The Info List - Ahom Kingdom

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Assam , Nagaland , Tripura , Manipur ,Arunachal pradesh part of India



1 Sukaphaa 1228–1268

2 Suteuphaa 1268–1281

3 Subinphaa 1281–1293

4 Sukhaangphaa 1293–1332

5 Sukhrangpha 1332–1364

Interregnum_ 1364–1369

6 Sutuphaa 1369–1376

_Interregnum_ 1376–1380

7 Tyao Khamti 1380–1389

_Interregnum_ 1389–1397

8 Sudangphaa 1397–1407

9 Sujangphaa 1407–1422

10 Suphakphaa 1422–1439

11 Susenphaa 1439–1488

12 Suhenphaa 1488–1493

13 Supimphaa 1493–1497

14 Suhungmung 1497–1539

15 Suklenmung 1539–1552

16 Sukhaamphaa 1552–1603

17 Susenghphaa 1603–1641

18 Suramphaa 1641–1644

19 Sutingphaa 1644–1648

20 Sutamla 1648–1663

21 Supangmung 1663–1670

22 Sunyatphaa 1670–1672

23 Suklamphaa 1672–1674

24 Suhung 1674–1675

25 Gobar Roja 1675–1675

26 Sujinphaa 1675–1677

27 Sudoiphaa 1677–1679

28 Sulikphaa 1679–1681

29 Gadadhar Singha 1681–1696

30 Sukhrungphaa 1696–1714

31 Sutanphaa 1714–1744

32 Sunenphaa 1744–1751

33 Suremphaa 1751–1769

34 Sunyeophaa 1769–1780

35 Suhitpangphaa 1780–1795

36 Suklingphaa 1795–1811

37 Sudingphaa 1811–1818

38 Purandar Singha 1818–1819

39 Sudingphaa 1819–1821

40 Jogeswar Singha 1821–1822

41 Purandar Singha 1833–1838


Palaeolithic (2,500,000–250,000 BCE)

Madrasian Culture (2,500,000 BCE)

Riwatian Culture (1,900,000 BCE)

Soanian Culture (500,000–250,000 BCE)

Neolithic (10,800–3300 BCE)

Bhirrana Culture (7570–6200 BCE)

Mehrgarh Culture (7000–3300 BCE)

Chalcolithic (3500–1500 BCE)

Jorwe Culture (3500–2000 BCE)

Ahar-Banas Culture (3000–1500 BCE)

Pandu Culture (1600–1500 BCE)

Bronze Age (3000–1300 BCE)

Indus Valley Civilisation (3300–1300 BCE)

– Early Harappan Culture (3300–2600 BCE)

– Mature Harappan Culture (2600–1900 BCE)

– Late Harappan Culture (1900–1300 BCE)

Vedic Civilisation (2000–500 BCE)

Ochre Coloured Pottery culture (2000–1600 BCE)

– Swat culture (1600–500 BCE)

Iron Age (1300–230 BCE)

Vedic Civilisation (2000–500 BCE)

– Janapadas (1500–600 BCE)

– Black and Red ware culture (1300–1000 BCE)

Painted Grey Ware culture (1200–600 BCE)

Northern Black Polished Ware (700–200 BCE)

Pradyota Dynasty (799–684 BCE)

Haryanka Dynasty (684–424 BCE)

Three Crowned Kingdoms (c. 600 BCE–1600 CE)

Maha Janapadas (c. 600–300 BCE)

Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BCE)

Ror Dynasty (450 BCE–489 CE)

Shishunaga Dynasty (424–345 BCE)

Nanda Empire (380–321 BCE)

Macedonian Empire (330–323 BCE)

Maurya Empire (321–184 BCE)

Seleucid Empire (312–63 BCE)

Pandya Empire (c. 300 BCE–1345 CE)

Chera Kingdom (c. 300 BCE–1102 CE)

Chola Empire (c. 300 BCE–1279 CE)

Pallava Empire (c. 250 BCE–800 CE)

Maha-Megha-Vahana Empire (c. 250 BCE–c. 500 CE)

Parthian Empire (247 BCE–224 CE)

Classical Period (230 BCE–1206 CE)

Satavahana Empire (230 BCE–220 CE)

Kuninda Kingdom (200 BCE–300 CE)

Indo-Scythian Kingdom (200 BCE–400 CE)

Mitra Dynasty (c. 150 BCE–c. 50 BCE)

Shunga Empire (185–73 BCE)

Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BCE–10 CE)

Kanva Empire (75–26 BCE)

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Vakataka Empire (c. 250–c. 500 CE)

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Western Ganga Kingdom (350–1000 CE)

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Huna Kingdom (475–576 CE)

Rai Kingdom (489–632 CE)

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Harsha Empire (606–647 CE)

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Gurjara-Pratihara Empire (650–1036 CE)

Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE)

Pala Empire (750–1174 CE)

Rashtrakuta Empire (753–982 CE)

Paramara Kingdom (800–1327 CE)

Yadava Empire (850–1334 CE)

Chaulukya Kingdom (942–1244 CE)

Western Chalukya Empire (973–1189 CE)

Lohara Kingdom (1003–1320 CE)

Hoysala Empire (1040–1346 CE)

Sena Empire (1070–1230 CE)

Eastern Ganga Empire (1078–1434 CE)

Kakatiya Kingdom (1083–1323 CE)

Karnatas of Mithila (1097-1325 CE)

Zamorin Kingdom (1102–1766 CE)

Kalachuris of Tripuri (675-1210 CE)

Kalachuris of Kalyani (1156–1184 CE)

Sutiya Kingdom (1187-1673 CE)

Deva Kingdom (c. 1200–c. 1300 CE)

Medieval and Early Modern Periods (1206–1858 CE)

Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526 CE)

– Mamluk Sultanate (1206–1290 CE)

– Khilji Sultanate (1290–1320 CE)

– Tughlaq Sultanate (1320–1414 CE)

– Sayyid Sultanate (1414–1451 CE)

– Lodi Sultanate (1451–1526 CE)

Ahom Kingdom (1228–1826 CE)

Chitradurga Kingdom (1300–1779 CE)

Oinwar dynasty (1323-1526 CE)

Reddy Kingdom (1325–1448 CE)

Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1646 CE)

Garhwal Kingdom (1358–1803 CE)

Mysore Kingdom (1399–1947 CE)

Gajapati Kingdom (1434–1541 CE)

Deccan Sultanates (1490–1596 CE)

Ahmadnagar Sultanate (1490–1636 CE)

Berar Sultanate (1490–1574 CE)

Bidar Sultanate (1492–1619 CE)

Bijapur Sultanate (1492–1686 CE)

Golkonda Sultanate (1518–1687 CE)

Keladi Kingdom (1499–1763 CE)

Koch Kingdom (1515–1947 CE)

Mughal Empire (1526–1858 CE)

Sur Empire (1540–1556 CE)

Madurai Kingdom (1559–1736 CE)

Thanjavur Kingdom (1572–1918 CE)

Marava Kingdom (1600–1750 CE)

Thondaiman Kingdom (1650–1948 CE)

Maratha Empire (1674–1818 CE)

Sikh Confederacy (1707–1799 CE)

Travancore Kingdom (1729–1947 CE)

Sikh Empire (1799–1849 CE)

Colonial Period (1510–1961 CE)

Portuguese India (1510–1961 CE)

Dutch India (1605–1825 CE)

Danish India (1620–1869 CE)

French India (1759–1954 CE)

Company Raj (1757–1858 CE)

British Raj (1858–1947 CE)

Kingdoms and Colonies of Sri Lanka (544 BCE–1948 CE)

Kingdom of Tambapanni (543–505 BCE)

Kingdom of Upatissa Nuwara (505–377 BCE)

Anuradhapura Kingdom (377 BCE–1017 CE)

Kingdom of Ruhuna (200 CE)

Kingdom of Polonnaruwa (300–1310 CE)

Jaffna Kingdom (1215–1624 CE)

Kingdom of Dambadeniya (1220–1272 CE)

Kingdom of Yapahuwa (1272–1293 CE)

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Kingdom of Gampola (1341–1347 CE)

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Kingdom of Sitawaka (1521–1594 CE)

Kingdom of Kandy (1469–1815 CE)

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* v * t * e

Part of a series on the


History Protohistoric

* Pragjyotisha Kingdom * Danava Dynasty * Naraka Dynasty


* Davaka * Kamarupa


* Ahom Kingdom * Sutiya Kingdom * Kachari Kingdom * Kamata Kingdom * Baro-Bhuyan


* Colonial Assam * Assam Province


* Ahoms * Assamese Brahmins * Muslims * Assamese Sikhs

* Kalitas * Kaibartas * Sutiyas


* _ Bodos • Deuris • Dimasas • Karbis • Koch Rajbongshis • Misíngs • Rabhas • Tea tribes _

People of Assam


* Asamiya , Bodo

* Script


* _Goalpariya _ * _Kamrupi _


* Bihu * Gamosa

* Kirtans - Namghars

* Lagundeoni * Pujas * Satras * Xorai


Cuisine Rice

_Poitabhat • Jolpan _


_Masor Tenga _


_Narikol\'or Laru • Til\'or Laru _


_Pitha _


_Bilahir top_

Drink _ Assam Tea _


* Ambubachi Mela * Ahoms: Me-Dam-Me-Phi * Bihu * Durga Puja * Sahitya Sabhas



* Cultural Development of Kamarupa

Literature History

* Beginnings * Orunodoi Era * Jonaki Era


* Charyapads * Kotha Ramayana * The Orunodoi * The Jonaki * The Hemkosh

* Kodom Koli


* Poetry * Novels * Folk literature


* Assam Sahitya Sabha

* Oxomiya Bhaxa Unnati Xadhini Xobha


* Assam Ratna

Asam Sahitya Sabha Award • Kamal Kumari Foundation Award • Krishnakanta Handique Award

Music and performing arts

* Music * Performing arts


* Cinema

Joymoti - the first motion picture

* * Assam portal

* v * t * e

The AHOM KINGDOM (/ˈɑːhɑːm, ˈɑːhəm/ , 1228–1826, also called _Kingdom of Assam_ ) was a kingdom in the Brahmaputra Valley in Assam , India . It is well-known for maintaining its sovereignty for nearly 600 years and successfully resisting Mughal expansion in Northeast India . Established by Sukaphaa , a Tai prince from Mong Mao , it began as a mong in the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra based on wet rice agriculture. It expanded suddenly under Suhungmung in the 16th century and became multi-ethnic in character, casting a profound effect on the political and social life in the entire Brahmaputra valley. The kingdom became weaker with the rise of the Moamoria rebellion , and subsequently fell to repeated Burmese invasions of Assam . With the defeat of the Burmese after the First Anglo-Burmese War and the Treaty of Yandabo in 1826, control of the kingdom passed into East India Company hands.

Though it came to be called the Ahom kingdom in the colonial and subsequent times, it was largely multi-ethnic, with the ethnic Ahom people constituting less than 10% of the population toward the end. The 1901 census of India enumerated approximately 179,000 people identifying as Ahom. The latest available census records slightly over 2 million Ahom individuals however, estimates of the total number of people descended from the original Tai-Ahom settlers are as high as 8 million. The total population of Assam being at 31 million according to the 2011 census, they presently constitute slightly over 25%. The Ahoms called their kingdom _Mong Dun Shun Kham_, (Assamese : xunor-xophura; English: casket of gold) while others called it _Assam_. The British-controlled province after 1838 and later the Indian state of Assam came to be known by this name.


* 1 History * 2 Ahom economic system

* 3 Ahom administration

* 3.1 Swargadeo and Patra Mantris * 3.2 Other officials * 3.3 Governors * 3.4 Paik officials * 3.5 Land survey

* 4 Classes of people * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References


Main articles: Ahom Dynasty , Ahom-Mughal conflicts , and Battle of Saraighat

The Ahom kingdom was established in 1228 when the first Ahom king Chao Lung Siu-Ka-Pha came from _Mong Mao_ which is now included within the Dehong-Dai Singhpho Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan in Peoples Republic of China and entered the Brahmaputra valley, crossing the rugged Patkai mountain range. He was accompanied by his three queens, two sons, several nobles and their families, other officials and families, and soldiers totaling more than nine thousand persons. He crossed the Patkai and reached Namruk (Namrup) on December 2, 1228 and occupied a region on the south bank with the Burhidihing river in the north, the Dikhau river in the south and the Patkai mountains in the east. He befriended the local groups, the Barahi and the Marans, finally settled his capital at Charaideo and established the offices of the Dangarias—the Burhagohain and the Borgohain . In the 1280s, these two offices were given independent regions of control, and the check and balance that these three main offices accorded each other was established. The Ahoms brought with them the technology of wet rice cultivation that they shared with other groups. The people that took to the Ahom way of life and polity were incorporated into their fold in a process of Ahomization. As a result of this process the Barahi people, for instance, were completely subsumed, and some of other groups like some Nagas and the Maran peoples became Ahoms, thus enhancing the Ahom numbers significantly. This process of Ahomization was particularly significant till the 16th century, when under Suhungmung , the kingdom made large territorial expansions at the cost of the Sutiya and the Kachari kingdoms. Rang Ghar , a pavilion built by Pramatta Singha (also Sunenpha; 1744–1751) in Ahom capital Rongpur, now Sibsagar ; the Rang Ghar is one of the earliest pavilions of outdoor stadia in South Asia .

The expansion was so large and so rapid that the Ahomization process could not keep pace and the Ahoms became a minority in their kingdom. This resulted in a change in the character of the kingdom and it became multi-ethnic and inclusive. Hindu influences, which were first felt under Bamuni Konwar at the end of the 14th century, became significant. The Assamese language entered the Ahom court and co-existed with the Tai language for some time in the 17th century before finally replacing it. The rapid expansion of the state was accompanied by the installation of a new high office, the Borpatrogohain , at par with the other two high offices and not without opposition from them. Two special offices, the Sadiakhowa Gohain and the Marangikowa Gohain were created to oversee the regions won over from the Sutiya and the Kachari kingdoms respectively. The subjects of the kingdom were organized under the Paik system , initially based on the _phoid_ or kinship relations, which formed the militia. The kingdom came under attack from Turkic and Afghan rulers of Bengal , but it withstood them. On one occasion, the Ahoms under Ton Kham Borgohain pursued the invaders and reached the Karatoya river, and the Ahoms began to see themselves as the rightful heir of the erstwhile Kamarupa kingdom .

The Ahom kingdom took many features of its mature form under Pratap Singha (1603–1641). The Paik system was reorganized under the professional _khel_ system, replacing the kinship based _phoid_ system. Under the same king, the offices of the Borphukan , and the Borbarua were established along with other smaller offices. No more major restructuring of the state structure was attempted till the end of the kingdom. The kingdom came under repeated Mughal attacks in the 17th century, and on one occasion in 1662, the Mughals under Mir Jumla occupied the capital, Garhgaon. The Mughals were unable to keep it, and in at the end of the Battle of Saraighat , the Ahoms not only fended off a major Mughal invasion, but extended their boundaries west, up to the Manas river . Following a period of confusion, the kingdom got itself the last set of kings, the Tungkhungia kings, established by Gadadhar Singha .

The rule of Tungkhungia kings was marked by peace and achievements in the Arts and engineering constructions. The later phase of the rule was also marked by increasing social conflicts, leading to the Moamoria rebellion . The rebels were able to capture and maintain power at the capital Rangpur for some years, but were finally removed with the help of the British under Captain Welsh. The following repression led to a large depopulation due to emigration as well as execution, but the conflicts were never resolved. A much weakened kingdom fell to repeated Burmese attacks and finally after the Treaty of Yandabo in 1826, the control of the kingdom passed into British hands.


The Ahom kingdom was based on the Paik system , a type of corvee labor that is neither feudal nor Asiatic . The first coins were introduced by Suklenmung in the 16th century, though the system of personal service under the Paik system persisted. In the 17th century when the Ahom kingdom expanded to include erstwhile Koch and Mughal areas, it came into contact with their revenue systems and adapted accordingly.


Main articles: Swargadeo , Burhagohain , Borgohain , Borpatrogohain , Borbarua , and Borphukan


The Ahom kingdom was ruled by a king, called _ Swargadeo _ (Ahom language : _Chao-Pha_), who had to be a descendant of the first king Sukaphaa . Succession was generally by primogeniture but occasionally the great Gohains (_Dangarias_) could elect another descendant of Sukaphaa from a different line or even depose an enthroned one.

DANGARIAS: Sukaphaa had two great Gohains to aid him in administration: Burhagohain and the Borgohain . In the 1280s, they were given independent territories, they were veritable sovereigns in their given territories called _bilat_ or _rajya_. The Burhagohain's territory was between Sadiya and Gerelua river in the north bank of the Brahmaputra river and the Borgohain's territory was to the west up to the Burai river. They were given total command over the _paiks_ that they controlled. These positions were generally filled from specific families. Princes who were eligible for the position of Swargadeo were not considered for these positions and vice versa. In the 16th century Suhungmung added a third Gohain, Borpatrogohain . The Borpatrogohain's territory was located between the territories of the other two Gohains.

ROYAL OFFICERS: Pratap Singha added two offices, Borbarua and Borphukan , that were directly under the king. The Borbarua, who acted as the military as well as the judicial head, was in command of the region east of Kaliabor not under the command of the _Dangarias_. He could use only a section of the paiks at his command for his personal use (as opposed to the Dangariyas), the rest rendering service to the Ahom state. The Borphukan was in military and civil command over the region west of Kaliabor, and acted as the _Swargadeo's_ viceroy in the west.

PATRA MANTRIS: The five positions constituted the _patra mantris_ (council of ministers). From the time of Supimphaa (1492–1497), one of the _patra mantris_ was made the _Rajmantri_ (prime minister, also _Borpatro_; Ahom language : _Shenglung_) who enjoyed additional powers and the service of a thousand additional paiks from the Jakaichuk village.


The Borbarua and the Borphukan had military and judicial responsibilities, and they were aided by two separate councils (_sora_) of _Phukans_. The Borphukan's _sora_ sat at Guwahati and the Borbarua's _sora_ at the capital. Superintending officers were called _Baruas_. Among the officers the highest in rank were the Phukans. Six of them formed the council of the Borbarua , but each had also his separate duties. The Naubaicha Phukan, who had an allotment of thousand men managed the royal boats, the Bhitarual Phukan, the Na Phukan, the Dihingia Phukan, the Deka Phukan and the Neog Phukan formed the council of Phukan. The Borphukan also had a similar council of six subordinate Phukans whom he was bound to consult in all matters of importance, this council included Pani Phukan, who commanded six thousand _paiks_, Deka Phukan who commanded four thousand _paiks_, the Dihingia Phukan, Nek Phukan and two Sutiya Phukans.

The Baruas of whom there were twenty or more included Bhandari Barua or treasurer; the Duliya Barua, who was in charge of the royal palanquins; the Chaudang Barua who superintended executions; Khanikar Barua was the chief artificer; Sonadar Barua was the mint master and chief jeweler; the Bez Barua was the physician to the Royal family, Hati Barua, Ghora Barua, etc. Other official included twelve Rajkhowas, and a number of Katakis, Kakatis and Dolais. The Rajkhowas were governors of given territories and commanders of three thousand _paiks_. They were arbitrator who settled local disputes and supervised public works. The Katakis were envoys who dealt with foreign countries and hill tribes. The Kakatis were writers of official documents, and the Dolais expounded astrology and determined auspicious time and dates for any important event and undertaking.


Members of the royal families ruled certain areas, and they were called _Raja_.

* _Charing Raja_, the heir apparent to the _ Swargadeo _, administered the tracts around Joypur on the right bank of the Burhidihing river. * _Tipam Raja_ is the second in line. * _Namrup Raja_ is the third in line

Members of the royal families who occupy lower positions are given regions called _mel_s, and were called _meldangia_ or _melkhowa_ _raja_. _Meldangia gohain_s were princes of an even lesser grade, of which there were two: _Majumelia gohain_ and _Sarumelia gohain_.

Royal ladies were given individual _mel_s, and by the time of Rajeshwar Singha, there were twelve of them. The most important of these was the _Raidangia mel_ given to the chief queen.

Forward governors, who were military commanders, ruled and administered forward territories. The officers were usually filled from the families that were eligible for the three great Gohains.

* _Sadiya Khowa Gohain_ based in Sadiya, administered the regions that were acquired after the conquest of the Sutiya kingdom in 1523. * _Marangi khowa Gohain_ administered the region that were contiguous to the Naga groups west of the Dhansiri river. * _Solal Gohain_ administered a great part of Nagaon and a portion of Chariduar after the headquarters of the Borphukan was transferred to Gauhati . * _Kajalimukhiya Gohain_ served under the Borphukan, administered Kajalimukh and maintained relations with Jaintia and Dimarua. * _Jagiyal Gohain_ served under Borbarua, administered Jagi at Nagoan and maintained relations with seven tribal chiefs, called _Sat Raja_.

Lesser governors were called Rajkhowas, and some of them were:

* Bacha * Darrang * Solaguri * Abhaypur

The dependent kings or vassals were also called _Raja_. Except for the Raja of Rani, all paid an annual tribute. These Rajas were required to meet the needs for resources and paiks when the need arose, as during the time of war.

* Darrang Raja ruled the later-day Darrang district, and were the descendants of Sundar Narayan, a great-grandson of Chilarai of the Koch dynasty * Rani * Beltola ruled the tracts southwest of Guwahati, and were the descendants of Gaj Narayan, a grandson of Chilarai of the Koch dynasty

* Luki * Barduar * Dimarua * Tapakuchi


The Ahom kingdom was dependent on the Paik system , a form of corvee labor . Every common subject was a _paik_, and four _paiks_ formed a _got_. At any time of the year, one of the _paiks_ in the _got_ rendered direct service to the king, as the others in his _got_ tended to his fields. The Paik system was administered by the Paik officials: Bora was in charge of 20 _paiks_, a Saikia of 100 and a Hazarika of 1000.


Gadadhar Singha became acquainted with the land measurement system of Mughals during the time he was hiding in Kamrup, before he succeeded to the throne. As soon as the wars with Mughals were over he issued orders for the introduction of a similar system throughout his dominions. Surveyors were imported from Koch Behar and Bengal for the work. It was commenced in Sibsagar and was pushed on vigorously, but it was not completed until after his death. Nowgaon was next surveyed; and the settlement which followed was supervised by Rudra Singha himself. According to historians, the method of survey included measuring the four sides of each field with a _nal_, or bamboo pole of 12 feet (3.7 m) length and calculating the area, the unit was the "lucha" or 144 square feet (13.4 m2) and 14,400 sq ft (1,340 m2). is one " Bigha ". Four 'bigha' makes one 'Pura'. A similar land measurement system is still being followed in modern Assam.


Subinphaa (1281–1293), the third Ahom king, dilineated the _Satgharia Ahom_ ("Ahom of the seven houses") aristocracy: the _Chaophaa _, the Burhagohain and the Borgohain families (the _Gohains_), and four priestly lineages—the _Deodhai_, the _Mohan_, the _Bailung_ and the _Chiring_ (the _Gogois_). These lines maintained exogamous marital relationships. The number of lineages increased in later times as either other lineages were incorporated, or existing lineages divided. The king could belong to only the first family whereas the Burhagohain and the Borgohain only to the second and the third families. Most of the Borphukans belonged to the Sutiya ethnic group, whereas the Borbaruas belonged to the Moran, Kachari, Chiring and Khamti groups. Later on Naga, Mising and Nara ( Mogaung ) oracles became a part of the _Bailung_ group. The extended nobility consisted of the landed aristocracy and the spiritual class that did not pay any form of tax.

The _apaikan chamua_ was the gentry that were freed from the _khels_ and paid only money-tax. The _paikan chamua_ consisted of artisans, the literati and skilled people that did non-manual work and rendered service as tax. The _kanri paik_ rendered manual labor. The lowest were the _licchous_, _bandi-beti_ and other serfs and bondsmen. There was some degree of movement between the classes. Momai Tamuli Borbarua rose from a bondsman through the ranks to become the first Borbarua under Prataap Singha .


_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to AHOM KINGDOM _.

* Ahom Dynasty * Mueang * Paik system * Singarigharutha ceremony * All Tai Ahom Students Union


* ^ "Meet the Axomiya Sikhs". _The Tribune_. Chandigarh. 24 March 2013. * ^ "The Kingdom of Assam, where it is entered from Bengal, commences on the north of the Berhampooter, at the Khonder Chokey, nearly opposite to the picturesque estate of the late Mr Raush at Goalpara; and at the Nagrabaree Hill on the South", Wade, Dr John Peter, (1805) "A Geographical Sketch of Assam" in Asiatic Annual Register, reprinted (Sharma 1972 , p. 341) * ^ "The Ahoms were never numerically dominant in the state they built and, at the time of 1872 and 1881 Censuses, they formed hardly one-tenth of the populations relevant to the erstwhile Ahom territory (i.e, by and large, the Brahmaputra Valley without the Goalpara district.)" (Guha 1983 :9) * ^ Ahom . Ethnologue (1999-02-19). Retrieved on 2013-07-12. * ^ (Gogoi 1968 :266) * ^ "(In Upper Assam), the Ahoms assimilated some of their Naga, Moran and Barahi neighbours and later, also large sections of the Chutiya and Kachari tribes. This Ahomisation process went on until the expanded Ahom society itself began to be Hinduised from the mid-16th century onward." (Guha 1983 :12) * ^ In (the 17th) century of Ahom-Mughal conflicts, (the Tai) language first coexisted with and then was progressively replaced by Assamese (Asamiya) at and outside the Court." (Guha 1983 , p. 9) * ^ Tom Kham was the son of Phrasengmong Borgohain and Mula Gabhoru, both warriors who were killed in battles against Turbak. * ^ "The Ahom expeditionary force, led by General Ton Kham and aided by General Kan Seng and General Kham Peng, pursued the retreating enemies across Muslim domains of Kamarupa and Kamata receiving little resistance in them and reached Karatoya, the eastern boundary of Gaur proper, where the victors washed their swords."(Gogoi 1968 , p. 302) * ^ "The Ahom statesmen and chroniclers wishfully looked forward to the Karatoya as their natural western frontier. They also looked upon themselves as the heirs of the glory that was ancient Kamarupa by right of conquest, and they long cherished infructuously their unfulfilled hopes of expanding up to that frontier." (Guha 1983 :24), and notes. * ^ (Gogoi 2002 :42) * ^ (Gogoi 2002 :43) * ^ (Gogoi 2002 :43) * ^ _A_ _B_ (Gogoi 2002 :44) * ^ (Gogoi 2006 :9)


* Gogoi, Jahnabi (2002), _Agrarian system of medieval Assam_, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi * Gogoi, Lila (1991), _The History of the system of Ahom administration_, Punthi Pustak, Calcutta * Gogoi, Nitul Kumar (2006), _Continuity and Change among the Ahoms_, Concept Publishing Company, Delhi * Gogoi, Padmeshwar (1968), _The Tai and the Tai kingdoms_, Gauhati University, Guwahati * Guha, Amalendu (1991), _Medieval and Early Colonial Assam: Society, Polity and Economy_, K.P. Bagchi & Co, Calcutta * Guha, Amalendu (December 1983), "The Ahom Political System: An Enquiry into the State Formation Process in Medieval Assam (1228-1714)", _Social Scientist_, 11 (12): 3–34, JSTOR 3516963 , doi :10.2307/3516963 * Kakoty, Sanjeeb (2003), _Technology, Production and Social Formation in the Evolution of the Ahom State_, Regency Publications, New Delhi * Sharma, Benudhar, ed. (1972), _An Account of Assam_, Gauhati: Assam Jyoti

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