systems.[72] Cargo terminals are also found in Vancouver
Vancouver
and Montreal. Air Canada
Canada
Vacations[edit]

An Air Georgian
Air Georgian
Beechcraft 1900D (left) in Air Canada
Canada
Alliance livery at Bradley International Airport

Air Canada
Canada
Vacations is a Canadian tour operator offering leisure travel packages including cruises, tours, car rentals and excursions. All packages include accommodation, Aeroplan
Aeroplan
Miles and roundtrip airfare aboard Air Canada
Canada
and its Star Alliance
Star Alliance
partners. Repeat recipient of the Consumer’s Choice Award for Best Travel Wholesaler and named Favourite Tour Operator by Baxter Travel Media in 2010, Air Canada
Canada
Vacations services hundreds of destinations in the Caribbean, Mexico, North, Central and South America, Asia, South Pacific and Europe. Air Canada
Canada
Vacations is headquartered in Montreal, has an office in Toronto, and destination representatives are available throughout the Caribbean, Mexico, Europe, Asia, South Pacific, and South America.

Boeing 777-333ER C-FIVS "Olympic Mural" lands at Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport

Air Canada
Canada
Vacations offers Executive Class service on select flights, nonstop flights from major Canadian cities and daily flights to many destinations.[73][74] Air Canada
Canada
Rouge[edit] Main article: Air Canada
Canada
Rouge Air Canada
Canada
Express[edit] Main article: Air Canada
Canada
Express Air Canada Express
Air Canada Express
is the brand name of Air Canada's regional feeder service operated by several independent carriers including Jazz Aviation, Sky Regional Airlines, Exploits Valley Air Services (EVAS),[75] and Air Georgian.[76] Air Canada
Canada
Jetz[edit] Launched in 2002, Air Canada Jetz
Air Canada Jetz
is a charter service targeting sports teams, professional entertainers, and corporations. Air Canada Jetz fleet consists of three Airbus A319
Airbus A319
in an all business class configuration.[77] In February 2014, Air Canada
Canada
decided to leave the sports charter business.[78] However, on 17 March 2015, Air Canada
Canada
announced an agreement with several NHL teams to provide charter services under the Air Canada Jetz
Air Canada Jetz
brand for 6 years starting from the 2015-2016 NHL season.[79] Air Canada
Canada
Ground Handling Services[edit] Ground handling services for Air Canada
Canada
handled by Montreal-based ACGHS in at select airports in Canada
Canada
and the United States. All overseas operations are contracted to third party at airports served by Air Canada. Head office is at Air Canada's Head Office in Montreal and sales/marketing office is Mississauga at Toronto
Toronto
Pearson International Airport. Former subsidiaries[edit]

Air Canada
Canada
Jazz

Air Canada Jazz
Air Canada Jazz
CRJ705 landing in Calgary

In 2001, Air Canada
Canada
consolidated its wholly owned regional carriers Air BC, Air Nova, Air Ontario, and Canadian Regional Airlines
Canadian Regional Airlines
into Air Canada
Canada
Regional Incorporated. Several of these air carriers had previously operated as an "Air Canada
Canada
Connector". In 2002, the consolidation was completed with the creation of a new brand, Air Canada
Canada
Jazz. Air Canada Jazz
Air Canada Jazz
was spun off in November 2006. ACE Aviation Holdings is no longer a shareholder of Jazz Aviation
Jazz Aviation
LP, making it an independent company. Air Canada Jazz
Air Canada Jazz
was the brand name of Air Canada's main regional product from 2002-2011. As of June 2011, the Air Canada Jazz
Air Canada Jazz
brand is no longer being marketed as all regional operators adopted the Air Canada Express
Air Canada Express
name. Jazz Aviation
Jazz Aviation
is the largest of these affiliates, operating 125 aircraft on behalf of Air Canada.[80]

Zip

In 2002, Air Canada
Canada
launched a discount airline to compete directly with WestJet
WestJet
on routes in Western Canada. Zip operated ex-Canadian Airlines International 737-200s as a separate airline with its own staff and brightly painted aircraft. It was disbanded in 2004.[81]

Air Canada
Canada
Tango

On 1 November 2001, Air Canada
Canada
launched Air Canada
Canada
Tango, designed to offer no-frills service and lower fares using a dedicated fleet of 13 Airbus A320s in an all economy configuration of 159 seats. In Canada, it operated from Toronto
Toronto
to Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Winnipeg, Regina, Saskatoon, Thunder Bay, Ottawa, Montreal, Halifax, Gander and St. John's. In addition, it operated non-stop service between Toronto and Fort Lauderdale, Orlando and Tampa; as well as non-stop service between Montreal
Montreal
and Fort Lauderdale
Fort Lauderdale
and Orlando.[82] Tango was intended to compete with Canada
Canada
3000.[83] The Tango service was dissolved in 2004. Air Canada
Canada
now calls its lowest fare class "Tango".[84]

Aeroplan

Aeroplan
Aeroplan
is Air Canada's loyalty marketing program operated by Groupe Aeroplan
Aeroplan
Inc., which was spun off from Air Canada
Canada
in 2005.[85] Destinations[edit]

Air Canada
Canada
domestic check-in facilities at Vancouver
Vancouver
International Airport

Air Canada
Canada
Boeing 767-300ER
Boeing 767-300ER
at Ben Gurion Airport

Main article: Air Canada
Canada
destinations Air Canada
Canada
flies to 21 domestic destinations and 81 international destinations across Asia, the Americas, Europe, and Oceania. Along with its regional partners, the carrier serves over 180 destinations in 47 countries on six continents worldwide.[86][87] Air Canada
Canada
has flown a number of fifth freedom routes (passenger and cargo rights between two non-Canadian destinations),[12] only one of which is still operated, namely Santiago-Buenos Aires.[88] Past fifth freedom routes have included: Honolulu-Sydney, London Heathrow-Düsseldorf, Paris-Geneva, Paris-Munich, Paris-Berlin, Frankfurt-Zürich, Zürich-Zagreb, Zürich-Vienna, Zürich-Delhi, Lisbon-Madrid, Brussels-Prague, London Heathrow-Delhi, London Heathrow-Nice, London Heathrow-Mumbai-Singapore, Montego Bay-Kingston (KIN).[89][90] Codeshare agreements[edit] Air Canada
Canada
codeshares with the following airlines:[91]

Aegean Airlines Aer Lingus Air China Air India Air New Zealand All Nippon Airways Asiana Airlines Austrian Airlines Avianca Avianca
Avianca
Brazil Brussels Airlines Cathay Pacific[92] Central Mountain Air Croatia Airlines EgyptAir Ethiopian Airlines Etihad Airways Eurowings EVA Air Germanwings Gol Transportes Aéreos Jet Airways LOT Polish Airlines Lufthansa Middle East Airlines Scandinavian Airlines Singapore Airlines South African Airways SriLankan Airlines Swiss International Air Lines TAP Air Portugal Thai Airways Turkish Airlines United Airlines Virgin Australia

Fleet[edit]

An Air Canada
Canada
787-8 pictured in the new livery

The Air Canada
Canada
mainline fleet consists of the following registered aircraft (as of April 2018).[93]

Air Canada
Canada
Mainline Fleet

Aircraft In Service Orders Passengers[34] Notes

J W Y Total

Airbus A319-100 15 — 14 — 106 120 2 aircraft to be phased out by the end of 2018; 2 further aircraft phased out by the end of 2019.[94]

3 58 — 58 3 VIP charter aircraft operated as Air Canada
Canada
Jetz.[95]

Airbus A320-200 42 — 14 — 132 146 11 aircraft to be phased out by the end of 2019. Retirement begins in 2019.[94]

Airbus A321-200 15 — 16 — 174 190

Airbus A330-300 8 4 27 21 244 292 4 aircraft to join the fleet in 2019.[94]

Boeing 737
Boeing 737
MAX 8 10 40[96] 16 — 153 169 18 options and 30 purchase rights.[97]

Boeing 737
Boeing 737
MAX 9 — 11[96] TBA

Boeing 767-300ER 7 — 24 — 187 211 One aircraft to be phased out by the end of 2018; 5 further aircraft phased out by the end of 2019.[94]

Boeing 777-200LR 6 — 40 24 236 300

Boeing 777-300ER 19 — 40 24 336 400

28 398 450

Boeing 787-8 8 — 20 21 210 251

Boeing 787-9 25 4 30 21 247 298 13 options and 10 purchase rights. Deliveries through 2019.[98] Replacing Boeing 767-300ER

Bombardier CS300 — 45 TBA 30 options. EIS: December 2019. Replacing Embraer 190 and Airbus A319[52]

Embraer 190 25 — 9 — 88 97 6 aircraft phased out by the end of 2018. 5 further aircraft phased out by the end of 2019.[94] To be replaced by Boeing 737 MAX
Boeing 737 MAX
8 and Bombardier CS300[52]

Total 183 100

Historical fleet[edit]

Airbus A340-300, retired 2008

Air Canada
Canada
Boeing 767-200ER, retired 2008

An Airbus A340-500 previously operated by Air Canada
Canada
until it was replaced by the Boeing 777-200LR.

Air Canada
Canada
was one of the first airlines to have its entire fleet of unpressurized aircraft equipped with fixed oxygen systems for use by flight crew and passengers, using the rebreathing bag principle.

Air Canada's McDonnell Douglas DC-9-15s were used up to 1968 one McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32CF was used for cargo flights until 1977. the McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32s were used from 1967 to 2002. Air Canada's Canadair Regional Jet
Canadair Regional Jet
(CRJ) aircraft were used from the mid 1990s until the early 2000s when they were transferred to regional affiliate Jazz Air LP operating as Air Canada
Canada
Jazz. Air Canada's Airbus A340-500s were retired in August 2007 and replaced by Boeing 777-200LRs. Air Canada
Canada
was the only North American airline to operate the A340.[99] Air Canada's Airbus A340-300s were retired in November 2008 and replaced by Boeing 777-300ERs.[100] Air Canada's Boeing 767-200ER
Boeing 767-200ER
fleet was retired from service by the end of 2008. The McDonnell Douglas DC-10
McDonnell Douglas DC-10
aircraft were operated from 1979-2000 by Canadian Pacific Airlines
Canadian Pacific Airlines
and its successors CP Air
CP Air
and Canadian Airlines. The Boeing 737-200
Boeing 737-200
aircraft were operated from 1968-2000 by Canadian Pacific Airlines and its successors CP Air
CP Air
and Canadian Airlines. Subsequent to the merger with Canadian Airlines, Air Canada
Canada
operated these aircraft in a mainline 2-class configuration, as well as with the Air Canada Tango
Air Canada Tango
and the Zip low cost carriers branding in an all-economy class configuration.

Aircraft that Air Canada
Canada
has operated since 1937, but are no longer in the fleet:

Air Canada
Canada
operated jetliners

Type Used

Douglas DC-8-40 -50 -60 -70 1960-1983[101]

Douglas DC-9-10 1966-1986[101]

McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30 1967-2002[101]

Boeing 747-100 1971-1998[101]

Lockheed L-1011
Lockheed L-1011
-1 -15 -100 -500 1973-1996[101]

Boeing 727-200 1974-1992[101]

Boeing 747-200M (Combi) 1975-1999[101]

Boeing 737-200 1976-2004[101]

Boeing 767-200ER 1983-2008[101]

Fokker F28 1986-2004[101]

Boeing 747-400 1990-2003[101]

Boeing 747-400M (Combi) 1990-2004[101]

BAe 146-200 1990-2005[101]

Canadair CRJ100 1994-2002

Airbus A340-300 1995-2008[101]

Airbus A340-500 2004-2007[101]

Embraer 175 2005-2013

Air Canada
Canada
operated propliners

Type Used

Stearman 4-EM Senior Speedmail 1937-1939[101]

Lockheed Model 10 Electra 1937-1941[101]

Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra 1941-1949[101]

Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar 1941-1949[101]

Avro Lancastrian 1943-1947[101]

Douglas DC-3 1945-1963[101]

Canadair North Star 1946-1961[101]

Bristol Freighter 1953-1955[101]

Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation 1954-1963[101]

Vickers Viscount
Vickers Viscount
(turboprop) 1955-1974[101]

Vickers Vanguard
Vickers Vanguard
(turboprop) 1961-1972[101]

British Aerospace
British Aerospace
BAe 146-200
BAe 146-200
and Fokker F28
Fokker F28
jet aircraft were operated by regional airline affiliates of Air Canada
Canada
via code sharing agreements. Air Canada
Canada
was also the only operator of the Vickers Vanguard propjet in North America. Services[edit] Air Canada
Canada
has three classes of service, Business, Premium Economy, and Economy. On long-haul international routes, International Business Class and Economy Class are offered, with certain flights additionally offering Premium Economy Class;[36][38] short-haul and domestic routes feature Business Class and Economy Class.[35][37] All mainline seats feature AVOD
AVOD
(Audio Video On Demand) and mood lighting. Air Canada Express features Business Class and Economy Class, on CRJ900 and Embraer 175 aircraft; all other Air Canada Express
Air Canada Express
aircraft have one-class economy cabins. All narrowbody mainline aircraft, as well as Air Canada Express
Air Canada Express
Bombardier CRJ900 and Embraer 175 aircraft have onboard WiFi installed, which is also being installed on all widebody aircraft. In the spring of 1987, Air Canada
Canada
enacted no-smoking flights between Canada
Canada
and New York City
New York City
as a test. After a survey reported that 96% of passengers supported the smoking ban, Air Canada
Canada
extended the ban to other flights.[102] Cabins[edit]

International Business Class Seat (Executive Pod) on the 787-9

International Business Class[edit] Air Canada's International Business Class cabins are available on all widebody aircraft. There are two different cabins available: the Executive Pod and the Classic Pod.[38] All services feature AVOD (Audio Video On Demand) on a touch screen, noise cancelling headphones, and music provided by XM Satellite Radio. This cabin is sold as Business Class — Transcontinental when widebody aircraft operate on routes within North America, and is sold at a premium compared to the North American Business Class product on narrowbody aircraft.[103] Executive Pod[edit] Executive Pods are featured on all Boeing 777s and 787s.[104] These seats feature electronic flat beds in a 1–2–1 reverse herringbone configuration with a 21-inch (53.3 cm) seat width and a 6-foot-7-inch (2.01 m) seat pitch.[38] AVOD
AVOD
is provided with an 18-inch (45.7 cm) touch screen. Classic Pod[edit] Classic Pods feature electronic flat beds, in a 1–1–1 herringbone configuration on all Boeing 767-300ER
Boeing 767-300ER
and Airbus A330-300s with a 21-inch (53.3 cm) seat width and a 6-foot-3-inch (1.91 m) seat pitch.[38] AVOD
AVOD
is provided with an 12-inch (30.5 cm) touch screen.[38] North American Business Class[edit] Within North America, Business Class is Air Canada’s premium product. On Embraer 190 aircraft (mainline) and Embraer 175 and CRJ900 aircraft (Air Canada
Canada
Express), the seat configuration is 1–2 abreast, with recline around 120°, and a width of 20 inches (0.51 m).[37] On Airbus and Boeing narrow-body aircraft, seat configuration is 2–2 abreast, with 124° recline, and 21 inches (0.53 m) width.[37] The seat pitch is 37 to 38 inches (0.94 to 0.97 m). All seats feature AVOD
AVOD
and music is provided by XM Satellite Radio.[37] Premium Economy Class[edit]

Premium Economy Class seats

Premium Economy class
Economy class
is available on all Airbus A330, Boeing 777, and Boeing 787 aircraft.[104] It features a larger seat and greater recline as compared to economy class, in a 2–4–2 configuration (Boeing 777) or 2–3–2 configuration ( Airbus A330
Airbus A330
and Boeing 787) with a 20-inch (0.508 m) (Boeing 777) or 19.5-inch (0.495 m) (Boeing 787) seat width and a 37 to 38 inches (0.94 to 0.97 m) seat pitch. Entertainment is personal AVOD
AVOD
(Audio Video On Demand), while music is provided by XM Satellite Radio.[105] Air Canada Rouge
Air Canada Rouge
operates flights on its aircraft with a premium economy class product, branded as Premium Rouge. This is sold as a business class product on Rouge flights within North America. Economy Class[edit]

AVOD
AVOD
in Economy on an Air Canada
Canada
787

The safety card from an Air Canada
Canada
A319.

In Economy Class, seats are pitched 30 to 32 inches (0.76 to 0.81 m) with a width of 17.2 to 18.5 inches (0.44 to 0.47 m) and a recline to 4.5 to 6 inches (0.11 to 0.15 m).[36] On Air Canada
Canada
Rouge aircraft, seats are pitched 29 to 30 inches (0.74 to 0.76 m) with a width of 17.5 to 18 inches (0.44 to 0.46 m) and 3 inches (0.076 m) of recline. Configuration is 3–4–3 on the Boeing 777, 3–3–3 on the Boeing 787, 2–4–2 on the Airbus A330, 2–3–2 on the Boeing 767, 3–3 on Boeing and Airbus narrowbody aircraft, and 2–2 on Bombardier and Embraer aircraft. All Airbus, Boeing, and Embraer aircraft, as well as the CRJ900 are fitted with personal AVOD
AVOD
(audio-video on demand). Music is provided by XM Satellite Radio.[36] Complimentary meals are offered on all international flights outside of North America. For domestic, North American, sun destination and Caribbean flights, food and alcoholic beverages can be purchased through Onboard Café ( GuestLogix
GuestLogix
point of sale terminals are used) while non-alcoholic beverages are complimentary. On all narrowbody aircraft, there is an extra legroom Preferred Seat section in the front few rows and exit rows of the economy cabin which provides up to 4 inches (0.10 m) more seat pitch (usually at least 35"). All Air Canada Rouge
Air Canada Rouge
planes offer Rouge Plus seats, which are identical to the Preferred Seats, but with up to 6 inches (0.15 m) more seat pitch (35" on A319's and 36" on 767's) as well as an additional 2 inches (0.051 m) of recline. Air Canada
Canada
Express[edit] Air Canada Express
Air Canada Express
flights operated by CRJ200, Dash 8-100/300/Q400 aircraft offer a bar and refreshment service on board. The CRJ900 and E175 features Business Class and personal AVOD
AVOD
at every seat. Flights on board the E175, CRJ200/900 and Q400 which are 90 minutes or more feature Onboard Café . Cabin crew[edit] On 9 February 2017, a new uniform scheme coinciding with Canada's 150th and Air Canada's 80th anniversaries was unveiled. Air Canada partnered with Vancouver-born fashion designer Christopher Bates to design the new uniforms which incorporate a base colour of black or grey with red lettering and the famous maple leaf.[106] Between 2004 and 2017, Air Canada
Canada
uniforms used a midnight blue colour. The uniforms were designed by Canadian fashion designer Debbie Shuchat. At a presentation in the Toronto
Toronto
Airport hangar, Celine Dion helped the newly-solvent airline debut its new image.[24] Lounge[edit]

Air Canada
Canada
Arrivals Lounge at London's Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
Terminal 3

Air Canada
Canada
has 21 Maple
Maple
Leaf Lounges[107] located at all major airports across Canada
Canada
and at international locations including London-Heathrow, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Frankfurt, Los Angeles and New York-LaGuardia.[108] The Maple
Maple
Leaf Lounges are available to passengers holding a same day ticket on Air Canada
Canada
in Business Class, Star Alliance
Star Alliance
Gold Members, Air Canada
Canada
Super Elite, Air Canada
Canada
Elite, Air Canada
Canada
Maple
Maple
Leaf Club members, American Express Maple
Maple
Leaf Club members, American Express AeroplanPlus Platinum holders, holders of a one time guest pass or economy passengers who have purchased lounge access during booking.[109] Air Canada
Canada
shares an Arrivals Lounge at London Heathrow Terminal 2 with some other Star Alliance
Star Alliance
members. It is available to eligible passengers arriving into London from any Air Canada
Canada
international flight, holding a confirmed same-day overseas travel boarding card. Eligible groups include Business Class Passengers, Air Canada
Canada
Super Elite, Air Canada
Canada
Elite, Air Canada
Canada
Maple
Maple
Leaf Club Members or American Express Maple
Maple
Leaf Club.[110] Travellers who hold paid memberships to affiliated Star Alliance lounges, such as the United Club, are also eligible for access to Maple
Maple
Leaf Lounges.[111] Frequent flyer program[edit] Main article: Aeroplan Aeroplan
Aeroplan
is Air Canada's frequent flyer rewards program, both allowing for points collection and spending, as well as status and rewards as an Air Canada
Canada
customer. After Air Canada
Canada
and Aeroplan
Aeroplan
changed the division of points collection and redemption, Air Canada
Canada
introduced an internal rewards program, Altitude. The two programs operate in conjunction. On May 11, 2017, Air Canada
Canada
announced it plans to launch a new loyalty program to replace Aeroplan
Aeroplan
in 2020.[112] Air Canada
Canada
Altitude[edit] On 20 September 2012, Air Canada
Canada
unveiled its new frequent flyer status program named "Air Canada
Canada
Altitude" to supplement Aeroplan. Aeroplan
Aeroplan
remained the frequent flyer rewards program, collecting miles which can be "spent", whereas status level is determined by Altitude standing. There are five levels of membership in Air Canada's Altitude Program: Basic, Prestige 25K, Elite 35K, Elite 50K, Elite 75K and Super Elite 100K. The latter three are called "Top Tier" membership levels and provide travel benefits such as upgrades, lounge access, priority services (e.g., check-in, luggage handling), and bonuses when earning miles through air travel. In order to qualify for these levels, a member must earn, through flight activities, a certain number of miles or a certain number of segments and spending some level of money. Altitude refers to these as Altitude Qualifying Miles (AQM), Segments (AQS), and Dollars (AQD). Prestige members and Altitude Elite 35 K receive Star Alliance
Star Alliance
Silver status, while Elite 50K, Elite 75K, and Super Elite 100K members receive Star Alliance
Star Alliance
Gold status. Air Canada
Canada
Status Miles are calculated on an annual basis (January 1 through December 31) to determine Altitude Membership Status for the following benefit year (March 1 through February 28). At the 35K and above levels, that level of status is granted when achieved, for the remainder of the current year, as well as for the next year. Status Requirements[edit] Beginning January 1, 2016, for the 2017 status year, Air Canada
Canada
began requiring a minimum spend level for each level, Altitude Qualifying Dollars. The requirements were not changed for 2018, and thus are currently at:

Altitude Prestige: 25,000 AQM or 25 AQS and $3,000 AQD Altitude Elite 35K: 35,000 AQM or 35 AQS and $4,000 AQD Altitude Elite 50K: 50,000 AQM or 50 AQS and $6,000 AQD Altitude Elite 75K: 75,000 AQM or 75 AQS and $9,000 AQD Altitude Super Elite: 100,000 AQM or 95 AQS and $20,000 AQD

Accidents and incidents[edit] For incidents before 1963, see Trans- Canada
Canada
Air Lines.

Date Flight number Description

13 June 1964

3277

Vickers Viscount
Vickers Viscount
registration CF-THT was damaged beyond economical repair when it crash-landed at Toronto
Toronto
Airport after the failure of two engines on approach.[113]

19 May 1967

McDonnell Douglas DC-8-54F CF-TJM crashed and burned on a training flight while making a three-engine landing at Ottawa, Ontario. All 3 crew members were killed. There were no passengers on the flight.[114]

11 September 1968

A Vickers Viscount
Vickers Viscount
of Air Canada
Canada
was hijacked by a Cuban passenger.[115]

7 September 1969

Vickers Viscount
Vickers Viscount
registration CF-THK was damaged beyond economic repair by a fire which occurred on takeoff from Sept-Îles Airport. The aircraft landed back at Sept-Îles, but one passenger was killed in the fire.[116]

1 March 1970

106

Vickers Viscount
Vickers Viscount
CF-THY collided in mid-air with Ercoupe 415 CF-SHN on approach to Vancouver
Vancouver
International Airport. The Ercoupe pilot was killed.[117]

5 July 1970

621

McDonnell Douglas DC-8-63 registration CF-TIW exploded from a fuel line rupture caused by engine 4 striking the runway in Toronto, Ontario during a landing attempt. All 109 passengers/crew were killed.[118]

26 December 1971

932

McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32, Flight departed Thunder Bay, Ontario for Toronto, Ontario. Hijacker Patric Dolan Critton passed a note 20 minutes before landing that read: "Think. We have fragmentary grenades, and a .38 caliber revolver. Take me to the captain. We're going to Havana. This is no joke." The hijacker permitted the 82 passengers on board to get off the aircraft before the flight was rerouted to Cuba. After leaving the hijacker in Havana, the Air Canada aircraft safely returned to Toronto. Citton was arrested in New York on other charges in 2001 and, after serving his sentence, was extradited to Canada
Canada
where he was charged with kidnapping. In 1971 there was no offence of hijacking in the Canadian Criminal Code. He was sentenced to five years in prison but was released on parole after serving two years.[119][120]

21 June 1973

890

McDonnell Douglas DC-8-53, registration CF-TIJ caught fire and was burnt out during refuelling at Terminal 2, Toronto
Toronto
Pearson International Airport, Ontario; no fatalities.[121]

26 June 1978

189

McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32, registration CF-TLV overran the runway in Toronto
Toronto
after a blown tire aborted the takeoff. Two of the 107 people on board were killed.[122]

17 September 1979

680

McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32, registration C-FTLU left Logan International Airport in Boston, MA for Yarmouth, NS
Yarmouth, NS
as Flight 680. Approximately 14 minutes after take off, the entire tailcone section of the aircraft separated resulting in rapid decompression at an altitude of 25,000 feet (7,600 m), leaving a large hole in the rear fuselage. A beverage cart and other items in the cabin were sucked out of the aircraft over the Atlantic Ocean, but there were no fatalities or significant injuries. The aircraft safely returned to Boston. Fatigue cracks were determined to be the cause. This same aircraft would be destroyed by a fire nearly four years later on 2 June 1983 as Air Canada
Canada
Flight 797[123][124]

2 June 1982

McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32
McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32
registration C-FTLY exploded during a maintenance period in Montreal, Quebec; no fatalities.[125]

2 June 1983

797

McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32
McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32
C-FTLU had an electrical fire in the aft lavatory during flight, resulting in an emergency landing at Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport. During the emergency evacuation, the sudden influx of oxygen caused a flash fire throughout the cabin, resulting in the deaths of 23 of the 41 passengers, including Canadian folk singer Stan Rogers. All five crew members survived. The captain was the last person to exit the aircraft.[126] This incident was also featured as "Fire Flight" of Canadian television series Mayday season 4 episode 3 (known as "Fiery Landing" of Air Emergency in the USA, Air Crash Investigation in the UK and Australia). This is Air Canada's most recent fatal accident.

23 July 1983

143

Boeing 767-200 registration C-GAUN glided to an emergency landing in Gimli after running out of fuel 12,300 metres (40,400 ft) above Red Lake, Ontario. Some people suffered minor injuries during the evacuation due to the steep angle of the escape slides at the rear of the aircraft, caused by the collapse of the nose gear. This incident was the subject of the TV movie, Falling from the Sky: Flight 174 and the book, Freefall, by William Hoffer.[127] This incident was also featured on the National Geographic Channel
National Geographic Channel
and Discovery Channel series Mayday season 5 episode 6. This flight is generally known as the Gimli Glider.

16 December 1997

646

Air Canada Flight 646 departed Toronto-Lester B. Pearson International Airport, Ontario, at 2124 eastern standard time on a scheduled flight to Fredericton, New Brunswick. On arrival, the Canadair CRJ-100 aircraft, registration C-FSKI, experienced an unstabilized approach in poor visibility and stalled aerodynamically during a late go-around attempt. The aircraft skidded 2,100 feet (640 m) from the point of touch down and hit a tree. An evacuation was conducted; however, seven passengers were trapped in the aircraft until rescued. Of the 39 passengers and 3 crew members, 9 were seriously injured and the rest received minor or no injuries. The accident occurred at 2348 Atlantic standard time.[128] Air Canada
Canada
was heavily criticized in the media over its employees allegedly entering the crash site and removing the aircraft decals identifying its operator without the permission of the authorities.

10 January 2008

190

Air Canada
Canada
Flight 190 was a scheduled flight from Victoria International Airport to Toronto
Toronto
Pearson International Airport. Whilst cruising over the Rocky Mountains, the Airbus 319
Airbus 319
operating the flight lost attitude control and significant height in a short moment. The flight made an emergency landing at Calgary
Calgary
International Airport. Of the 83 passengers and 5 crew on board, 10 people were hospitalized for non-life-threatening injuries and most were subsequently released later on that day.[129] All passengers were later accommodated on other flights to continue their journey to Toronto. A likely cause of the incident was due to wake turbulence.[130]

28 May 2012

1

Air Canada
Canada
Flight 1 was a scheduled flight from Toronto
Toronto
Pearson International Airport to Narita Airport, Tokyo. On the 28th of May, the Boeing 777-300ER
Boeing 777-300ER
(C-FITW, fin 733) operating the flight emitted a loud bang from the right engine after take off. The engine cowling and several other parts of the GE90
GE90
fell into the city of Toronto
Toronto
smashing the windscreen of 2 cars but causing no injuries. The aircraft declared an emergency and spent one hour dumping fuel and preparing for an emergency landing at Toronto. The aircraft successfully made an emergency landing and was towed towards a terminal where the passengers disembarked. The right hand engine was removed from the aircraft and the plane was temporarily stored for 5 days as a replacement engine was brought in[131]

29 March 2015

624

Air Canada Flight 624
Air Canada Flight 624
was an Airbus A320
Airbus A320
C-FTJP flying from Toronto Pearson International Airport to Halifax Stanfield International Airport. After 15 minutes in a holding pattern due to a severe winter storm and poor visibility, during approach in Halifax, the plane impacted the runway approach lights and power lines knocking out power and communications at the airport. It then impacted the ground 300m short of the runway, continuing on to impact the localizer antenna array, and breaking off its landing gear. The plane then touched down a second time and slid down the runway, losing one of its engines. All 133 passengers and 5 crew evacuated and survived. 23 people were sent to the hospital with non-life-threatening injuries.[132][133][134] The aircraft was written off.[135]

7 July 2017

759

Air Canada
Canada
Flight 759, an Airbus A320-200
Airbus A320-200
C-FKCK, was mistakenly lined up at San Francisco International Airport
San Francisco International Airport
to land on a busy taxiway parallel to the runway. The aircraft was able to perform a go-around operation in time to avoid collision with four planes on the taxiway. The aircraft then landed safely on its second attempt. As of December 2017, the incident remained under investigation.[136]

24 October 2017

781

Air Canada
Canada
Flight 781, an Airbus A320-200
Airbus A320-200
C-GPWG, failed to respond to repeated instructions from air traffic control ordering it to go-around. The incident occurred at San Francisco International Airport. As of December 2017 it remained under investigation.[137]

See also[edit]

Montreal
Montreal
portal Canada
Canada
portal Companies portal Aviation portal

ACE Aviation Holdings Air Canada
Canada
Rouge Chorus Aviation Jazz Aviation
Jazz Aviation
LP List of airlines of Canada List of airports in Canada List of companies of Canada Transportation in Canada Air transport in Canada

References[edit]

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Canada
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Celine Dion
joins Employees to Launch New era for Nation's Flag Carrier, prnewswire.com, 19 October 2004 Date accessed: 23 May 2014 ^ Renée Alexander (10 May 2006). " WestJet
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(31 March 2009). "Air Canada
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drafts an enforcer "He's a fixer, and comfortable with confrontation, not an airline operator."". Toronto: Business.theglobeandmail.com. Archived from the original on 3 April 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2011.  ^ "Flaherty appoints ex-judge to mediate Air Canada
Canada
pension issues". cbc.ca. 4 June 2009. Archived from the original on 7 June 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2011.  ^ "Farley flown in to mediate Air Canada
Canada
pension talks". Financialpost.com. Retrieved 21 February 2011. [dead link] ^ http://www.aceaviation.com/en/about/documents/ACE_history.pdf ^ "ACE Aviation". Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015.  ^ a b "Couple incensed as Air Canada
Canada
overbooking continues". cbc.ca. 3 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ "John Ivison: Throne Speech's 'consumers first' agenda will likely pit Tories against airlines and telcos". nationalpost.com. 17 September 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
pilots vote overwhelmingly for 10-year contract". Market Business News. 1 November 2014.  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
flight attendants ratify 10-year deal". CBC News. 18 November 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2015.  ^ "Our Nation's Carrier" (PDF). Air Canada. 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2017.  ^ Cline, Andy (November 2, 2017). "Air Canada
Canada
takes its first Boeing 737 MAX". Skies Mag. Retrieved November 5, 2017. The aircraft received its Canadian registration on Oct. 31, and was delivered to Kelowna Airport, B.C., that day for pre-delivery modifications by Kelowna Flightcraft. The 737 MAX then flew to Toronto
Toronto
Pearson International Airport, arriving in the early morning hours of Nov. 2.  ^ a b c "Air Canada
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to Purchase Bombardier C Series as Part of its Fleet Renewal Program" (Press release). Air Canada. 17 February 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.  ^ "Air Canada
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Travel News and Updates". www.aircanada.com. Retrieved 2017-06-15.  ^ a b "Annual Report 2012" (PDF). Air Canada. Retrieved 24 May 2013.  ^ "Annual Report 2008" (PDF). Air Canada. Retrieved 25 May 2013.  ^ "Annual Report 2009" (PDF). Air Canada. Retrieved 25 May 2013.  ^ a b "Annual Report 2010" (PDF). Air Canada. Retrieved 25 May 2013.  ^ a b "Annual Report 2011" (PDF). Air Canada. Retrieved 24 May 2013.  ^ "News Release Q4 2013" (PDF). Air Canada. Retrieved 9 March 2014.  ^ "Annual Report 2014" (PDF). Air Canada. Retrieved 12 April 2015.  ^ "Annual Report 2015" (PDF).  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
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Canada
Public Participation Act (LS-536E)". Parl.gc.ca. Retrieved 23 May 2012.  ^ "Investors Contacts Archived 4 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine.." Air Canada. Retrieved on 4 December 2010. "Air Canada Centre, 7373 Côte-Vertu Blvd. West Saint-Laurent, Quebec
Quebec
H4S 1Z3." ^ "Coordonnées - Investisseurs Archived 4 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine.." Air Canada. Retrieved on 4 December 2010. "Centre Air Canada, 7373 boul. Côte-Vertu Ouest Saint-Laurent (Québec) H4S 1Z3." ^ Israelson, David (11 September 1994). "Companies eye exits in case of separation". Toronto
Toronto
Star. Retrieved 23 September 2009.  ^ "FAQ’s." Air Canada. Retrieved on 4 December 2010. "Our headquarters are located at 7373 Boulevard Côte-Vertu Ouest, Dorval, Quebec." ^ World Airline Directory. Flight International. 20 March 1975. p. 465. Retrieved 24 May 2009.  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
layoffs blamed on free trade." Toronto
Toronto
Star. 10 October 1990. A1. Retrieved on 23 September 2009. ^ "Executive Biographies". aircanada.com. 24 November 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2011.  ^ a b " Air Canada Cargo
Air Canada Cargo
profile". Accessmylibrary.com. 1 October 1996. Retrieved 21 February 2011.  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
opens modern new cargo terminal at Toronto
Toronto
hub" (PDF). Air Canada. 28 January 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 September 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2009.  ^ Air Canada
Canada
- Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes 2007 -subsidiaries p.7 Date accessed: 5 November 2008 ^ Air Canada
Canada
Vacations - About Us, aircanadavacations.com Date accessed: 31 October 2008 ^ "About EVAS Air". Exploits Valley Air Services. Retrieved 21 September 2011.  ^ "Aeroplane Miles earned partners". Aircanada.com. 16 June 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2011.  ^ Air Canada Jetz
Air Canada Jetz
- About Us, aircanada.com Date accessed: 17 May 2014 ^ "ottawacitizen.com - Senators look for a new ride to road games as Air Canada
Canada
exits charter business".  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
to Carry Canada's Top Professional Hockey Teams". Air Canada
Canada
Media Centre. Retrieved 17 March 2015.  ^ "History". flyjazz.ca. Archived from the original on 7 March 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2008.  ^ Air Canada's Zip shut down. CBC news. 8 September 2004 Access date: 29 October 2008 ^ CNW Group (10 October 2001). "Air Canada
Canada
Gets Costs Out With Tango; Reassigns Existing Capacity to Offer Unique, No-Frills, Value-Focussed Alternative to Full Service Mainline Network". nieuwsbank.nl. Retrieved 12 January 2010.  ^ Air Canada's Tango steps into service - 16 October 2001, flightglobal.com Date accessed: 8 November 2008 ^ "Air Canada
Canada
fare structure". Aircanada.com. 24 November 2008. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2011.  ^ Leader, The (10 February 2007). "ACE to spin off unit". Canada.com. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011.  ^ "aircanada.com - About Air Canada". Retrieved 19 November 2013.  ^ "staralliance.com - Air Canada
Canada
Facts & Figures". Retrieved 19 November 2013.  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
will fly to Santiago in Boeing 777-300" (in Spanish). Aeropuertosantiago.cl. Archived from the original on 9 September 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011.  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
expands in Europe". Flightglobal.com. 10 March 1984. Retrieved 21 February 2011.  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
aims at business traveler with Singapore route". News.google.com. 12 January 1985. Retrieved 21 February 2011.  ^ "Profile on Air Canada". CAPA. Centre for Aviation. Archived from the original on 2016-10-30. Retrieved 2016-10-30.  ^ " Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific
signs codeshare deal with Air Canada".  ^ "Canadian Civil Aircraft Register". Transport Canada. Retrieved 2 August 2017.  ^ a b c d e "Q4 2017 MDA" (PDF).  ^ "Fin Numbers". Air Canada. Retrieved June 4, 2016.  ^ a b "Q3 2017 Result" (PDF).  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
Selects Boeing 737 MAX
Boeing 737 MAX
to Renew Mainline Narrowbody Fleet". Air Canada. 11 December 2013. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
Welcomes First Boeing 787-9
Boeing 787-9
Dreamliner to its Fleet". Air Canada. Retrieved 31 July 2015.  ^ "PlaneRegister.com - Air Canada
Canada
historical Airbus A340". Planesregister.com. Retrieved 21 February 2011.  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
Fleet of A340 (History) Airfleets aviation". Airfleets.net. Retrieved 21 February 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Air Canada Historical Fleet Date accessed: 27 January 2009 ^ Kramon, Glenn. "Northwest Airlines Bans Smoking on Most Flights." The New York Times. 24 March 1988. 1. Retrieved on 8 February 2012. ^ "Business Class – Transcontinental". Air Canada. Retrieved 27 May 2015.  ^ a b "Air Canada
Canada
Expands Introduction of New International Business Class and Premium Economy Seating". aircanada.com. Retrieved 18 November 2014.  ^ "Premium Economy (International)". aircanada.com. Retrieved 30 June 2013.  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
shows off new colour schemes for planes and staff uniforms".  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
Maple
Maple
Leaf Lounge". Air Canada. Retrieved 23 May 2014.  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
Maple
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Leaf Lounge Locations". Air Canada. Retrieved 23 May 2014.  ^ " Maple
Maple
Leaf Lounge access". Air Canada. Retrieved 23 May 2014.  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
Arrivals Lounge". Air Canada. Retrieved 23 May 2014.  ^ "Lounge Access Policy". Star Alliance. Retrieved 29 October 2016.  ^ "Galleries Aimia shares crash after Air Canada
Canada
parts ways with Aeroplan
Aeroplan
loyalty program". 11 May 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017.  ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 6 October 2009.  ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. 19 May 1967. Retrieved 24 May 2009.  ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 7 October 2009.  ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 7 October 2009.  ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 8 October 2009.  ^ "Accident synopsis 07051970". AirDisaster.com. 5 July 1970. Retrieved 24 May 2009.  ^ "1971: Canada's first successful plane hijacking". cbc.ca. 22 October 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2015.  ^ "Canada's First Successful Plane Hijacking". noahc.org/. Retrieved 1 February 2015.  ^ "Hull-loss description". Aviation Safety Network. 21 June 1973. Retrieved 24 May 2009.  ^ "Accident synopsis 06261978". 26 June 1978. Retrieved 24 May 2009.  ^ "44 in drama over Atlantic as DC-9 jet's tail rips off". The Toronto Star. 18 September 1979. p. 1.  ^ "Nation: Air Scares". Time. 1 October 1979.  ^ "Accident Database". AirDisaster.com. 2 June 1982. Retrieved 26 May 2009.  ^ "Accident synopsis 06021983". 2 June 1983. Archived from the original on 11 June 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2009.  ^ "Famous Gimli Glider
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Canada
service". Vancouver Sun. 24 January 2008. Retrieved 24 May 2009.  ^ "Transportation Safety Board of Canada
Canada
- Aviation Investigation Report A97H0011". Retrieved 24 April 2015.  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
AC190 update: Last passenger released from hospital". Retrieved 6 June 2015.  ^ "Transportation Safety Board of Canada
Canada
- Aviation Investigation Report A08W0007". Retrieved 6 June 2015.  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
B773 at Toronto
Toronto
on May 28th 2012, dropped engine parts on departure". Retrieved 24 April 2015.  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
AC624 touched down 335 metres short of runway, TSB says". 29 March 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015.  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
Provides Update #3 on AC624". Retrieved 24 April 2015.  ^ " Air Canada Flight 624
Air Canada Flight 624
crash investigators recover cockpit recorders". 31 March 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015.  ^ "C-FTJP Air Canada
Canada
Airbus A320-211 – cn 233". Planespotters.net.  ^ "Air Canada
Canada
plane nearly lands on a crowded taxiway at San Francisco airport". Retrieved 2 August 2017.  ^ "U.S. officials investigating runway mix-up involving another Air Canada
Canada
plane". Retrieved 11 November 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

McArthur, Keith (2004). Air monopoly: how Robert Milton's Air Canada won and lost control of Canada's skies. M & S. ISBN 0-7710-5688-5.  Milton, Robert (2004). Straight from the Top: The Truth About Air Canada. Greystone Books. ISBN 1-55365-051-4. 

External links[edit] Media related to Air Canada
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Jazz CBC Digital Archives – Turbulent Skies: The Air Canada
Canada
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