HOME
The Info List - Aihole


--- Advertisement ---



Aihole
Aihole
(pronounced "Eye-ho-lé"), also referred to as Aivalli, Ahivolal or Aryapura, is a historic site of ancient and medieval era Buddhist, Hindu
Hindu
and Jain
Jain
monuments in north Karnataka
Karnataka
(India) dated from the fourth century through the twelfth century CE.[1][2][3] Located around an eponymous small village surrounded by farmlands and sandstone hills, Aihole
Aihole
is a major archaeological site featuring over one hundred and twenty stone and cave temples from this period, spread along the Malaprabha river valley, in Bagalakote
Bagalakote
district.[4] Aihole
Aihole
is 22 miles (35 km) from Badami
Badami
and about 6 miles (9.7 km) from Pattadakal, both of which are major centers of historically important Chalukya monuments. Aihole, along with nearby Badami
Badami
(Vatapi), emerged by the 6th century as the cradle of experimentation with temple architecture, stone artwork, and construction techniques. This resulted in 16 types of free-standing temples and 4 types of rock-cut shrines.[5] The experimentation in architecture and arts that began in Aihole
Aihole
yielded the group of monuments at Pattadakal, a UNESCO world heritage site.[6][7] Over one hundred Aihole
Aihole
temples are Hindu, a few are Jain
Jain
and one is Buddhist. These were built and coexisted in close proximity. The site is spread over about 5 square kilometres (1.9 sq mi).[8] The Hindu
Hindu
temples are dedicated to Shiva, Vishnu, Durga, Surya
Surya
and other Hindu
Hindu
deities. The Jain
Jain
Basadi temples are dedicated to Mahavira, Parshvanatha, Neminatha
Neminatha
and other Jain
Jain
Tirthankaras.[9] The Buddhist monument is a monastery. Both Hindu
Hindu
and Jain
Jain
monuments include monasteries, as well as social utilities such as stepwell water tanks with artistic carvings near major temples.[7][10]

Contents

1 Location 2 History

2.1 Archaeological site

3 Chronology 4 Hindu
Hindu
Monuments

4.1 Durga
Durga
temple complex 4.2 Ravana Phadi cave 4.3 Hucchappayya matha 4.4 Hucchappayya gudi 4.5 Ambigergudi temples complex 4.6 Jyotirlinga temples complex 4.7 Mallikarjuna temples complex 4.8 Ramalinga temples group 4.9 Veniyar shrines complex 4.10 Galaganatha
Galaganatha
temples group 4.11 Maddin temples group 4.12 Triyambakeshvara temples group 4.13 Kuntigudi complex 4.14 Other Gudis

5 Buddhist
Buddhist
monuments 6 Jain
Jain
monuments

6.1 Meguti hill

6.1.1 Meguti Aihole
Aihole
inscription

6.2 Jain
Jain
cave temple 6.3 Yoginarayana group 6.4 Charanthi matha group

7 Aihole
Aihole
dolmens and inscriptions 8 Significance

8.1 Early Chalukya style of architecture

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References

11.1 Bibliography

12 External links

Location[edit] The Aihole
Aihole
monuments are located in the Indian state of Karnataka, about 190 kilometres (118 mi) southeast of Belgaum
Belgaum
and 290 kilometres (180 mi) northeast from Goa. The monuments are about 14 miles (23 km) from Badami
Badami
and about 6 miles (9.7 km) from Pattadakal, set midst rural villages, farms, sandstone hills and Malprabha river valley. The Aihole
Aihole
site preserves over 120 Hindu, Jain and Buddhist
Buddhist
monuments from the 4th—12th century CE.[11] The region is also a site for prehistoric dolmens and cave paintings.[12][13] Aihole
Aihole
has no nearby airport, and is about 4 hours drive from Sambra Belgaum
Belgaum
Airport (IATA Code: IXG), with daily flights to Mumbai, Bangalore and Chennai.[14][15] Badami
Badami
is the closest town connected by railway and highway network to major cities of Karnataka
Karnataka
and Goa.[6] It is a protected monument under the laws of the Indian government, and managed by the Archaeological Survey of India
India
(ASI).[16] History[edit] Aihole
Aihole
is referred to as Ayyavole and Aryapura in its inscriptions and Hindu
Hindu
texts from 4th to 12th century CE, as Aivalli and Ahivolal in colonial British era archaeological reports.[1] Aihole
Aihole
has been a part of Hindu
Hindu
mythologies. It has a natural axe-shaped rock on the Malaprabha river bank north of the village, and a rock in the river show a footprint.[17][18] Parashurama, the sixth Vishnu
Vishnu
avatar, is stated in these legends to have washed his axe here after killing abusive Kshatriyas who were exploiting their military powers, giving the land its red color.[11][19][18] A 19th-century local tradition believed that rock footprints in the river were those of Parashurama.[17] A place near the Meguti hillocks show evidence of human settlement in prehistoric period. Aihole
Aihole
has historical significance and has been called a cradle of Hindu
Hindu
rock architecture.[20] The documented history of Aihole
Aihole
is traceable to the rise of the Early Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
in 6th century.[21] It became, along with nearby Pattadakal
Pattadakal
and Badami, a major cultural center and religious site for innovations in architecture and experimentation of ideas.[6][22] The Chalukyas
Chalukyas
sponsored artisans and built many temples in this region between the 6th and 8th centuries.[23][24] Evidence of wooden and brick temples dating to 4th-century have been unearthed. Aihole started the experimentations with other materials such as stone around the 5th century when the Indian subcontinent saw a period of political and cultural stability under the Gupta Empire rulers. Badami
Badami
refined it in 6th and 7th centuries. The experimentations culminated in Pattadakal
Pattadakal
in the 7th and 8th centuries becoming a cradle of fusion of ideas from South India
India
and North India.[6][7]

The Aihole
Aihole
fort rubble walls on Meguti hill enclosing the 5th-6th century Jain
Jain
temple.

After the Chalukyas, the region became a part of the Rashtrakuta kingdom who ruled in the 9th and 10th century from the capital of Manyakheta. In the 11th and 12th century, the Late Chalukyas
Chalukyas
(Western Chalukya Empire, Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyani) ruled over this region.[25][26] Even though the area was not the capital or in immediate vicinity from 9th to 12th centuries, new temples and monasteries of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism continued to be built in the region based on inscriptional, textual and stylistic evidence. This likely happened, states Michell, because the region was prosperous with a substantial population and surplus wealth.[25] Aihole
Aihole
was fortified by Late Chalukya kings in the 11th and 12th centuries, in an approximate circle. This indicates the strategic and cultural importance of Aihole
Aihole
to the kings whose capital was far away. Aihole
Aihole
served as a hub of Hindu
Hindu
temple arts in this period with guild of artisans and merchants called the Ayyavole 500, celebrated for their talent and accomplishments in the historic texts of the Deccan region and South India.[27]

An 8th-century Shiva
Shiva
temple was renamed Lad Khan Temple
Lad Khan Temple
after a Muslim commander of Bijapur Sultanate
Bijapur Sultanate
who briefly lived here.

In the 13th century and thereafter, the Malprabha valley along with much of Deccan became a target of raids and plunder by the Delhi Sultanate armies devastating the region.[25][28] From the ruins emerged the Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
which built forts and protected the monuments, as evidenced by inscriptions in the fort at Badami. However, the region witnessed a series of wars between Vijayanagara Hindu
Hindu
kings and Bahmani Muslim sultans. After the collapse of Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
in 1565, Aihole
Aihole
became a part of the Adil Shahi rule from Bijapur, with some of the Muslim commanders using the temples as residence and their compounds as garrison for storing weapons and supplies. A Hindu
Hindu
temple dedicated to Shiva
Shiva
came to be called Lad Khan temple, named after the Muslim commander who used it as his operational hub, and a name that has been used ever since.[25] In late 17th-century, the Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb gained control of the region from Adil Shahis, after which Maratha Empire gained control of the region. It again changed hands with Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan conquering it in late 18th century, followed by the British that defeated Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
and annexed the region.[25] The monuments at Aihole-Badami- Pattadakal
Pattadakal
show the existence and a history of interaction between the early northern style and early southern style of Hindu
Hindu
arts.[29] According to T. Richard Blurton, the history of temple arts in north India
India
is unclear as the region was repeatedly sacked by invaders from Central Asia, particularly the Muslim incursion into the subcontinent from 11th-century onwards, and "warfare has greatly reduced the quantity of surviving examples". The monuments in this region are amongst the earliest surviving evidence of these early religious arts and ideas.[29][30] Archaeological site[edit] Aihole
Aihole
became a significant archaeological site and attracted scholarly attention after the British India
India
officials identified and published their observations.[17][7] The colonial era scholars hypothesized that the Apsidal shape Durga
Durga
temple in Aihole
Aihole
may reflect the adoption by Hindus and Jains of the Buddhist
Buddhist
Chaitya hall design and the influence of early Buddhist
Buddhist
arts. They also identified historically significant 7th-century inscriptions.[17] For much of the 20th-century, Aihole
Aihole
remained a neglected site. Until the 1990s, the site consisted of houses and sheds built up to and in some cases extending into the historical monuments.[31] The walls of the ancient and medieval temples were shared by some of these homes. Investments in infrastructure, land acquisition and relocation of some residences has allowed limited excavations and created a few dedicated archaeological parks including one for the much studied Durga
Durga
temple at Aihole.[32][33] Excavated ancient and medieval era artifacts and broken temple pieces, including a complete life size nude Lajja Gauri in birthing position and with a lotus head,[34] now resides in an ASI museum next to the Durga
Durga
temple in Aihole. Many temples and monasteries continue to be set midst narrow streets and congested settlement.[32] The Aihole
Aihole
site and artwork are a major source of empirical evidence and comparative studies of Indian religions and art history in the Indian subcontinent.[35][36][37] The Aihole's antiquity, along with four other major 5th to 9th century sites – Badami, Pattadakal, Mahakuteshvara and Alampur – is significant to scholarship relating to archaeology and religions. These, states George Michell, display a "meeting and fragmentation of different temple styles and the creation of local variants". This fusion and exploration of arts and ideas later became a part of northern and southern Indian architectural repertoires.[38] Chronology[edit] Aihole
Aihole
monuments preserve evidence of North Indian temple architecture styles that are missing elsewhere. The Gaudar Gudi[note 1] temple mimics a wooden temple design with stone, with no superstructure but a flat temple raised on a plinth with stairs, square sanctum, a circumambulatory path and southern style columned hall with northern style shrine niches.[38] The roof mimics sloping wooden version and has log-like stone strips.[39] The Chikki temple is another such example, that innovates by adding stone screens for light inside the temple.[38] The stone temples are dated to the first quarter of the 5th-century, suggesting the prior temples to centuries before.[40] According to James Harle of Oxford Ashmolean Museum, Aihole
Aihole
was a meeting place of styles but one of several around the 6th-century CE, that were on "their way to development elsewhere". They became preserved in Aihole
Aihole
probably because building and cultural activity stopped there around the 12th-century. Though excavations have yielded evidence that scholars disagree in dating, states Harle, it is probable that the earliest surviving temples in Aihole
Aihole
are from the 6th century and later.[41] Gary Tartakov links the temples at Aihole
Aihole
to 2nd century CE style and arts found in the Ajanta Caves, adding that while the Ajanta and Aihole
Aihole
monuments share some organizational features, there are distinct differences that suggest a "leap in time" and parallel developments in cave-based Ajanta and Aihole
Aihole
stone temple designs.[42] According to Christopher Tadgell – a professor in Architectural History, the Aihole
Aihole
apsidal temples were influenced by the Buddhist chaitya-griha, but not directly. The immediate precedent for these is found in the mid-5th-century Hindu
Hindu
temple at Chikka Mahakuta, another place where artists and architects explored temple construction ideas.[30] Hindu
Hindu
Monuments[edit] Aihole
Aihole
was an early medieval era meeting place and a cradle for experimentation of Hindu
Hindu
arts, particularly temple architecture.[43][41][44] The regional artisans and architects of Aihole
Aihole
region created prototypes of 16 types of free-standing temples and 4 types of rock-cut shrines to express in stone the theology of Hinduism.[45] Though there is a sprinkling of Jaina monuments in Aihole, the temples and relief artworks are predominantly Hindu.[41] The Aihole
Aihole
temples experimented with two layouts: sandhara (with circumambulatory path) and nirandhara (without circumambulatory path).[45] In terms of towers above the sanctum, they explored several superstructures: shikhara (tapering superstructure of discrete squares), mundamala (temple without superstructure, literally, garland with shaved head), rekhaprasada (smooth curvilinear superstructure also based on squares prevalent in northern and central India), dravidian vimana (pyramidal style of southern India) and kadamba-chalukya shikhara (a fusion style).[45] The layout typically followed squares and rectangles (fused squares), but the Aihole artists also tried out prototypes of an apsidal layout (like a Buddhist
Buddhist
or Church hall). In addition, they experimented with layout of mandapa within the shrines, the pillars, different types of windows to let light in, reliefs and statues, artwork on mouldings and pillars, bracket designs, ceiling, structure interlocking principles and styles of friezes. In some temples they added subsidiary shrines such as Nandi-mandapa, a prakara (wall) and styles of pratoli (gateway).[41][45] Durga
Durga
temple complex[edit]

Two views of the Durga
Durga
temple at Aihole.

The Durga
Durga
temple is the best known and studied of the Aihole
Aihole
temples. It has a misleading name, because the temple is not named after goddess Durga. According to one theory, it stands near the ruins of a fort-like enclosure or durg during a time of late medieval era Hindu Muslim conflict in the region.[46][47] According to another local tradition, a stone rubble durg and lookout was assembled on its flat roof and locals therefore began calling it the Durga
Durga
temple.[48] The temple was originally dedicated to Hindu
Hindu
gods Surya
Surya
and Vishnu.[47] The temple was dated by early scholars to the 5th century CE, but variously revised to be from between the late 6th and early 8th century.[47][48][49]

An amorous couple at the Durga
Durga
temple.

The Durga
Durga
temple is the principal attraction for Aihole
Aihole
visitors and iconic in its apsidal layout.[48][note 2] This shape is similar to 2nd or 1st century BCE Buddhist
Buddhist
chaitya halls found in Ajanta Caves. The Durga
Durga
temple stands on a high moulded adisthana and a damaged tower that had a curvilinear shikhara. The damaged tower's amalaka crown lies on the ground.[51] A colonnaded and covered ambulatory passage with major carvings runs around the sanctum. The mukha mandapa (main hall) and the sabha mandapa (community hall for functions) show intricate carvings.[52] The Durga
Durga
temple reverentially displays gods and goddesses from Shaivism, Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
and Shaktism
Shaktism
traditions of Hinduism. The included near life-size statues include Shiva, Vishnu, Harihara
Harihara
(half Shiva, half Vishnu), Durga
Durga
in her Mahishasuramardini form killing the buffalo demon, goddesses Ganga
Ganga
and Yamuna, Brahma, Surya, avatars of Vishnu
Vishnu
such as Varaha
Varaha
and Narasimha.[47][53] The temple has friezes to tell the story of the Ramayana
Ramayana
and the Mahabharata. Further, the temple has artwork showing scenes of daily life and couples, including several amorous couples in various stages of courtship and mithuna.[47][54] The Durga
Durga
temple complex consists of seven Hindu
Hindu
monuments. Next to the Durga
Durga
temple is the Suryanarayana temple with a pyramidal shikara on top. It has a Surya
Surya
statue with each hand holding a lotus flower in its garbha griya (sanctum), in a chariot and seven small horses carved at the bottom. The temple outline is intact, but most of the details are damaged.[55]

Stone beams mimicking logs on Lad Khan temple roof (left); Nandi facing the Shiva
Shiva
linga inside.[56]

The Lad Khan Temple
Lad Khan Temple
is near the Durga
Durga
temple and has been variously dated to "about 450 CE",[57] or from 6th to 8th centuries.[58][59][60] The temple is named after the Muslim commander under Adil Shahi Sultan who briefly stayed here about a thousand years after it was built. He used it to coordinate his military campaign in the region. The temple embeds three concentric squares,[note 2] facing the sanctum with a Shiva
Shiva
linga. Inside the inner third square is a seated Nandi. The two square mandapas surrounding it create the sabha mandapa or community hall, providing ample space for devotees and community to gather for functions. The second concentric square is supported by a set of 12 intricately carved pillars. The wall has floral designs. The temple inside is lit with natural sunlight coming in from lattice windows of the north Indian style. The temple roof stones include log-shaped stone strips suggestive of an attempt to mimic more ancient timber temple construction.[58][61][62] The Ladkhan temple includes iconography from the Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Shaktism
Shaktism
traditions of Hinduism. On the lintel of the sanctum with Shiva
Shiva
Linga, for example, is a Garuda image who carries Vishnu. The temple has reliefs showing goddesses Ganga
Ganga
and Yamuna, as well as other deities.[61] A set of stone stairs connect the lower level to the second floor where upon is a damaged square shrine. On three sides of this upper level are Vishnu, Surya
Surya
and Ardhanarishvara (half Shiva, half Parvati).[61] Like other Aihole
Aihole
Hindu
Hindu
temples, the temple includes scenes from daily life, including amorous couple in courtship and kama scenes.[61]

Gaudargudi temple experiments an open structure.

Gaudargudi temple stands next to the Ladkhan temple, built on the lines of Ladkhan temple but more open from all sides. According to George Michell, the temple is older than the Ladkhan temple.[63] It too has log-shaped stones, where its timber like form is integrated to serve its structural function. The sanctum is empty but has a Gajalakshmi on its lintel. An inscription engraved on the lintel states that the temple has been dedicated to goddess Gauri (an aspect of Parvati). There is evidence that the sanctum, the inside mandapa and niches on outer walls had carved statues, but these are now empty.[63] Gaudargudi was among the earliest temples when architects included pradakshina patha (circumambulatory path) in a Hindu
Hindu
temple design.[64] Next to the Gaudargudi (also spelled Gaudergudi) temple is a large stepwell for utility water storage whose walls have ancient carved sculptures. This stepwell is between the Gaudargudi and Chakragudi temple.[63] According to Himanshu Ray, the stepwell with its Hindu shrine was likely added in the 10th or 11th century.[65] The Chakragudi is notable for its preserved 7th or 8th century Nagara-style tower superstructure. The temple shows signs of later addition of a mandapa, whose style suggests 9th-century Rashtrakuta extension. To the southwest of the Durga
Durga
temple complex is the Badigargudi (also spelled Badigergudi) temple with pyramidal tower that explores a squat and shrinking discrete squares-topped design with a large cubical sukanasa containing a Surya
Surya
(Sun god) icon. Much of the Badigargudi relief artwork has been damaged and eroded.[63][66] The Durga
Durga
temple complex houses the Aihole
Aihole
Museum and Art Gallery, managed by the Archaeological Survey of India. The museum has outdoor display of excavated statues, artwork, hero stones, and temple parts demolished in past. It also has an indoor collection with best preserved pieces of statues and temple parts found in the region. The collection includes images of Shiva, Parvati, Vishnu, Lakshmi, Brahma, Saraswati, Durga, Saptamatrika, Surya, Indra and others. The life size Lajja Gauri
Lajja Gauri
with lotus head, found in Aihole, is a part of the indoor collection.[67] Ravana Phadi cave[edit]

Ravanaphadi cave (left); One of the carvings inside: Ardhanarishvara (half Shiva, half Parvati)

Ravanaphadi is one of the oldest rock cut cave temples in Aihole, located less than a kilometer uphill, northeast from the Durga
Durga
temple complex. The temple dates to the 6th century.[68][69] The entrance has an eroded fluted column and seated Nandi facing the temple sanctum, with several other small monuments. Inside the cave are three near square mandapas, the innermost featuring the Shiva
Shiva
linga and connected to the entrance mandapa by a rectangular space.[70] The entrance of the Ravanaphadi cave has a Nidhi and seated guardian on each side. Then, on left, is an image of Ardhanarishvara portraying the equivalence and essential interdependence of the masculine left Shiva
Shiva
and feminine right Parvati.[70] Past this fused image, is the first mandapa to the left of which is a niche carved space. In it is 6th century artwork showing dancing Shiva
Shiva
(Nataraja) with Parvati, Saptamatrikas
Saptamatrikas
or seven mothers of Shaktism
Shaktism
tradition, Ganesha
Ganesha
and Kartikeya.[70] On the right side of the main mandapa is Harihara portraying a fused image of Shaivism
Shaivism
and Vaishnavism, with left Shiva and right Vishnu. On the opposite wall of Harihara
Harihara
is Shiva
Shiva
with three primary river goddesses of Hindu
Hindu
theology, and he stands with Parvati and the skeletal ascetic Bhringi.[71]

Vishnu
Vishnu
and Lakshmi with Garuda on Ravanaphadi ceiling

The main mandapa connects to two other near square mandapas. To its north is the sanctum, flanked by Shaiva guardians at its entrance, then Vaishnava Varaha
Varaha
or Vishnu's boar avatar rescuing goddess earth on its left.[71][72] To the right is a carved image of Shakti Durga
Durga
as Mahishasuramardine spearing the buffalo demon. To the east of the main mandapa is an empty monastery like chamber.[71] The ceiling of the cave has reliefs. One, for example, shows Vishnu
Vishnu
with Lakshmi flying on winged Garuda, another shows the Vedic god Indra with Indrani on an elephant.[71] According to James Harle, the Ravanaphadi cave is stylistically unique in the Aihole
Aihole
region, and the closest artwork and style is found in the Rameshwara cave of Ellora in north Maharashtra.[73] According to Pia Brancaccio, the Ravanaphadi cave bridges the style and design of "the rock-cut tradition of the Deccan with that of Tamil Nadu".[74] Hucchappayya matha[edit]

Hucchappayya matha (left); Amorous couple carving inside.

The Huchappayya matha temple is about a kilometer south of the Durga temple complex on the other side of the Aihole
Aihole
village, relatively isolated from other temple clusters. It consists of two Hindu monuments, the front larger one is a Shiva
Shiva
temple and the other a monastery no longer in use. The temple is walled on all sides with stone, has steps leading into a doorway of the mandapa. The temple faces east towards the sunrise, is mostly simple and blank, but has four columns with amorous couples on each. They are in various stages of courtship and mithuna.[75] One of the couple carvings humorously places a horse-headed woman seeking the attention of a man, who carries a shocked expression on his face.[75] Inside the doorway is the mandapa whose ceiling has three large intricate and circular carvings, one each showing Brahma, Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva
Shiva
on their respective vahanas. A Nandi sits in the middle of the mandapa floor facing the sanctum wherein is the Shiva
Shiva
Linga.[75] The temple has two inscriptions in old Kannada, as well as a standing Shiva
Shiva
and standing Ganesha.[76] The mandapa walls also show various friezes and reliefs, including more amorous couples. The temple is flat on the top, lacking a superstructure. The temple is likely from the 7th century.[77] Hucchappayya gudi[edit] The Huchappayya gudi is a Hindu
Hindu
temple located few hundred meters southwest of the Huchappayya matha, in the farmlands towards the river, away from the village. It is simple east facing 2x2 square temple, with square front portico, a square sabha mandapa (main community ceremony hall, 24'x24') and an almost-square sanctum. The portico has four pillars, as does the sabha mandapa.[78] The main hall is supported by four pillars placed in a square of the same size as the portico.[78] The temple has North Indian style Rekhanagara tower with rotating squares rising in a curvilinear smooth towards the sky. The tower is damaged, the top amalaka finial and kalasha missing.[78][79]

Brahma
Brahma
carving in Hucchappayya gudi, now at a Mumbai Museum.

The temple is notable for its intricate pillar carvings both in the portico and inside, as well as the artwork on its inner walls and ceiling. The carvings show religious themes (Vishnu's avatar Narasimha and Shiva
Shiva
Nataraja
Nataraja
on wall, Shaiva dvarapalas, Garuda man-bird clasping two serpents), as well as the daily life of the people (dancers, musicians, individuals in Namaste
Namaste
posture, couple carrying offerings for prayers, flowers and animals).[79][78] Some panels are humorous such as young women with horse head embracing bearded older men found on the eastern porch column. Outside, there is a slab carved with Saptamatrikas
Saptamatrikas
(seven mothers) of the Shaktism
Shaktism
Hindu
Hindu
tradition. The temple also has an inscription in old Kannada
Kannada
on one of the pillars inside the main hall.[78] Hucchappayya gudi is dated to Early Chalukya period (6th-7th century).[79] Ambigergudi temples complex[edit] Ambigergudi group is one of the archaeologically significant Aihole complexes situated immediately west of the Durga
Durga
temple complex, near its entrance ticket office. It consists of three monuments, all aligned to the east-west axis.[80] The easternmost monument is square monument walled on its east, north and south, and it lacks a tower. It faces the middle monument, which is largest of the three. The middle monument is experiments with an open verandah design concept with sloping slaps for roof cover.[80] The sanctum is inside, and it contains a damaged Surya
Surya
(Sun god) image whose crown is visible. These eastern two monuments are from 6th to 8th century, the Early Chalukya period.[80]

The defaced carvings of Aihole
Aihole
temples.

The third monument in the Ambigergudi complex is a Late Chalukya design from about the 11th century.[80] Its structure and layout features all elements of the Hindu
Hindu
temple but it is damaged, the image inside the sanctum is missing and the face, nose and limbs of most of its intricate carvings on the walls are defaced. The structure experiments with square and cubic shaped elements and arrangement of space. The Dravida design stands out above the sanctum walls, with repeated motifs of resonating tower structure as it rises upwards. Like other elements of this temple, the capping roof and finial is missing.[80] The archaeological significance of the Ambigergudi temple is from the results of limited excavation near the rear wall of the sanctum foundation.[note 3] This yielded red-ware bowls dated to the 1st and 3rd century CE, as well as an outline of a single cell more ancient brick temple, which probably the stone temple replaced.[82] According to the hypothesis of Rao, the excavating archaeologist, the 3rd century CE brick temple served as a model and sanctum ground on which a more lasting stone was built. This hypothesis, however, remains tentative as additional evidence to refute or support it has not been found. According to Hemanth Kamdambi, Chalukyan temple inscriptions from the 6th to 8th century are silent about the existence of prior temples.[82] Jyotirlinga temples complex[edit] The Jyotir linga group of monuments contain sixteen Hindu
Hindu
monuments including a large stepwell water utility tank. It is located east of the Durga
Durga
temple complex compound across the road and to the south of the Ravanaphadi cave. The temples are dedicated to Shiva, with most monuments small to moderate size. The complex is largely in ruins, except for the Nandi mandapas and standing pillars inside the temples some of which show intricately carved but damaged images of Ganesha, Karitikeya, Parvati
Parvati
and Ardhanarishvara (half Shiva, half Parvati). The temples are likely from the Early Chalukya and Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
Hindu dynasties.[83][84] Mallikarjuna temples complex[edit]

The Mallikarjuna temple complex at Aihole

The Mallikarjuna temple complex features five Hindu
Hindu
monuments.[85] The main temple in this complex is dated to the Early Chalukya period, likely around 700 CE.[86][87] The temple tower experimented with square mouldings of diminishing area stacked concentrically as it rose towards the sky. On top is a crowning amalaka and then kalasa (pot used in Hindu
Hindu
festivals and rites-of-passage functions).[86] The smaller shrines in this complex were likely built in the Late Chalukya period.[86] The outer walls of the temples here are simple, clean surfaces.[86] The walls inside of the Shiva
Shiva
temple, particularly the pillars are intricately carved with religious themes such as a seated Vishnu man-lion avatar Narasimha, Ganesha
Ganesha
and Padmanidhi, as well as of daily life such as a female dancer accompanied with two female musicians with their instruments. The pillars also show amorous couples in various stages of courtship and intimacy.[86][85] Many of the images inside the shrines show signs of intentional damage inside the mandapa, such as the Karegudi (black pagoda) and Bilegudi (white pagoda). The complex is dedicated to Shiva, and includes a Nandi-mandapa monument. Outside the temples, within the complex, is a carved slab of Saptamatrikas
Saptamatrikas
(seven mothers) of the Shaktism tradition.[85] Near the temple, is a large stepwell as a water utility.[86][85] According to Vinayak Bharne and Krupali Krusche, the main Mallikarjuna temple illustrates with simplicity the core elements of a Hindu temple.[88] It consists of three squares. A front square portico faces the east, invites the devotee to rise up the stairs and enter, leads him into a square sabha mandapa (public gathering space). The main mandapa links to a square sanctum, above which is the tower superstructure. The mandapa has 4 (2x2) pillars set in a square, each centered to form four circles that enclose the community hall space. The stairs at entrance too are in a square footprint, with two pillars. The larger temples similarly combine squares and circles as a generative pattern to create the temple space.[88] Ramalinga temples group[edit]

Ramalingeshwara Shiva
Shiva
temple's annual ratha (chariot) procession celebrates Aihole
Aihole
stone monuments heritage

Ramalinga complex, also called Ramalingeshvara temples, is a group of five Hindu
Hindu
temples. These are located on the banks of the Malaprabha river, about 2.5 kilometers south of the Durga
Durga
temple complex. They are clustered close to the Veniyar and the Galaganatha
Galaganatha
monument groups in a hilly terrain.[89] The Ramalingeshwara temples are an active Shiva
Shiva
worship complex. It is periodically refurbished, white washed and redecorated for seasonal festivals. Its entrance has a modern wooden chariot with old stone wheels used for annual processions. The entrance portal has a Shiva Nataraja
Nataraja
and two lions carvings, while the main temple consists of three shrines that connect with a common mandapa. Two of the shrines have pyramidal towers with shrinking squares concentrically placed, as does the main shrine, but two have their amalaka and kalasa a bit lower and intact. The mandapa is covered with a slopping stone roof. The temple incorporates an arched gate with a path to the river.[90][89] Veniyar shrines complex[edit] The Veniyar shrines group, also called Veniyargudi, Vaniyavar, Veniyavur or Eniyar group, consists of ten Hindu
Hindu
temples.[91] The Veniyar shrines are south of the village, near the river bank, close to the Ramalinga temples group. They are mostly in ruins, with substantial damage, and had a thick forest growth over them till late 20th-century. Archeological Survey of India
India
cleared and recovered the space. A similarly named Veniyavur complex is also in the south side of the town, near Rachigudi temple. The largest temple here is an 11th-century temple.[92] The temple has a southern entrance, though the main hall and shrine has again an east-west alignment. The pillars experiment a square base and octagonal member followed by inverted kalasha on top with square finish. The lintel has a Gajalakshmi. The hall consists of two fused squares (6.5'x13'). The door frame to the sanctum has tiny carvings, and the temple has some of the most miniature carvings of themes in Aihole.[93] The Veniyar temples are dated to between the 9th and the 11th century, and represented a breakthrough in experiments by Aihole
Aihole
medieval artists to balance stone weight that the foundation and pillars could support while arranging a functional form, space and light within the temple consistent with the theological ideas. The so-called Temple number 5 of the Veniyar group combined function and form, creating a much taller madhyashala than any previous Aihole
Aihole
temple and a two-storey sanctum temple structure by nesting the stones. A simpler idea but with less fruitful results were tried in the triple Jaina temple found in Aihole
Aihole
village.[91] Galaganatha
Galaganatha
temples group[edit]

Galaganatha
Galaganatha
temple complex (left); An outside carving.

Galaganatha
Galaganatha
group of temples, also referred to as Galagnath temples, is a large cluster of over thirty medieval Hindu
Hindu
temples and monuments on the bank of the Malaprabha River
Malaprabha River
in Aihole. It is located about 2.5 kilometers south of the Durga
Durga
temple and ASI museum complex, near the river dam, close to the Veniyar and Ramalinga shrines.[89] The Galaganatha
Galaganatha
group of temples are dated to between 7th and 12th centuries.[89][94] The Galagnath temples compound has three main sub-clusters, almost all aligned in east-west direction. Most are partly or wholly in ruins with signs of intentional damage, but the remnants standing have significant details and artwork.[89] The main shrine of the Galaganatha
Galaganatha
complex is dedicated to Shiva, yet has Brahma, Vishnu
Vishnu
and Durga
Durga
artwork integral in its mandapa. The Shiva
Shiva
panel from its ceiling, along with several of its artwork has been moved to a Mumbai museum.[95] This main temple is from Early Chalukya period (6th or 7th century), has a Kadamba-Nagara style pyramidal shikhara of shrinking squares concentrically placed.[95] It includes images of river goddesses Ganga
Ganga
and Yamuna
Yamuna
at the entrance to this shrine. A few other notable temples in this complex that remain in reasonably preserved shape and form include one with a nearly complete 9th-century temple with South Indian Dravida style tower, another with North Indian Rekhanagara style tower.[95][89] The artwork found in the Aihole
Aihole
Galaganatha
Galaganatha
temple complex includes various styles of auspicious pot motifs (now common in Hindu ceremonies), Durga, Harihara, Maheshvari, Saptamatrikas, mythical makaras, foliage and flowers, birds, and others.[95][89][96] The Galaganatha
Galaganatha
temples complex is the site where archaeologists found the 7th-century complete life-size nude Lajja Gauri
Lajja Gauri
in birthing position and with a lotus head, now at ASI Aihole
Aihole
museum near the Durga temple.[97] The Galaganatha
Galaganatha
temples, states Ajay Sinha – professor of Art History, show evidence of unfinished wall panels in addition to the abundance of panels that represent the secular local folklore and social life as well as the religious mythologies and deities.[98] The Galaganatha
Galaganatha
complex has a diversity of temples and styles with a pastiche effect, states Sinha, which is perhaps evidence of "the degree to which interaction of architectural ideas was taking place in this period in this merchantile town".[98] Maddin temples group[edit] The Maddin cluster consists of four Hindu
Hindu
temples.[99] It is one of the groups that is in the heart of the village, midst homes and sheds. The largest temple faces north, and has two small linked shrines on its east and west. The temple experiments with different pillar designs.[99] The main mandapa of the largest Maddin temple is square and supported on four pillars made of stone unlike others used in Aihole, a greenish color stone that is not local and was imported from somewhere else, possibly from Dharwad
Dharwad
region of the Deccan.[99] The artists polished it, moulded a square base and then lathe-turned it intricately all the way to its neck in a manner similar to Hoyasala designs. The temple features a Nataraja, the dancing Shiva
Shiva
with a damaru in his right hand and trishula in the left. Near him is an intricately carved lion. In distance, facing the Shiva
Shiva
linga is seated Nandi in the antarala of the temple. On the lintel of the sanctum is Gajalakshmi.[99] The towers of the Maddin temples are all stepped pyramidal concentric squares.[99] Triyambakeshvara temples group[edit]

Rachigudi Temple of the Triyambakeshvara Group

The Triyambakeshvara group, also spelled Triambakesvara group, has five Hindu
Hindu
temples.[100] It is within the village. The main temple of this group faces south and is set on a high platform.[100] Two smaller connected shrines are to its east and west. Stone steps lead to an open mandapa, a sabha mandapa (community hall) which connects to the sanctum. The open portico has two square pillars and two pilasters. The lintel on the entrance has Gajalakshmi. The sabha mandapa is square (15.6'x15.6'), itself supported on four square moulded pillars set within the space in a square, while the side walls have twelve pilasters.[100] The upper part of the four square pillars are circular. It is connected to an antechamber and the sanctum. The sanctum is dedicated to Shiva
Shiva
linga, while a near life size Nandi sits facing the sanctum inside the shrine. On the lintel to the sanctum is carved another Gajalakshmi (Lakshmi with two elephants spraying water). The damaged towers of the main and the attached smaller shrines are all stepped pyramid of shrinking concentric squares as the tower rises towards the sky.[100] Two smaller temples in the Triyambakeshvara group are the Desiyar temple and the Rachigudi temple. Both feature a square main community ceremony hall, but different roof than the main temple of this group. The Desiyar temple has a seated, lotus-holding Lakshmi carved on the entrance. It has a bhumi-style tower, and has a Nandi sitting outside.[101] The Rachigudi features a sloping stone roof of the style now found in Hindu
Hindu
temples of southwestern India. The outside wall has floral and other carvings.[102] The temple consists of a main shrine, plus two subsidiary shrines to its east and west.[102] The inside of the Rachigudi temple is a square layout, set on square base pillars with rounded moulded shaft supporting the roof and a moulded inverted kalasha pot like shape at its top. The portico of the temple is square (17'x17'), is of kakasanas style with eight squat pillars, again with square base, followed by an exploration of octagonal form.[103] The Rachigudi has some intricately carved artwork inside, such as of Gajalakshmi on the lintel. The door jambs explore floral and geometric designs, as do the small perforated windows in the sabha mandapa integrated to bring light into the temple.[103] The Triyambakeshvara group including the Rachigudi Hindu
Hindu
temple is from the 10th to 11th centuries, bridging the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
and Late Chalukya periods.[104] Kuntigudi complex[edit]

Kunti group colonnade

The Kunti group of monuments, also referred to as the Konti-gudi group, consist of four Hindu
Hindu
temples. They are situated in the middle of an Aihole
Aihole
market street with temple walls between the houses and sheds. Gupte dates the temples to the 6th century,[105] while Michell states some of the monuments are more likely from the 8th century.[106] The temples feature a veranda and garbha-grihya (sanctum) without enclosed walls.[105] The temples have an entrance colonnade with square pillars and porch with carvings that have eroded with time. The carvings include natural themes and amorous couples (for example, man cuddles a woman's shoulder as she lovingly caresses him with one hand and holds him with other both looking at each other).[107] Inside the main temple is a mandapa with carvings of Vaishnavism, Shaivism
Shaivism
and Shaktism traditions. The artwork presents unusual perspective such as the top view of Vishnu
Vishnu
as he sleeps on Sesha, without Lakshmi, but with chakra and conch not in his hand but on the top edge of the bed; Shiva
Shiva
in yoga asana with Parvati
Parvati
seated on his side and her hand on his thigh; three headed Brahma
Brahma
holding a pasha and kamandalu seated on lotus rather than Hamsa; Durga
Durga
killing demon buffalo but from an unusual perspective.[108] Similarly one of the pillars a damaged artwork with eight hands (mostly broken), probably Shiva, but who unusually carries trishul (Shaivism), chakra (Vaishnavism) and dhanus (Rama, Vaishnavism). Goddess Uma is shown in one carving as wearing a yajnopavita (along with Shiva
Shiva
with him).[109] The temples also present standing Vishnu
Vishnu
avatar Narasimha, Ardhanarishvara (Shiva-Parvati fusion), Nataraja, Gajalakshmi, Ganesha, standing Shiva
Shiva
with pearl yajnopavita, Vedic gods Agni, Indra, Kubera, Ishana, Vayu, and others.[106][109] Other Gudis[edit]

Gauri temple mandapa, Aihole

Chikkigudi group is at a short distance to the north of the Ambigeragudi group (7th-8th century; according to Michell, main temple has "exuburent sculptures in the interior" treasured within a plain simple outside; detailed artwork of Trivikrama Vishnu, Nataraja
Nataraja
Shiva, Brahma-Vishnu-Mahesh Hindu
Hindu
trinity and others)[110][111] Tarabasappa temple (6th-7th century, earliest separation of sanctum from the main gathering hall)[112] Hucchimalli temple (operating in late 6th century per 708 CE inscription, an intricate carving of Kartikeya, Shaivism tradition)[113][114] Aralibasappa temple (9th century, Ganga
Ganga
and Yamuna
Yamuna
river goddesses carving, Shaivism
Shaivism
tradition)[92] Gauri temple (12th century, intricately carved Durga, Shaiva and Vaishnava carvings and images, now Shaktism
Shaktism
tradition but may have belonged to the Vaishnava then Shaiva tradition earlier)[115] Sangameshwara temple and Siddanakolla (6th-8th century, Saptamatrikas and Lajja Gauri
Lajja Gauri
of the Shaktism
Shaktism
tradition)[116]

Buddhist
Buddhist
monuments[edit]

Two storeyed Buddhist
Buddhist
temple in Aihole

There is one Buddhist
Buddhist
monument in Aihole, on the Meguti hill. It is a two storeyed temple, a few steps below the crest of the hill and the Jain
Jain
Meguti hill temple. In front of the temple is a damaged Buddha statue, one without a head, probably taken out from inside the temple.[117] The two levels of the temple are open and feature four full carved square pillars and two partial pillars on two side walls. Each pair of pillar goes into the hill to form a small monastery like chamber. The doorway to lower level chamber is intricately carved, while the central bay on the upper level has a Buddha relief showing him seated under a parasol.[117] The temple is dated to late 6th-century.[117] Jain
Jain
monuments[edit] Aihole
Aihole
preserves four collection of about ten Jain
Jain
monuments from the 6th to 12th century CE, associated with the Meena Basti (also referred to as Mina Basadi). These co-exist with the Buddhist
Buddhist
and Hindu monuments, and are found on the Meguti hill, Chanranthi matha, Yoginarayana complex and an early Jaina cave temple near a Hindu
Hindu
cave temple south of the village.[118][119] Meguti hill[edit]

Meguti hill Jain
Jain
temple

The Meguti Jain
Jain
temple is on the level-topped Meguti hill, above the two storeyed Buddhist
Buddhist
temple, surrounded by the Aihole
Aihole
fort. The north-facing temple is dedicated to a Jain
Jain
Tirthankara.[117] The word "Meguti" is a corruption of the word "Megudi" and means "upper temple".[120] The temple has an open portico, leading the devotee into a mandapa and the sanctum. The entire temple sits on a raised platform like many of the Hindu
Hindu
temples in the village. However, the layout inside is distinct. It has a pillared square mukhya-mandapa (main hall), which enters into a narrower square antarala divided into two compartments at different levels.[120] A stair connects the slightly higher level, which leads to the larger square shaped chamber and sanctum. This section consists of two concentric squares, the inner square being the sanctum, and the space between the outer square and inner square being the pradakshina patha (circumambulation path).[120] However, in the back of this path, a later construction sealed the circumambulation passage, making it more suitable for storage. Inside the inner square is a relatively crude carving of a Tirthankara. In contrast to the crudeness of this carving is the intricate carving of Ambika with attendant female Jaina deities and her lion mount below of the temple, now preserved in the ASI museum in Aihole. A similar carving is found attending the Mahavira
Mahavira
in Jain
Jain
Ellora Caves, and it is therefore likely that this temple was a dedication to the Mahavira.[120] The temple includes a stone stair connecting the lower level to its upper. Though badly damaged, the upper level has a Jain
Jain
image. It is also a viewpoint to look over the fort as well to watch the Aihole
Aihole
village below.[120] The temple foundation moldings rhythmically project the pilastered walls of the temple. The temple is not complete, as the niches and walls where carvings would be, are either cut but empty or left uncut and left raised.[117] The temple had a tower, but it is lost and has been replaced by a rooftop watch room like empty chamber added much later and that does not flow with the rest of temple.[117][121] The moldings around the foundation have carvings of Jaina motifs such as seated Jinas meditating.

Aihole
Aihole
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
inscription from 634 CE.

Meguti Aihole
Aihole
inscription[edit] The Meguti temple is historically important for its Aihole
Aihole
Prashasti inscription. A slab on the outer side wall of the temple is in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language and Old Kannada
Kannada
script. It is dated to Saka 556 (634 CE), and is a poem in a variety of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
meters by Ravikirti about the Hindu
Hindu
king Pulakeshin II.[122] The inscription mentions the Hindu poets Kalidasa
Kalidasa
and Bharavi, whose Mahabharata-related compositions are subject of friezes in Badami-Aihole- Pattadakal
Pattadakal
region. The inscription records the Chalukya family and his royal patron's support in the construction of the Meguti Jain
Jain
temple.[117][121][123] Jain
Jain
cave temple[edit]

7th-8th century Jain
Jain
cave temple.[124]

The Jain
Jain
cave temple is to the south of village, on the Meguti hill. It is likely from the late 6th century or early 7th.[86] The outside is plain, but the cave is intricately embellished inside. The carvings carry symbolic Jain
Jain
motifs, such as the mythical giant makaras disgorging tiny humans and lotus petals decorations.[86] Inside its vestibule, on each side are two major reliefs of Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
with snake canopy above him and Bahubali with vines wrapped around his two legs. Both these images have female attendants next to them. The vestibule leads to the sanctum, flanked by two armed guards who also hold lotuses, with an enthroned seated inside. The cave has a side chamber, where too is a seated Jina surrounded by mostly female devotees with offerings and worship position.[86] Yoginarayana group[edit] Another cluster of Jain
Jain
monuments is the Yoginarayana group, near the Gauri temple. It consists of four temples, dedicated to the Mahavira and the Parshvanatha. Two face the north, one west and another east, all likely from the 11th century.[125] The pillars of the temples have intricate carvings. Their towers are same as the stepped squares found in Hindu
Hindu
pyramidal-style shikaras in Aihole.[126] This collection has a polished basalt image of Parshvanatha, with a five headed snake hood. He sits on a platform with lions carved in its niches.[127] Another image from this Jain
Jain
temples cluster is now at the ASI museum in Aihole.[128] Charanthi matha group[edit]

A Chanranthi math Jain
Jain
temple.

The Charanthi matha group consists of three Jain
Jain
temples and is dated to the 12th century CE.[127] It features the Late Chalukya style.[127] The main Jain
Jain
temple in the Charanthi matha group faces north. It is flanked by two smaller shrines, while it consists of a portico, an almost-square mandapa (16 ft × 17 ft), an antarala, sanctum.[129] The mandapa entrance has the image of Mahavira
Mahavira
with two female attendants, inside are four pillars laid out in a square pattern, and the design on them look similar to pillars found in nearby Hindu
Hindu
temples. At the entrance of the antarala is another image of the Mahavira.[129] The square antechamber leads to sanctum where there is another image of the Mahavira
Mahavira
seated in the padmasana yoga position, on a lion throne flanked by two attendants. The smaller shrines also feature the Mahavira.[129] The tower above the Charanthi matha group temples are stepped shrinking concentric squares pyramidal style.[129] The second and third temple in the Charanthi matha group face south. These share a common veranda. The temples resemble monastic sanctuaries. A six bay veranda connects to these two, and the doorways have miniature Jinas carved on the lintels. The pillars of these temples are ornately carved, and both are dedicated to the Mahavira.[127][130] The matha consists of twin basadi with one porch serving both, with each housing 12 Tirthankars. An inscription here records the date of construction as 1120 CE.[citation needed] Aihole
Aihole
dolmens and inscriptions[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Main article: Aihole
Aihole
inscriptions Scattered in the pre historic period meghalithic site behind the Meguti temple are many dolmens, numbering about 45 and more are destroyed by treasure hunters. [1] Local people call it Morera mane (Morera tatte) or Desaira Mane. Each dolmen has three sides upright square slabs and large flat slab on top forms roof, front side upright slab had circular hole. Significance[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October 2017)

The Hindu
Hindu
temples at Aihole
Aihole
reflect a "meeting and fragmentation of styles", one that became a creative cradle for new experiments in construction and architecture yielding their local variants, states George Michell. These ideas ultimately influenced and became a part of both the northern and southern styles of Hindu
Hindu
arts.[131] They are also a possible mirror to early wood-based temples whose natural decay led to innovations with stone, where the early stone temples preserved the heritage, the form and the function of their timber ancestors.[38] The early temples at Aihole
Aihole
may also be a window into the more ancient Indian society, where temples were built around and integrated into the "santhagara village meeting hall" as the mandapa.[132] The Aihole
Aihole
temples are built at different levels, likely because the river Malaprabha flooded and its path changed over its history. The more ancient temples have a lower level. This is evidenced by the limited excavations done by Rao near the foundation of a few select temples where red polished ware have been found. These ceramic ware pieces are dated to between 1st century BCE and 4th century CE, and likely deposited with silt around the older temples during river floods. Extensive excavation studies at the Aihole
Aihole
done have not been done, but the studies so far suggest that the site preserves archaeologically significant information.[133] The Jain
Jain
temples of Aihole
Aihole
are significant in helping decipher the spread, influence and interaction of Jainism and Hinduism
Hinduism
traditions in the Deccan region. According to Lisa Owen, the comparison of the artwork in Aihole- Badami
Badami
Jain
Jain
monuments and other sites such as the Ellora Caves, particularly the attendants, deities and demons provides a means to decipher the development of Jain
Jain
mythology and the significance of the shared iconography.[134] Early Chalukya style of architecture[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October 2017)

Badami
Badami
Chalukyas
Chalukyas
King Pulakeshin II
Pulakeshin II
(610–642 A.D.) was a follower of Vaishnavism. The inscription of Ravikirti, his court poet, is a eulogy of the Pulakeshin II
Pulakeshin II
and is at the Meguti temple. It is dated 634 CE and is written in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language and old Kannada script. The Aihole
Aihole
inscription describes the achievements of Pulakeshin II
Pulakeshin II
and his victory against King Harshavardhana. Aihole inscription of Pulakeshin II
Pulakeshin II
mentioned as akrantatma-balonnatim Pallavanam patim: that means the Pallavas
Pallavas
had attempted to nip in the bud the rise of the Badami
Badami
Chalukyas: The conflict of the two powers before the campaign of Pulakeshin II
Pulakeshin II
against the Pallavas. In the Aihole
Aihole
inscription referred that Mangalesha's (Paramabhagavat) victory over the Kalachuris
Kalachuris
and the conquest of Revatidvipa. According to the Aihole
Aihole
inscription of Pulakeshin II, a civil war between Mangalesha and Pulakeshin II, due to Mangalesha's attempt to secure the succession for his son, which was the end of Mangalesha's reign.[135] See also[edit]

Badami
Badami
Chalukya Architecture Pattadakal Mahakuta
Mahakuta
group of temples List of State Protected Monuments in Karnataka

Chalukya dynasty Badami
Badami
Chalukya Architecture Five Hundred Lords of Ayyavolu Aihole
Aihole
inscriptions

Sudi Gajendragad Ainnurruvar Indian rock-cut architecture

Notes[edit]

^ Gudi means "shrine" in Kannada, and regionally used to connote a Hindu
Hindu
temple. ^ a b For the temple's detailed schematic plan, see Vinayak Bharne and Krupali Krusche's Rediscovering the Hindu
Hindu
Temple,[50] and Christopher Tadgell's The East.[30] ^ The foundation of the middle of the three monuments shows some remnants of the type of bricks found.[81]

References[edit]

^ a b Himanshu Prabha Ray (2010). Archaeology and Text: The Temple in South Asia. Oxford University Press. pp. 17–18, 27. ISBN 978-0-19-806096-3.  ^ Heather Elgood 2000, p. 151. ^ Jeffery D. Long (2011). Historical Dictionary of Hinduism. Scarecrow. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-8108-7960-7. , Quote: "AIHOLE. Pronounced "Eye-ho-lé", village in northern Karnataka
Karnataka
that, from the fourth to the sixth centuries CE, was a major city (...)" ^ Maurizio Forte; Stefano Campana; Claudia Liuzza (2010). Space, Time, Place: Third International Conference on Remote Sensing in Archaeology. Archaeopress. pp. 343–344. ISBN 978-1-4073-0659-9.  ^ Evolution of Temple Architecture – Aihole-Badami- Pattadakal, UNESCO (2015) ^ a b c d World Heritage Sites - Pattadakal
Pattadakal
- More Detail, Archaeological Survey of India, Government of India
India
(2012) ^ a b c d Michell 2017, pp. 12-29, 78-86. ^ Maurizio Forte; Stefano Campana; Claudia Liuzza (2010). Space, Time, Place: Third International Conference on Remote Sensing in Archaeology. Archaeopress. pp. 343–344. ISBN 978-1-4073-0659-9.  ^ Michell 2017, pp. 12-19. ^ Himanshu Prabha Ray (2010). Archaeology and Text: The Temple in South Asia. Oxford University Press. pp. 24–26. ISBN 978-0-19-806096-3.  ^ a b R Muniswamy (2006). Karnataka
Karnataka
Sate Gazetteer: Bijapur District ( Bagalkot District
Bagalkot District
Included). Karnataka
Karnataka
Gazetteer Department. pp. 40, 847–848.  ^ Michell 2017, pp. 12-41. ^ Gary Tarr (1970), Chronology and Development of the Chāḷukya Cave Temples, Ars Orientalis, The Smithsonian Institution and Department of the History of Art, University of Michigan, Vol. 8, pp. 155-184 ^ Belgaum
Belgaum
airport AAI, Govt of India; Official Website, Belgaum ^ New terminal building at Belagavi airport, The Hindu
Hindu
(September 30 2017) ^ World Heritage Sites - Pattadakal; Group of Monuments at Pattadakal (1987), Karnataka; ASI, Government of India ^ a b c d James Sutherland Cotton; Sir Richard Burn; Sir William Stevenson Meyer (1908). Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
... Oxford University Press. p. 129.  ^ a b Gupte 1967, pp. 9-10. ^ Sigfried J. de Laet and Joachim Herrmann, History of Humanity: From the seventh century B.C. to the seventh century A.D.. UNESCO, 1996. ^ "Aihole's stories in stone". Retrieved 2011-07-28.  ^ Michell 2017, pp. 12-29. ^ "Pattadakal". National Informatics Center. Retrieved 21 June 2016.  ^ George Michell (2002). Pattadakal. Oxford University Press. pp. 2–7. ISBN 978-0-19-565651-0.  ^ "World Heritage Sites - Pattadakal". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 21 June 2016.  ^ a b c d e Michell 2017, pp. 19-20. ^ Hermann Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund (1998). A History of India. Routledge. pp. 106–113. ISBN 978-0-415-15482-6.  ^ Michell 2017, p. 78. ^ George Childs Kohn (2013). Dictionary of Wars. Routledge. pp. 146–147. ISBN 978-1-135-95494-9.  ^ a b T. Richard Blurton (1993). Hindu
Hindu
Art. Harvard University Press. pp. 53–55, 212–218. ISBN 978-0-674-39189-5.  ^ a b c Christopher Tadgell (2015). The East: Buddhists, Hindus and the Sons of Heaven. Routledge. pp. 90–95. ISBN 978-1-136-75384-8.  ^ Michell 2017, pp. 78-85. ^ a b Michell 2017, pp. 78-89. ^ Gary Michael Tartakov (1997). The Durga
Durga
Temple at Aihole: A Historiographical Study. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–14. ISBN 978-0-19-563372-6.  ^ Amalananda Ghosh. An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology. BRILL Academic. p. 269. ISBN 90-04-09264-1.  ^ Tartakov, Gary Michael; Dehejia, Vidya (1984). "Sharing, Intrusion, and Influence: The Mahisasuramardini Imagery of the Calukyas and the Pallavas". Artibus Asiae. 45 (4): 287–345. doi:10.2307/3249741. ISSN 0004-3648.  ^ Carol Radcliffe Bolon (1985), The Durga
Durga
Temple, Aihole, and the Saṅgameśvara Temple, KūḐavelli: A Sculptural Review, Ars Orientalis, Vol. 15, pp. 47-64 ^ George Michell (1978), A Comparison of the Muṇḍeśvarī Temple at Ramgarh and the Meguṭi Temple at Aihole: Notes towards a Definition of Early Temple Style in India, East and West, Vol. 28, No. 1/4 (December 1978), pp. 213-223 ^ a b c d George Michell 1977, pp. 103-104. ^ Michell 2017, p. 88. ^ Herbert Härtel (1981). South Asian Archaeology 1981. Brill Academic. pp. 455–456.  ^ a b c d James C. Harle (1994). The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent. Yale University Press. pp. 166–178. ISBN 978-0-300-06217-5.  ^ Gary Michael Tartakov (1997). The Durga
Durga
Temple at Aihole: A Historiographical Study. Oxford University Press. pp. 33–45, 54–55. ISBN 978-0-19-563372-6.  ^ Alain Daniélou
Alain Daniélou
(2003). A Brief History of India. Simon and Schuster. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-59477-794-3.  ^ Vinayak Bharne & Krupali Krusche 2014, pp. 80-95. ^ a b c d Evolution of Temple Architecture – Aihole-Badami- Pattadakal, UNESCO (2015) ^ Gary Michael Tartakov (1997). The Durga
Durga
Temple at Aihole: A Historiographical Study. Oxford University Press. pp. 126–127, 139–140. ISBN 978-0-19-563372-6.  ^ a b c d e Roshen Dalal (2010). The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths. Penguin Books. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-14-341517-6.  ^ a b c Michell 2017, pp. 82-83. ^ Heather Elgood 2000, p. 26. ^ Vinayak Bharne & Krupali Krusche 2014, pp. 80-81. ^ Michell 2017, pp. 83-84. ^ Michell 2017, pp. 82-84. ^ Michell 2017, pp. 82-86. ^ Michell 2017, pp. 84-86. ^ Michell 2017, p. 87. ^ George Michell 1977, p. 107. ^ Tartakov, Gary Michael (1980). "The Beginning of Dravidian Temple Architecture in Stone". Artibus Asiae. 42 (1): 39–40. doi:10.2307/3250008.  ^ a b James C. Harle (1994). The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent. Yale University Press. pp. 172–174 with Figure 130. ISBN 978-0-300-06217-5. , Quote: "Figure 130. Aihole. Lad Khan temple. Late sixth/seventh century." ^ Michell 2017, p. 87, "Ladkhan temple (...) This early 8th-century monument...". ^ Vinayak Bharne & Krupali Krusche 2014, pp. x, 81. ^ a b c d Michell 2017, pp. 87-88. ^ Gupte 1967, pp. 18-21. ^ a b c d Michell 2017, pp. 88-89. ^ Gupte 1967, p. 47. ^ Himanshu Prabha Ray (2010). Archaeology and Text: The Temple in South Asia. Oxford University Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-19-806096-3.  ^ Karnataka, Aihole, Badiger Gudi, Aihole
Aihole
archives, Switzerland ^ Museum and Art Gallery, ASI Aihole ^ Michell 2017, pp. 92-94. ^ Tartakov, Gary Michael (1980). "The Beginning of Dravidian Temple Architecture in Stone". Artibus Asiae. 42 (1): 39–46, 86–87. doi:10.2307/3250008.  ^ a b c Michell 2017, pp. 92-93. ^ a b c d Michell 2017, pp. 92-97. ^ Preeti Sharma (2007), Varaha
Varaha
motif in the Chalukyan Rock-cut Caves at Badami, Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, Vol. 68, Part Two (2007), pp. 1417-1421 ^ James C. Harle (1994). The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent. Yale University Press. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-300-06217-5.  ^ Brancaccio, Pia (2014). "Cave Architecture of India". Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. pp. 1–9. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-3934-5_9848-1. ISBN 978-94-007-3934-5.  ^ a b c Michell 2017, p. 102. ^ Gupte 1967, pp. 30-31. ^ Henri Stierlin (1998). Hindu
Hindu
India: From Khajuraho to the Temple City of Madurai. Taschen. p. 72. ISBN 978-3-8228-7649-7.  ^ a b c d e Gupte 1967, pp. 27-28. ^ a b c Michell 2017, pp. 103-104. ^ a b c d e Michell 2017, pp. 89-90. ^ Michell 2017, p. 90. ^ a b Hemant Kadambi (2007). Norman Yoffee, ed. Negotiating the Past in the Past: Identity, Memory, and Landscape in Archaeological Research. University of Arizona Press. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-8165-2670-3.  ^ George Michell (2013). Southern India: A Guide to Monuments Sites & Museums. Roli. pp. 253–255. ISBN 978-81-7436-903-1.  ^ Gupte 1967, pp. 56-58. ^ a b c d Gupte 1967, pp. 58-60 ^ a b c d e f g h i Michell 2017, pp. 81-82. ^ Vinayak Bharne & Krupali Krusche 2014, pp. 80-82. ^ a b Vinayak Bharne & Krupali Krusche 2014, pp. 80-82 with Figure 6.8. ^ a b c d e f g Gupte 1967, pp. 29-43 ^ Michell 2017, pp. 104-105. ^ a b Ajay J. Sinha (2000). Imagining Architects: Creativity in the Religious Monuments of India. University of Delaware Press. pp. 71–79. ISBN 978-0-87413-684-5.  ^ a b Michell 2017, p. 103. ^ Gupte 1967, pp. 60-61. ^ George Michell 1977, pp. 97, 107-108. ^ a b c d Michell 2017, p. 104. ^ Shivaji Panikkar (1997). Saptamātr̥kā Worship and Sculptures: An Iconological Interpretation of Conflicts and Resolutions in the Storied Brāhmanical Icons. DK. pp. xxii, 121–122. ISBN 978-81-246-0074-0.  ^ Carol Radcliffe Bolon (2010). Forms of the Goddess Lajja Gauri
Lajja Gauri
in Indian Art. Pennsylvania State University Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-271-04369-2.  ^ a b Ajay J. Sinha (2000). Imagining Architects: Creativity in the Religious Monuments of India. University of Delaware Press. pp. 52–67. ISBN 978-0-87413-684-5.  ^ a b c d e Gupte 1967, pp. 61-62. ^ a b c d Gupte 1967, pp. 62-63. ^ Gupte 1967, p. 63. ^ a b Gupte 1967, pp. 63-64. ^ a b Gupte 1967, p. 64. ^ Michell 2017, pp. 102-103. ^ a b Gupte 1967, p. 46. ^ a b Michell 2017, pp. 101-102. ^ Gupte 1967, pp. 73-74. ^ Gupte 1967, pp. 61, 73-78. ^ a b Gupte 1967, pp. 61, 73-75. ^ Michell 2017, pp. 90-91. ^ George Michell (1979). J. E. Van Lohuizen-De Leeuw, ed. South Asian Archaeology 1975: Papers from the Third International Conference of the Association of South Asian Archaeologists in Western Europe Held in Paris. BRILL Academic. pp. 141–145. ISBN 90-04-05996-2.  ^ Gupte 1967, pp. 47-48. ^ Michell 2017, p. 92. ^ George Michell (1979). J. E. Van Lohuizen-De Leeuw, ed. South Asian Archaeology 1975: Papers from the Third International Conference of the Association of South Asian Archaeologists in Western Europe Held in Paris. BRILL Academic. pp. 143–144. ISBN 90-04-05996-2.  ^ Michell 2017, pp. 97-98. ^ Michell 2017, p. 105. ^ a b c d e f g Michell 2017, pp. 79-80. ^ Michell 2017, pp. 79-82, 98-101. ^ Gupte 1967, pp. 43-48, 112-118. ^ a b c d e Gupte 1967, pp. 43-44. ^ a b Gupte 1967, pp. 43-48, 112-113. ^ Himanshu Prabha Ray (2010). Archaeology and Text: The Temple in South Asia. Oxford University Press. pp. 24–26. ISBN 978-0-19-806096-3.  ^ Gary Michael Tartakov (1997). The Durga
Durga
Temple at Aihole: A Historiographical Study. Oxford University Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-19-563372-6. ; For original paper, see F. Kielhorn, Aihole
Aihole
Inscription of Pulikesin II, Saka Samvat 556, Epigraphica Indica Volume 6 (1981) ^ Klaus Bruhn; Universiteit van Amsterdam, Institute of South Asian archaeology. Studies in south asian culture. Brill Archive. pp. 474–475 with Figure 335.  ^ Michell 2017, pp. 98-99. ^ Gupte 1967, p. 68. ^ a b c d Michell 2017, pp. 100-101. ^ Michell 2017, p. 101. ^ a b c d Gupte 1967, pp. 65-66. ^ Gupte 1967, p. 66. ^ George Michell 1977, pp. 103. ^ George Michell (1979). J. E. Van Lohuizen-De Leeuw, ed. South Asian Archaeology 1975: Papers from the Third International Conference of the Association of South Asian Archaeologists in Western Europe Held in Paris. BRILL Academic. pp. 135–141. ISBN 90-04-05996-2.  ^ George Michell (1979). J. E. Van Lohuizen-De Leeuw, ed. South Asian Archaeology 1975: Papers from the Third International Conference of the Association of South Asian Archaeologists in Western Europe Held in Paris. BRILL Academic. pp. 146–149 with footnotes. ISBN 90-04-05996-2.  ^ Lisa Owen (2012). Carving Devotion in the Jain
Jain
Caves at Ellora. BRILL Academic. pp. 24–25, 45–58, 69–72. ISBN 90-04-20629-9.  ^ "EARLY CHALUKYAS". Archived from the original on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 

Bibliography[edit]

Prasanna Kumar Acharya (2010). An encyclopaedia of Hindu
Hindu
architecture. Oxford University Press (Republished by Motilal Banarsidass). ISBN 978-81-7536-534-6.  Prasanna Kumar Acharya (1997). A Dictionary of Hindu
Hindu
Architecture: Treating of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Architectural Terms with Illustrative Quotations. Oxford University Press (Reprinted in 1997 by Motilal Banarsidass). ISBN 978-81-7536-113-3.  Alice Boner (1990). Principles of Composition in Hindu
Hindu
Sculpture: Cave Temple Period. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0705-1.  Alice Boner; Sadāśiva Rath Śarmā (2005). Silpa Prakasa. Brill Academic (Reprinted by Motilal Banarsidass). ISBN 978-8120820524.  A.K. Coomaraswamy; Michael W. Meister (1995). Essays in Architectural Theory. Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts. ISBN 978-0-19-563805-9.  Vinayak Bharne; Krupali Krusche (2014). Rediscovering the Hindu Temple: The Sacred Architecture and Urbanism of India. Cambridge Scholars. ISBN 978-1-4438-6734-4.  Heather Elgood (2000). Hinduism
Hinduism
and the Religious Arts. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-0-304-70739-3.  Gupte, Ramesh Shankar (1967). The Art and Architecture of Aihole: A Study of Early Chalukyan Art Through Temple Architecture and Sculpture. D.B. Taraporevala. OCLC 327494.  Adam Hardy (1995). Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation : the Karṇāṭa Drāviḍa Tradition, 7th to 13th Centuries. Abhinav. ISBN 978-81-7017-312-0.  Stella Kramrisch (1993). The Hindu
Hindu
Temple. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0224-7.  Lippe, Aschwin (1967). "Some Sculptural Motifs on Early Calukya Temples". Artibus Asiae. 29 (1). doi:10.2307/3250288.  George Michell (1977). The Hindu
Hindu
Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-53230-1.  George Michell (2002). Pattadakal. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-565651-0.  Michell, George l (2014). Temple Architecture and Art of the Early Chalukyas: Badami, Mahakuta, Aihole, Pattadakal. Niyogi Books. ISBN 978-93-83098-33-0.  Michell, George (2017). Badami, Aihole, Pattadakal. Jaico (Reprinted, Orig Year: 2011). ISBN 978-81-8495-600-9.  Michael W. Meister; Madhusudan A. Dhaky (1996). Encyclopaedia of Indian Temple Architecture. American Institute of Indian Studies. ISBN 978-81-86526-00-2.  Upinder Singh (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education. ISBN 978-81-317-1677-9.  T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1993). Elements of Hindu
Hindu
iconography. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0878-2.  Ajay J. Sinha (2000). Imagining Architects: Creativity in the Religious Monuments of India. University of Delaware Press. ISBN 978-0-87413-684-5.  Burton Stein (1978). South Indian Temples. Vikas. ISBN 978-0706904499.  Burton Stein (1989). The New Cambridge History of India: Vijayanagara. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-26693-2.  Burton Stein; David Arnold (2010). A History of India. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4443-2351-1.  Kapila Vatsyayan (1997). The Square and the Circle of the Indian Arts. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 978-81-7017-362-5. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Aihole.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aihole.

Aihole
Aihole
temples Official site of Bagalkot District Sacred Landscapes in Early Medieval South India: the Chalukya state and society (ca. AD 550-750) - Aihole Photos of Aihole
Aihole
British Library Collection

v t e

Hindu
Hindu
inscriptions and arts

Hindu
Hindu
architecture and art glossary

Beginnings (before 400 CE)

Arts, sculpture

Didarganj Yakshi Huvishka Pompeii Lakshmi

Archaeological sites

Mathura Bet Dwarka Kumhrar

Inscriptions

Ayodhya Hathibada Ghosundi Heliodorus pillar Lakulisa Mathura Mora Well Mountain Temple Naneghat Reh Yavanarajya Vasu Doorjamb

Maturity (400-899 CE)

Arts, sculpture

Nataraja

Archaeological sites

Aihole Badami Besnagar Chandraketugarh Sirpur Ujjain

Inscriptions

Gadhwa Stone Gopika Cave Vadathika Cave Mandasor Stone Mandasor Pillar

Temples

400-599 CE

Udayagiri Caves Bhumara Shiva Dashavatara Eran
Eran
Vishnu Nachna Parvati Tigawa
Tigawa
Devi Gop Surya Mandasor Shiva Aihole
Aihole
Group Badami
Badami
Caves Elephanta Caves

600-899 CE

Pattadakal
Pattadakal
Group Bateshwar Madhya Pradesh Teli ka Mandir Chaturbhuj Gwalior Masrur Himachal Lakshana Devi Alampur Telangana

Navabrahma Papanasi

Ellora Caves Somnath Gujarat Dwarka Gujarat Mahabalipuram
Mahabalipuram
Group Sirpur Chhattisgarh Srirangam Meenakshi

Advanced (900-1299 CE)

Archaeological sites

Belur Halebidu Madan Kamdev Somanathapura

Temples

Brihadisvara Thanjavur Brihadisvara Gangaikondacholapuram Airavatesvara Darasuram Chennakeshava Belur Chennakesava Somanathapura Hoysaleswara Halebidu Udupi Krishna Nataraja
Nataraja
Chidambaram Tirupati Modhera Gujarat Khajuraho Jageshwar Uttarkhand Sasbahu Gwalior Konark Sun Jagannath Puri

Revival (1400-1799 CE)

Archaeological sites

Hampi

Related

Hindu Denominations Iconography Pilgrimage sites Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

Note:

The above list of archaeological sites, inscriptions and temples is grossly incomplete.

Category Portal

v t e

Indian state of Karnataka

Overviews

Architecture Cinema Climate Cuisine Demography Economy Education Folk Arts Geography History Media People Sports Transportation Wildlife

History

Aihole Alupa dynasty Amoghavarsha Badami Banavasi Balligavi Belur Chalukya dynasty Chitradurga Nayakas Deva Raya II Durvinita Halebidu Haleri Kingdom Halmidi Hampi Hoysala Empire Kadamba dynasty Kalyani Chalukyas Keladi Nayakas Shivappa Nayaka Kittur
Kittur
Chennamma Kingdom of Mysore Mayurasharma Pattadakal Pulakeshin II Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
dynasty Sringeri Srirangapatna Tipu Sultan Unification of Karnataka Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire Vijayanagara Vishnuvardhana Veera Ballala II Vikramaditya II Vikramaditya VI Western Ganga
Ganga
dynasty

Geography

Cities and towns Districts Rivers Dams and Reservoirs Taluks Villages Highest point Bayalu Seeme Malenadu Karavali Western Ghats

Culture

Bharata Natyam Bhuta Kola Bidriware Channapatna toys Chitrakala Parishat Gaarudi Gombe Ilkal saree Kamsale Kannada Karnatik music Kasuti Khedda Mysore Dasara Togalu Gombeyaata Udupi cuisine Veeragase Yakshagana Mysore musicians

Literature

Kannada

Milestones Epics Medieval Rashtrakuta Western Ganga Western Chalukya Hoysala Vijayanagara Vachana Haridasa Mysore Play Modern

Kannada
Kannada
Sahitya Parishat Kannada
Kannada
Sahitya Sammelana Karnataka

Noted poets

Asaga Gunavarma I Adikavi Pampa Sri Ponna Ranna Devar Dasimayya Basava Akka Mahadevi Allama Prabhu Siddharama Harihara Raghavanka Rudrabhatta Janna Kumara Vyasa Chamarasa Nijaguna Shivayogi Ratnakaravarni Purandara Dasa Kanaka Dasa Vijaya Dasa Gopala Dasa Jagannatha Dasa Lakshmisa Sarvajna Shishunala Sharif Krishnaraja Wadiyar III D. R. Bendre Gopalakrishna Adiga K. S. Narasimhaswamy M. Govinda Pai Kuvempu D. V. Gundappa G. S. Shivarudrappa

People and Society

Karnataka
Karnataka
ethnic groups List of people from Karnataka

Tourism

Beaches Dams Forts National Parks Hindu
Hindu
Temples Jain
Jain
Temples Waterfalls

Awards

Karnataka
Karnataka
Ratna Pampa Award Nrupatunga Award Basava
Basava
Puraskara Rajyotsava Prashasti Jakanachari Award Varnashilpi Venkatappa Award

v t e

Historical Places in North Karnataka

Badami
Badami
Chalukyas

Badami Pattadakal Aihole Mahakuta

Western Chalukya

Sudi Itagi Lakkundi Gadag Dambal Chaudayyadanapura Galaganatha

Rashtrakuta

Kuknur

Kadamba dynasty

Hangal Halasi

Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire

Hampi Mudgal Raichur Kanakagiri

Bijapur Sultanate

Bijapur

Bidar
Bidar
Sultanate

Bidar

Bahamani Sultanate

Gulbarga

Princely states

Kittur Mudhol Jamakhandi Savanur Sandur

v t e

Historical places of Chalukyas

Karnataka

Badami Aihole Pattadakal Mahakuta Sudi Banashankari Lakkundi Dambal Gadag Mahadeva Temple, Itagi Lakshmeshwara Annigeri Kundgol Chaudayyadanapura Galaganatha Hangal Hooli Jalasangvi Basavakalyan Manyakheta Chandramouleshwara Temple
Chandramouleshwara Temple
Unkal Hubli-Dharwad Haveri Kuruvatti

Maharashtra

Elephanta Caves Ajanta cave #1 paintings Sangli Sangli
Sangli
State Hottal near Deglur Kolhapur Latur Dhule Solapur Manapura Mumbai Akola Nanded Hottal in Nanded
Nanded
District Naldurg Aurad Omerga Daitya Sudan temple Shiva
Shiva
temples at Pen Naldurg

Telangana

Bhadrakali Temple in Warangal Someshwara temple in Warangal Thousand Pillar Temple
Thousand Pillar Temple
in Hanamakonda Ramappa Temple
Ramappa Temple
near Warangal Alampur, Mahbubnagar Panagal Bhuvanagiri Fort Kulpakji
Kulpakji
and Jangaon, Warangal

Andhra Pradesh

Chebrolu, Guntur district Eluru Kolletikota Nidumolu Rajahmundry Vengi Terela village in Durgi mandal in Guntur district

v t e

Tourism in India

By state

Andhra Pradesh Andaman and Nicobar Islands Assam Bihar

Patna

Delhi Chhattisgarh Goa Jammu and Kashmir

Ladakh

Haryana Himachal Pradesh Karnataka

Bangalore Mysore

Kerala

Thiruvanathapuram Kochi Thrissur

Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra

Mumbai Marathwada Aurangabad

Mizoram North East India Odisha

Kosal

Puducherry Punjab Rajasthan

Jaipur

Telangana

Hyderabad

Tamil Nadu

Chennai Coimbatore

Uttar Pradesh

Allahabad

Uttarakhand West Bengal

Kolkata

Types

Beaches Hill stations Islands Lakes Medical tourism Skiing Tourist trains Waterfalls Wildlife

National parks Protected areas

World Heritage Sites

Organisations

India
India
TDC Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
TDC Assam TDC Bihar STDC Delhi TTDC Haryana Tourism Corporation J&K TDC Karnataka
Karnataka
TDC Kerala TDC Madhya Pradesh TDC Maharashtra
Maharashtra
TDC Odisha TDC Rajasthan TDC Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
TDC Telangana
Telangana
TDC Uttar Pradesh Tourism West Bengal TDCL

See also

Incredible India NEITM Visa policy of India

.