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Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
(/ˈɑːmɪdəbɑːd/ ( listen)), also known as Amdavad[7] is the largest city and former capital of Gujarat, which is a state in India. It is the administrative headquarters of the Ahmedabad district
Ahmedabad district
and the seat of the Gujarat
Gujarat
High Court. Ahmedabad's population of 5,633,927 (as per 2011 population census) makes it the fifth most populous city in India,[3] and the encompassing urban agglomeration population estimated at 7,650,000 is the seventh most populous in India.[8][9] Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
is located on the banks of the Sabarmati
Sabarmati
River, 30 km (19 mi) from the state capital Gandhinagar, which is its twin city.[10] Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
has emerged as an important economic and industrial hub in India. It is the second largest producer of cotton in India, and its stock exchange is the country's second oldest. Cricket
Cricket
is a popular sport in Ahmedabad, which houses the 54,000-seat Sardar Patel
Sardar Patel
Stadium. The effects of liberalisation of the Indian economy have energised the city's economy towards tertiary sector activities such as commerce, communication and construction.[11] Ahmedabad's increasing population has resulted in an increase in the construction and housing industries resulting in recent development of skyscrapers.[12] In 2010, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
was ranked third in Forbes's list of fastest growing cities of the decade.[13] In 2012, The Times of India
India
chose Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
as India's best city to live in.[14] As of 2014, Ahmedabad's estimated gross domestic product was $64 billion.[15] Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Government of India's flagship Smart Cities Mission.[16] In July 2017, the Historic City of Ahmadabad
Historic City of Ahmadabad
or Old Ahmadabad, was declared as India's first UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage City.[17]

Contents

1 History 2 Demographics

2.1 Population 2.2 Religion
Religion
and ethnicity

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Cityscape

4 Civic administration

4.1 Public services

5 Culture

5.1 Education 5.2 Media

6 Economy

6.1 Transport

7 Sports 8 International relations 9 Notable citizens 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Ahmedabad The area around Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
has been inhabited since the 11th century, when it was known as Ashaval .[18] At that time, Karna, the Chaulukya ruler of Anhilwara (modern Patan), waged a successful war against the Bhil
Bhil
king of Ashaval,[19] and established a city called Karnavati on the banks of the Sabarmati.[20] Solanki rule lasted until the 13th century, when Gujarat
Gujarat
came under the control of the Vaghela dynasty
Vaghela dynasty
of Dholka. Gujarat
Gujarat
subsequently came under the control of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century. However, by the earlier 15th century, the local governor Zafar Khan Muzaffar established his independence from the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
and crowned himself Sultan of Gujarat
Gujarat
as Muzaffar Shah I, thereby founding the Muzaffarid dynasty.[21] This area finally came under the control of his grandson Sultan Ahmed Shah in 1411 A.D. who while at the banks of Sabarmati
Sabarmati
liked the forested area for a new capital city and laid the foundation of a new walled city near Karnavati and named it Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
after the four saints in the area by the name Ahmed.[22] According to other sources, he named it after himself.[23][24] Ahmed Shah I laid the foundation of the city on 26 February 1411[25] (at 1.20 pm, Thursday, the second day of Dhu al-Qi'dah, Hijri year
Hijri year
813[26]) at Manek Burj. He chose it as the new capital on 4 March 1411.[27]

City Walls of Ahmedabad, 1866

In 1487, Mahmud Begada, the grandson of Ahmed Shah, fortified the city with an outer wall 10 km (6.2 mi) in circumference and consisting of twelve gates, 189 bastions and over 6,000 battlements.[28] In 1535 Humayun
Humayun
briefly occupied Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
after capturing Champaner
Champaner
when the ruler of Gujarat, Bahadur Shah, fled to Diu.[29] Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
was then reoccupied by the Muzaffarid dynasty until 1573 when Gujarat
Gujarat
was conquered by the Mughal emperor Akbar. During the Mughal reign, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
became one of the Empire's thriving centres of trade, mainly in textiles, which were exported as far as Europe. The Mughal ruler Shahjahan
Shahjahan
spent the prime of his life in the city, sponsoring the construction of the Moti Shahi Mahal
Moti Shahi Mahal
in Shahibaug. The Deccan Famine of 1630–32 affected the city, as did famines in 1650 and 1686.[30] Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
remained the provincial headquarters of the Mughals until 1758, when they surrendered the city to the Marathas.[31] During the period of Maratha
Maratha
Empire governance, the city became the centre of a conflict between the Peshwa
Peshwa
of Poona
Poona
and the Gaekwad
Gaekwad
of Baroda.[32] In 1780, during the First Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War, a British force under James Hartley stormed and captured Ahmedabad, but it was handed back to the Marathas at the end of the war. The British East India
India
Company took over the city in 1818 during the Third Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War.[22] A military cantonment was established in 1824 and a municipal government in 1858.[22] Incorporated into the Bombay Presidency during British rule, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
became one of the most important cities in the Gujarat
Gujarat
region. In 1864, a railway link between Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
and Mumbai
Mumbai
(then Bombay) was established by the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India
India
Railway (BB&CI), enabling traffic and trade between northern and southern India
India
via the city.[22] Over time, the city established itself as the home of a developing textile industry, which earned it the nickname "Manchester of the East".[33]

Sabarmati
Sabarmati
Ashram, established by Mahatma Gandhi

Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
and its environs, ca 1914

The Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement
developed roots in the city when Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
established two ashrams – the Kochrab Ashram near Paldi
Paldi
in 1915 and the Satyagraha Ashram
Ashram
(now Sabarmati
Sabarmati
Ashram) on the banks of the Sabarmati
Sabarmati
in 1917 – which would become centres of nationalist activities.[22][34] During the mass protests against the Rowlatt Act in 1919, textile workers burned down 51 government buildings across the city in protest at a British attempt to extend wartime regulations after the First World War. In the 1920s, textile workers and teachers went on strike, demanding civil rights and better pay and working conditions. In 1930, Gandhi initiated the Salt Satyagraha from Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
by embarking from his ashram on the Dandi Salt March. The city's administration and economic institutions were rendered inoperative in the early 1930s by the large numbers of people who took to the streets in peaceful protests, and again in 1942 during the Quit India
India
Movement. Following independence and the partition of India
India
in 1947, the city was scarred by the intense communal violence that broke out between Hindus
Hindus
and Muslims
Muslims
in 1947, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
was the focus for settlement by Hindu migrants from Pakistan,[35] who expanded the city's population and transformed its demographics and economy. By 1960, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
had become a metropolis with a population of slightly under half a million people, with classical and colonial European-style buildings lining the city's thoroughfares.[36] It was chosen as the capital of Gujarat
Gujarat
state after the partition of the State of Bombay on 1 May 1960.[37] During this period, a large number of educational and research institutions were founded in the city, making it a centre for higher education, science and technology.[38] Ahmedabad's economic base became more diverse with the establishment of heavy and chemical industry during the same period. Many countries sought to emulate India's economic planning strategy and one of them, South Korea, copied the city's second "Five-Year Plan".[citation needed] In the late 1970s, the capital shifted to the newly built, well planned city of Gandhinagar. This marked the start of a long period of decline in the city, marked by a lack of development. The 1974 Nav Nirman agitation – a protest against a 20% hike in the hostel food fees at the L.D. College of Engineering
L.D. College of Engineering
in Ahmedabad – snowballed into a movement to remove Chimanbhai Patel, then chief minister of Gujarat.[39] In the 1980s, a reservation policy was introduced in the country, which led to anti-reservation protests in 1981 and 1985. The protests witnessed violent clashes between people belonging to various castes.[40] The city suffered some of the impact of the 2001 Gujarat
Gujarat
earthquake; up to 50 multi-storey buildings collapsed, killing 752 people and causing much damage.[41] The following year, a three-day period of violence between Hindus
Hindus
and Muslims
Muslims
in the western Indian state of Gujarat, known as the 2002 Gujarat
Gujarat
riots, spread to Ahmedabad; refugee camps were set up around the city.[42] The 2008 Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
bombings, a series of seventeen bomb blasts, killed and injured several people.[43] Militant group Harkat-ul-Jihad claimed responsibility for the attacks.[44] ... Demographics[edit] Population[edit]

Population growth of Ahmedabad 

Census Pop.

1871 116,900

1901 185,900

1911 216,800

16.6%

1921 270,000

24.5%

1931 313,800

16.2%

1941 595,200

89.7%

1951 788,300

32.4%

1961 1,149,900

45.9%

1971 1,950,000

69.6%

1981 2,515,200

29.0%

1991 3,312,200

31.7%

2001 4,525,013

36.6%

2011 5,633,927

24.5%

sources:[3][45]

At the 2011 Census of India[update] Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
had a population of 5,633,927, making it the fifth most populous city in India.[3] The urban agglomeration centred upon Ahmedabad, then having a population of 6,357,693, now estimated at 7,650,000, is the seventh most populous urban agglomeration in India.[8][9] The city had a literacy rate of 89.62%; 93.96% of the men and 84.81% of the women were literate.[3] Ahmedabad's sex ratio in 2011 was 897 women per 1000 men.[3] According to the census for the Ninth Plan, there are 30,737 rural families living in Ahmedabad. Of those, 5.41% (1663 families) live below the poverty line.[46] Approximately 440,000 people live in slums within the city.[47] In 2008, there were 2273 registered non-resident Indians living in Ahmedabad.[48] In 2010, Forbes
Forbes
magazine rated Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
as the fastest-growing city in India, and listed it as third fastest-growing in the world after the Chinese cities of Chengdu
Chengdu
and Chongqing.[49] In 2011, it was rated India's best megacity to live in by leading market research firm IMRB.[50] According to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) report of 2003, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
has the lowest crime rate of the 35 Indian cities with a population of more than one million.[51] In December 2011 market research firm IMRB
IMRB
declared Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
the best megacity to live in, when compared to India's other megacities.[52] Slightly less than half of all real estate in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
is owned by "community organisations" (i.e. cooperatives), and according to Prof. Vrajlal Sapovadia of the B.K. School of Business Management, "the spatial growth of the city is to [an] extent [a] contribution of these organisations".[53] Ahmedabad Cantonment
Ahmedabad Cantonment
provides residential zones for Indian Army
Indian Army
officials.[54] Religion
Religion
and ethnicity[edit]

Religions in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
City (2011)[55]

Religion

Percent

Hinduism

81.56%

Islam

13.51%

Jainism

3.62%

Christianity

0.85%

Sikhism

0.24%

Other or not stated

0.24%

According to the 2011 census, Hindus
Hindus
are the predominant religious community in the city comprising 81.56% of the population followed by Muslims
Muslims
(13.51%), Jains
Jains
(3.62%), Christians
Christians
(0.85%) and Sikhs (0.24%).[55] Buddhists, people following other religions and those who didn't state any religion make up the remainder.

Its (Marian) cathedral of Our Lady of Mount Carmel
Our Lady of Mount Carmel
is the episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Ahmedabad (Latin Rite; established 1949), a suffragan of the Metropolitan of Gandhinagar. [56] Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
is home to a large population of Vanias (i.e., traders), belonging to the Vaishnava
Vaishnava
sect of Hinduism
Hinduism
and various sects of Jainism. Most of the residents of Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
are native Gujaratis. The city is home to some 2000 Parsis and some 125 members of the Bene Israel Jewish community.[57] There is also one synagogue in the city.[58][59]

Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Ahmedabad

19th century painted cloth map of Ahmedabad

Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
lies at 23°02′N 72°35′E / 23.03°N 72.58°E / 23.03; 72.58 in western India
India
at 53 metres (174 ft) above sea level on the banks of the Sabarmati
Sabarmati
river, in north-central Gujarat. It covers an area of 464 km2 (179 sq mi).[1] The Sabarmati
Sabarmati
frequently dried up in the summer, leaving only a small stream of water, and the city is in a sandy and dry area. However with the execution of the Sabarmati River
Sabarmati River
Front Project and Embankment, the waters from the Narmada river have been diverted to the Sabarmati
Sabarmati
to keep the river flowing throughout the year, thereby eliminating Ahmedabad's water problems. The steady expansion of the Rann of Kutch threatened to increase desertification around the city area and much of the state; however, the Narmada Canal network is expected to alleviate this problem. Except for the small hills of Thaltej-Jodhpur Tekra, the city is almost flat. Three lakes lie within the city's limits—Kankaria, Vastrapur
Vastrapur
and Chandola. Kankaria, in the neighbourhood of Maninagar, is an artificial lake developed by the Sultan of Gujarat, Kutb-ud-din, in 1451.[60] According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the town falls under seismic zone 3, in a scale of 2 to 5 (in order of increasing vulnerability to earthquakes).[61] Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
is divided by the Sabarmati
Sabarmati
into two physically distinct eastern and western regions. The eastern bank of the river houses the old city, which includes the central town of Bhadra. This part of Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
is characterised by packed bazaars, the pol system of closely clustered buildings, and numerous places of worship.[62] A Pol (pronounced as pole) is a housing cluster which comprises many families of a particular group, linked by caste, profession, or religion.[63][64] This is a list of Pols in the old walled city[63] of Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
in Gujarat, India. Heritage of these Pols [65] has helped Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
gain a place in UNESCO's Tentative Lists, in selection criteria II, III and IV.[66] The secretary-general of Euro India
India
Centre quoted that if 12000 homes of Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
are restored they could be very helpful in promoting heritage tourism and its allied businesses.[67] The Art Reverie in Moto Sutharvado is Res Artis center. The first pol in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
was named Mahurat Pol.[68] Old city also houses the main railway station, the main post office, and some buildings of the Muzaffarid and British eras. The colonial period saw the expansion of the city to the western side of Sabarmati, facilitated by the construction of Ellis Bridge
Ellis Bridge
in 1875 and later the relatively modern Nehru Bridge. The western part of the city houses educational institutions, modern buildings, residential areas, shopping malls, multiplexes and new business districts centred around roads such as Ashram
Ashram
Road, C. G. Road
C. G. Road
and Sarkhej-Gandhinagar Highway.[69]

There are nine bridges on the river Sabarmati
Sabarmati
that connect the eastern and western regions.

Sabarmati
Sabarmati
Riverfront is a waterfront being developed along the banks of Sabarmati
Sabarmati
river in Ahmedabad, India. Proposed in 1960s, the construction began in 2005 Climate[edit] Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
has a hot, semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSh), with marginally less rain than required for a tropical savanna climate. There are three main seasons: summer, monsoon and winter. Aside from the monsoon season, the climate is extremely dry. The weather is hot from March to June; the average summer maximum is 43 °C (109 °F), and the average minimum is 24 °C (75 °F). From November to February, the average maximum temperature is 30 °C (86 °F), the average minimum is 13 °C (55 °F), and the climate is extremely dry. Cold northerly winds are responsible for a mild chill in January. The southwest monsoon brings a humid climate from mid-June to mid-September. The average annual rainfall is about 800 millimetres (31 in), but infrequent heavy torrential rains cause local rivers to flood and it is not uncommon for droughts to occur when the monsoon does not extend as far west as usual. The highest temperature in the city was recorded on 18 and 19 May 2016 which was 50 °C (122 °F).[70]

Climate data for Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
(1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 36.1 (97) 40.6 (105.1) 43.9 (111) 46.2 (115.2) 50.0 (122) 47.2 (117) 42.2 (108) 40.4 (104.7) 41.7 (107.1) 42.8 (109) 38.9 (102) 35.6 (96.1) 50.0 (122)

Average high °C (°F) 28.1 (82.6) 30.8 (87.4) 35.8 (96.4) 39.6 (103.3) 41.6 (106.9) 38.8 (101.8) 33.6 (92.5) 32.0 (89.6) 33.8 (92.8) 35.7 (96.3) 32.9 (91.2) 29.5 (85.1) 34.4 (93.9)

Average low °C (°F) 12.4 (54.3) 14.3 (57.7) 19.5 (67.1) 23.9 (75) 27.0 (80.6) 27.5 (81.5) 25.9 (78.6) 25.0 (77) 24.7 (76.5) 21.4 (70.5) 16.7 (62.1) 13.4 (56.1) 21.0 (69.8)

Record low °C (°F) 3.3 (37.9) 2.2 (36) 9.4 (48.9) 12.8 (55) 19.1 (66.4) 19.4 (66.9) 20.4 (68.7) 21.2 (70.2) 17.2 (63) 12.6 (54.7) 8.3 (46.9) 3.6 (38.5) 2.2 (36)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 1.0 (0.039) 0.8 (0.031) 0.6 (0.024) 2.4 (0.094) 7.0 (0.276) 80.0 (3.15) 291.2 (11.465) 266.2 (10.48) 86.8 (3.417) 11.7 (0.461) 2.3 (0.091) 1.0 (0.039) 750.9 (29.563)

Average rainy days 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.6 3.9 11.5 10.7 5.0 0.8 0.4 0.2 33.6

Average relative humidity (%) 49 43 37 41 47 62 77 81 71 53 48 50 55

Mean monthly sunshine hours 287.3 274.3 277.5 297.2 329.6 238.3 130.1 111.4 220.6 290.7 274.1 288.6 3,019.7

Source #1: India
India
Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[71][72]

Source #2: NOAA (sun and humidity 1971–1990),[73] IEM ASOS (May record high) [74]

Following a heat wave in May 2010, reaching 46.8 °C (116.2 °F), which claimed hundreds of lives,[75] the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) in partnership with an international coalition of health and academic groups and with support from the Climate & Development Knowledge Network developed the Ahmedabad Heat Action Plan.[76] Aimed at increasing awareness, sharing information and co-ordinating responses to reduce the health effects of heat on vulnerable populations, the action plan is the first comprehensive plan in Asia
Asia
to address the threat of adverse heat on health.[77] It also focuses on community participation, building public awareness of the risks of extreme heat, training medical and community workers to respond to and help prevent heat-related illnesses, and co-ordinating an interagency emergency response effort when heat waves hit.[78] Cityscape[edit]

A side walk at the Sabarmati
Sabarmati
Riverfront

Kankaria
Kankaria
Lake, Ahmedabad

Early in Ahmedabad's history, under Ahmed Shah, builders fused Hindu craftsmanship with Persian architecture, giving rise to the Indo-Saracenic
Indo-Saracenic
style.[79] Many mosques in the city were built in this fashion.[79] Sidi Saiyyed Mosque
Sidi Saiyyed Mosque
was built in the last year of the Sultanate of Gujarat. It is entirely arched and has ten stone latticework windows or jali on the side and rear arches. Private mansions or haveli from this era have carvings.[63] A Pol is a typical housing cluster of Old Ahmedabad. After independence, modern buildings appeared in Ahmedabad. Architects given commissions in the city included Louis Kahn, who designed the IIM-A; Le Corbusier, who designed the Shodhan and Sarabhai Villas, the Sanskar Kendra
Sanskar Kendra
and the Mill Owner's Association Building, and Frank Lloyd Wright, who designed the administrative building of Calico Mills and the Calico Dome.[80][81] B. V. Doshi
B. V. Doshi
came to the city from Paris to supervise Le Corbusier's works and later set up the School of Architecture. His local works include Sangath, Amdavad ni Gufa
Amdavad ni Gufa
and the School of Architecture. Charles Correa, who became a partner of Doshi's, designed the Gandhi Ashram
Ashram
and Achyut Kanvinde, and the Indian Textile Industries Research Association.[82][83] Christopher Charles Benninger's first work, the Alliance Française, is located in the Ellis Bridge
Ellis Bridge
area.[84] Anant Raje designed major additions to Louis Kahn's IIM-A campus, namely the Ravi Mathai Auditorium and KLMD.[85] Some of the most visited gardens in the city include Law Garden, Victoria Garden and Bal Vatika. Law Garden
Law Garden
was named after the College of Law situated close to it. Victoria Garden is located at the southern edge of the Bhadra Fort and contains a statue of Queen Victoria. Bal Vatika is a children's park situated on the grounds of Kankaria
Kankaria
Lake and also houses an amusement park. Other gardens in the city include Parimal Garden, Usmanpura
Usmanpura
Garden, Prahlad Nagar Garden and Lal Darwaja Garden.[86] Ahmedabad's Kamla Nehru Zoological Park houses a number of endangered species including flamingoes, caracals, Asiatic wolves and chinkara.[87] The Kankaria
Kankaria
Lake, built in 1451 AD, is one of the biggest lakes in Ahmedabad.[88] In earlier days, it was known by the name Qutub Hoj or Hauj-e-Kutub.[89] Vastrapur Lake
Vastrapur Lake
is located in the western part of Ahmedabad. Lal Bahadur Shastri lake in Bapunagar is almost 136,000 square metres. In 2010, another 34 lakes were planned in and around Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
of which five lakes will be developed by AMC; the other 29 will be developed by the Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Urban Development Authority (AUDA).[90] Chandola Lake
Chandola Lake
covers an area of 1200 hectares. It is home for cormorants, painted storks and spoonbills.[91] During the evening time, many people visit this place and take a leisurely stroll.[92] There is a recently developed Naroda
Naroda
lake[93] and the world's largest collection of antique cars in KathWada at IB farm (Dastan Farm).[94] AMC has also developed the Sabarmati
Sabarmati
Riverfront.[95]

Civic administration[edit]

Gujarat
Gujarat
High Court in Ahmedabad

Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
is the administrative headquarters of Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
district, administered by the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation
Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation
(AMC). The AMC was established in July 1950 under the Bombay Provincial Corporation Act of 1949. The AMC commissioner is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer appointed by the state government who reserves the administrative executive powers, whereas the corporation is headed by the Mayor. The city residents elect the 192 municipal councillors by popular vote, and the elected councillors select the deputy mayor and mayor of the city. The administrative responsibilities of the AMC are: water and sewerage services, primary education, health services, fire services, public transport and the city's infrastructure.[1] AMC was ranked 9th out of 21 cities for "the Best governance & administrative practices in India
India
in 2014. It scored 3.4 out of 10 compared to the national average of 3.3."[96] The city is divided into six zones constituting 64 wards. Ahmedabad district is divided into a number of talukas (administrative divisions) including Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
taluka Barwala, Dholka, Dhandhuka, Detroj, Sanand, Bavla, Ranpur, Mandal, Viramgam and Daskroi.[97] The city's urban and suburban areas are administered by the Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority (AUDA).

The city is represented by two elected members of parliament in the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
(lower house of Indian Parliament) and 21 members of the Legislative Assembly at the Gujarat
Gujarat
Vidhan Sabha. The Gujarat
Gujarat
High Court is located in the Ahmedabad, making the city the judicial capital of Gujarat.[98] Law enforcement and public safety is maintained by the Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
City Police, headed by the Police Commissioner, an Indian Police Service
Indian Police Service
(IPS) officer.[99]

Public services[edit]

Health services are primarily provided at Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
civil hospital, the largest civil hospital in Asia.[100] Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
is one of the few cities in India
India
where the power sector is privatised.[101] Electricity in the city is generated and distributed by Torrent Power Limited, owned and operated by the Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Electricity Company, which was previously a state-run corporation.[102]

Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Ahmedabad

Navaratri
Navaratri
celebrations in Ahmedabad

Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
observes a wide range of festivals. Popular celebrations and observances include Uttarayan, an annual kite-flying day on 14 and 15 January. Nine nights of Navratri
Navratri
are celebrated with people performing Garba, the most popular folk dance of Gujarat, at venues across the city. The festival of lights, Deepavali, is celebrated with the lighting of lamps in every house, decorating the floors with rangoli, and the lighting of firecrackers. The annual Rath Yatra
Rath Yatra
procession on the Ashadh-sud-bij date of the Hindu calendar
Hindu calendar
at the Jagannath Temple and the procession of Tajia during the Muslim holy month of Muharram are important events.[103][104] One of the most popular forms of meal in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
is a typical Gujarati thali which was first served commercially by Chandvilas Hotel in 1900.[105] It consists of roti (Chapati), dal, rice and shaak (cooked vegetables, sometimes with curry), with accompaniments of pickles and roasted papads. Sweet dishes include laddoo, mango, and vedhmi. Dhoklas, theplas and dhebras are also very popular dishes in Ahmedabad.[106] Beverages include buttermilk and tea. Drinking alcohol is forbidden in Ahmedabad.[107] There are many restaurants, which serve a wide array of Indian and international cuisines. Most of the food outlets serve only vegetarian food, as a strong tradition of vegetarianism is maintained by the city's Jain and Hindu communities.[108] The first all-vegetarian Pizza Hut in the world opened in Ahmedabad.[109] KFC has a separate staff uniform for serving vegetarian items and prepares vegetarian food in a separate kitchen,[110][111] as does McDonald's.[112][113] Ahmedabad has a quite a few restaurants serving typical Mughlai non-vegetarian food in older areas like Bhatiyar Gali, Kalupur
Kalupur
and Jamalpur.[114] Manek Chowk is an open square near the centre of the city that functions as a vegetable market in the morning and a jewellery market in the afternoon. However, it is better known for its food stalls in the evening, which sell local street food. It is named after the Hindu saint Baba Maneknath.[115] Parts of Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
are known for their folk art. The artisans of Rangeela pol make tie-dyed bandhinis, while the cobbler shops of Madhupura sell traditional mojdi (also known as mojri) footwear. Idols of Ganesha
Ganesha
and other religious icons are made in huge numbers in the Gulbai Tekra area. The shops at the Law Garden sell mirror work handicraft.[86]

Hutheesing Jain Temple

Three main literary institutions were established in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
for the promotion of Gujarati literature: Gujarat
Gujarat
Vidhya Sabha, Gujarati Sahitya Parishad and Gujarat
Gujarat
Sahitya Sabha. Saptak School of Music festival is held in the first week of the new year. This event was inaugurated by Ravi Shankar.[116][117] The Sanskar Kendra, one of the several buildings in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
designed by Le Corbusier, is a city museum depicting its history, art, culture and architecture. The Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya
Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya
and the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Vallabhbhai Patel
National Memorial have permanent displays of photographs, documents and other articles relating to Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Patel. The Calico Museum of Textiles
Calico Museum of Textiles
has a large collection of Indian and international fabrics, garments and textiles.[118] The Hazrat Pir Mohammad Shah Library has a collection of rare original manuscripts in Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Sindhi and Turkish.[citation needed] There is Vechaar Utensils Museum which has of stainless steel, glass, brass, copper, bronze, zinc and German silver tools.[119][120] Shreyas Foundation has four museums on the same campus. Shreyas Folk Museum (Lokayatan Museum) has art forms and artefacts from communities of Gujarat. Kalpana Mangaldas Children's Museum has a collection of toys, puppets, dance and drama costumes, coins and a repository of recorded music from traditional shows from all over the world. Kahani houses photographs of fairs and festivals of Gujarat. Sangeeta Vadyakhand is a gallery of musical instruments from India
India
and other countries.[121][122][123] L D Institute of Indology houses about 76,000 hand-written Jain manuscripts with 500 illustrated versions and 45,000 printed books, making it the largest collection of Jain scripts, Indian sculptures, terracottas, miniature paintings, cloth paintings, painted scrolls, bronzes, woodwork, Indian coins, textiles and decorative art, paintings of Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
and art of Nepal and Tibet.[124] N C Mehta Gallery of Miniature Paintings has a collection of ornate miniature paintings and manuscripts from all over India.[125]

Dr. Vikram Sarabhai
Dr. Vikram Sarabhai
and Smt. Mrinalini Sarabhai

In 1949 Darpana Academy of Performing Arts
Darpana Academy of Performing Arts
was established by the eminent scientist Dr. Vikram Sarabhai
Dr. Vikram Sarabhai
and world renowned Bharat Natyam dancer Mrinalini Sarabhai, and thus Ahmemedabad city became the center of Indian classical dance. Education[edit]

Gujarat
Gujarat
university, Ahmedabad

Main article: Education in Ahmedabad See also: Category:Education in Ahmedabad Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
had a literacy rate of 79.89% in 2001 which rose to 89.62 percent in 2011. As of 2011, literacy rate among male and female were 93.96 and 84.81 percent respectively.[126] Among the several universities in Ahmedabad, Gujarat
Gujarat
University is the largest and claims to be the oldest;[127] although the Gujarat Vidyapith was established in 1920 by Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
- it received no charter from the British Raj, becoming a deemed university only in 1963.[128] A large number of colleges in the city are affiliated with Gujarat
Gujarat
University. Gujarat
Gujarat
Technological University, CEPT University, Nirma
Nirma
University, and Ahmedabad University
Ahmedabad University
all date from this century. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Open University has over 100,000 students enrolled on its distance learning courses.[129][130] Established in 1947 by the scientist Vikram Sarabhai, the oldest of the research institutes in Ahmedabad, the Physical Research Laboratory is active in space science, astronomy, high-energy physics and many other areas of research.[131] The Darpana Academy of Performing Arts, established in 1949 by Mrinalini Sarabhai, was listed by UNESCO
UNESCO
as an institution active in the "Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage".[132][133] Schools in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
are run either by the municipal corporation, or privately by entities, trusts and corporations. The majority of schools are affiliated with the Gujarat
Gujarat
Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board, although some are affiliated with the Central Board for Secondary Education, Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations, International Baccalaureate and National Institute of Open School. Media[edit]

Broadcasting tower of the Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Doordarshan

Newspapers in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
include English dailies such as The Times of India, Indian Express, DNA, The Economic Times, The Financial Express, Ahmedabad Mirror
Ahmedabad Mirror
and Metro.[134] Newspapers in other languages include Divya Bhaskar, Gujarat
Gujarat
Samachar, Sandesh, Rajasthan Patrika, Sambhaav, and Aankhodekhi.[134] The city is home to the historic Navajivan Publishing House, which was founded in 1919 by Mahatma Gandhi.[135] The state-owned All India
India
Radio Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
is broadcast both on the medium wave and FM bands (96.7 MHz) in the city.[136] It competes with five private local FM stations: Radio City (91.1 MHz), Red FM (93.5 MHz), My fm (94.3 MHz), Radio One (95.0 MHz), Radio Mirchi
Radio Mirchi
(98.3 MHz) and Mirchi Love (104 MHz). Gyan Vani (104.5 MHz) is an educational FM radio station run under media co-operation model.[137] In March 2012 Gujarat
Gujarat
University started campus radio service on 90.8 MHz which was first kind of it in state and fifth in India.[138] The state-owned television broadcaster Doordarshan
Doordarshan
provides free terrestrial channels, while two multi system operators—InCablenet and Siti Cable
Siti Cable
and GTPL—provide a mix of Gujarati, Hindi, English, and other regional channels via cable.[139] Telephone services are provided by landline and mobile operators such as BSNL, Reliance CDMA & Reliance GSM, Airtel, Uninor, Docomo, Videocon, Aircel, Vodafone, Idea, MTS India
India
and Tata Indicom, Jio.[140]

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Ahmedabad

Torrent Power
Torrent Power
thermal power station at Sabarmati, Ahmedabad

The gross domestic product of Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
was estimated at US$64 billion in 2014.[15][141][142] The RBI ranked Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
as the seventh largest deposit centre and seventh largest credit centre nationwide as of June 2012.[143] In the 19th century, the textile and garments industry received strong capital investment. On 30 May 1861 Ranchhodlal Chhotalal founded the first Indian textile mill, the Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Spinning and Weaving Company Limited,[144] followed by the establishment of a series of textile mills such as the Calico Mills, Bagicha Mills and Arvind Mills. By 1905 there were about 33 textile mills in the city.[145] The textile industry further expanded rapidly during the First World War, and benefited from the influence of Mahatma Gandhi's Swadeshi movement, which promoted the purchase of Indian-made goods.[146] Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
was known as the "Manchester of the East" for its textile industry.[34] The city is the largest supplier of denim and one of the largest exporters of gemstones and jewellery in India.[11] The automobile industry is also important to the city; after Tata's Nano project, Ford
Ford
and Suzuki
Suzuki
are planning to establish plants near Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
while the groundbreaking ceremony for Peugeot has already been performed.[147][148][149] The Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Stock Exchange, located in the Ambavadi area of the city, is India's second oldest stock exchange.[150] Two of the biggest pharmaceutical companies of India — Zydus Cadila and Torrent Pharmaceuticals – are based in the city. The Nirma
Nirma
group of industries, which runs a large number of detergent and chemical industrial units, has its corporate headquarters in the city. The city also houses the corporate headquarters of the Adani Group, a multinational trading and infrastructure development company.[151] The Sardar Sarovar Project
Sardar Sarovar Project
of dams and canals has improved the supply of potable water and electricity for the city.[152] The information technology industry has developed significantly in Ahmedabad, with companies such as Tata Consultancy Services
Tata Consultancy Services
opening offices in the city.[153] A NASSCOM survey in 2002 on the "Super Nine Indian Destinations" for IT-enabled services ranked Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
fifth among the top nine most competitive cities in the country.[12] The city's educational and industrial institutions have attracted students and young skilled workers from the rest of India.[154] Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
houses other major Indian corporates such as: Rasna, Wagh Bakri, Nirma, Cadila Pharmaceuticals, and Intas Biopharmaceuticals. Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
is the second largest cotton textile centre in India
India
after Mumbai
Mumbai
and the largest in Gujarat.[155] Many cotton manufacturing units are currently running in and around Ahmedabad.[156][157][158][159][160] Textiles are one of the major industries of the city.[161] Gujarat
Gujarat
Industrial Development Corporation has acquired land in Sanand
Sanand
taluka of Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
to set up three new industrial estates.[162] Transport[edit]

Sabarmati
Sabarmati
Railway Station

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Vallabhbhai Patel
International Airport, Ahmedabad

Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
BRTS, Janmarg

Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
is one of six operating divisions in the Western Railway zone.[163] Railway lines connect the city to towns in Gujarat
Gujarat
and major Indian cities. Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
railway station, locally known as Kalupur
Kalupur
station is the main terminus with 11 others.[164] The mass-transit metro system, MEGA for the cities of Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
and Gandhinagar
Gandhinagar
is under construction since March 2015.[165][166] The North-South and East-West corridors are expected to complete by 2019.[167][168] National Highway 48 passes through Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
and connects it with Delhi
Delhi
and Mumbai. The National Highway 147 also links Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
to Gandhinagar. It is connected to Vadodara
Vadodara
through National Expressway 1, a 94 km (58 mi) long expressway with two exits. This expressway is part of the Golden Quadrilateral
Golden Quadrilateral
project.[169] In 2001, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
was ranked as the most polluted city in India, out of 85 cities, by the Central Pollution Control Board. The Gujarat Pollution Control Board gave auto rickshaw drivers an incentive of ₹10,000 to convert all 37,733 auto rickshaws in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
to cleaner burning compressed natural gas to reduce pollution. As a result, in 2008, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
was ranked as 50th most polluted city in India.[170] Janmarg is a bus rapid transit system in the city. It is operated by Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Janmarg Limited, a subsidiary of Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Municipal Corporation and others.[171][172] Inaugurated in October 2009, the network expanded to 89 kilometres (55 mi) by December 2015 with daily ridership of 1,32,000 passengers.[173] The Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Municipal Transport Service (AMTS), maintained by Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Municipal Corporation, runs the public bus service in the city.[174] At present, AMTS has more than 750 buses serving the city.[174] Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Vallabhbhai Patel
International Airport, 15 km (9.3 mi) from the city centre, provides domestic and international flights.[175] It is the busiest airport in Gujarat
Gujarat
and the eighth busiest in India
India
with an average of 250 aircraft movements a day.[176] The Dholera International Airport is proposed near Fedara. It will be the largest airport in India
India
with a total area of 7,500 hectares.[177] Sports[edit] Cricket
Cricket
is one of the popular sports in the city.[178] Sardar Patel Stadium (also known as Motera
Motera
Stadium), built in 1982, hosts both one day internationals and test matches. It has a seating capacity of 54,000.[179] It hosted the 1987, 1996 and 2011 Cricket
Cricket
World Cups.[180] Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
also has a second cricket stadium at the Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Municipal Corporation's Sports Club of Gujarat
Gujarat
which is the home ground of the Gujarat
Gujarat
cricket team that plays in the Ranji Trophy tournament.[181] Other popular sports are field hockey, badminton, tennis, squash and golf. Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
currently has three golf courses.[182] Mithakhali Multi Sports Complex is being developed by the AMC to promote various indoor sports.[183] Recently Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
hosted national level games for roller skating and table tennis.[184] Kart racing
Kart racing
is gaining popularity in the city, with the introduction of a 380 metre long track based on Formula One
Formula One
concepts.[185][186] Sabarmati
Sabarmati
Marathon is organised every year in December–January since 2011 which have different categories like full and half marathon, 7 km dream run, 5 km run for visually challenged and 5 km wheelchair run.[187] In 2007, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
hosted the 51st national level shooting games.[188] The 2016 Kabaddi World Cup
2016 Kabaddi World Cup
is held in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
at The Arena by Transtadia (a renovated Kankaria
Kankaria
football ground). Geet Sethi, a five-time winner of the World Professional Billiards Championship and a recipient of India's highest sporting award, the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, was raised in Ahmedabad.[189] International relations[edit] Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in India

Sister Cities

Columbus, Ohio, United States
United States
(2008) Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
China
(September 2014)[190] Port Louis, Mauritius Astrakhan, Astrakhan
Astrakhan
Oblast, Russia Ulsan, Yeongnam, South Korea Jersey City, New Jersey, United States

Notable citizens[edit]

Ahmad Shah I
Ahmad Shah I
– Founder of Ahmedabad. Vallabhbhai Patel
Vallabhbhai Patel
– The first Deputy Prime Minister of India, popularly known as Sardar Patel. Vikram Sarabhai
Vikram Sarabhai
– Scientist and innovator, regarded as the father of India's space program. Mrinalini Sarabhai - Indian Classical Dancer founder of Darpana Academy Mallika Sarabhai
Mallika Sarabhai
– Activist and Indian classical dancer. B.V. Doshi
B.V. Doshi
- Indian architect; the first one ever to win a Pritzker Prize Gautam Adani
Gautam Adani
– Billionaire businessman, the chairman and founder of Adani Group. Ela Bhatt
Ela Bhatt
– Cooperative organizer, activist and Gandhian, founder of the Indian Self Employed Women's Association. Sujata Bhatt – Poet, and writer. M. C. Setalvad – Eminent jurist, the first and longest serving Attorney General of India. Parthiv Patel
Parthiv Patel
– Cricketer, wicketkeeper-batsman for the Indian national cricket team. Makarand Paranjape – Poet and professor. Neha Dubey
Neha Dubey
– Psychotherapist and former actress. Nirav Tripathi - Businessman Karsanbhai Patel - Founder of Nirma
Nirma
Group

See also[edit]

Book: Ahmedabad

India
India
portal Gujarat
Gujarat
portal Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
portal

List of people from Ahmedabad List of tallest buildings in Ahmedabad Timeline of Ahmedabad

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Further reading[edit]

Muktirajsinhji Chauhan and Kamalika Bose. History of Interior Design in India
India
Vol 1 : Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
(2007) ISBN 81-904096-0-3 Kenneth L. Gillion (1968). Ahmedabad: A Study in Indian Urban History. University of California Press.  Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. A history of important ancient towns and cities in Gujarat
Gujarat
and Kathiawad (from the earliest times down to the Moslem conquest). ASIN B0008B2NGA.  Crook, Nigel (1993). India's Industrial Cities: Essays in Economy and Demography. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-563172-2.  Rajan, K. V. Soundra (1989). Ahmadabad. Archaeological Survey of India.  Forrest, George William. Cities of India. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 0-543-93823-9.  Gandhi, R (1990). "Patel: A Life". Navajivan Press, Ahmedabad. ASIN B0006EYQ0A.  Michell, George (2003). Ahmadabad. Art Media Resources. ISBN 81-85026-03-3.  Spodek, Howard (2011). Ahmedabad: Shock City of Twentieth-Century India. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-35587-4. 

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