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Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
(/ɑːməˈdiə/;[1] officially, the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim Community[2] or the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Jama'at; Arabic: الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية‎, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; Urdu: احمدیہ مسلم جماعت‬‎) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, near the end of the 19th century.[3][4][5][6] It originated with the life and teachings of Mirza
Mirza
Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908),[7] who claimed to have appeared in fulfilment of the prophecies concerning the world's reformer during the end times; and who was to bring about, by peaceful means, the final triumph of Islam and herald the eschaton as predicted in Islamic scriptures as well as the traditions of various world religions.[8] He claimed to have been divinely appointed as both the promised Mahdi
Mahdi
(Guided One) and Messiah awaited by Muslims.[9][10][11][12] Adherents of the Ahmadiyya—a term adopted expressly in reference to Muhammad's alternative name Aḥmad.[13][14][15][16]—are known as Ahmadi Muslims or simply Ahmadis Ahmadi thought emphasizes the belief that Islam
Islam
is the final dispensation for humanity as revealed to Muhammad
Muhammad
and the necessity of restoring to it its true intent and pristine form, which had been lost through the centuries.[17] Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
adherents consider Ahmad
Ahmad
to have appeared as the Mahdi—bearing the qualities of Jesus
Jesus
in accordance with their reading of scriptural prophecies—to revitalize Islam
Islam
and set in motion its moral system that would bring about lasting peace.[18][19][20] They believe that upon divine guidance he purged Islam
Islam
of foreign accretions in belief and practice by championing what is, in their view, Islam’s original precepts as practised by Muhammad
Muhammad
and the early Muslim
Muslim
community.[21][22] Ahmadis thus view themselves as leading the propagation and renaissance of Islam.[23][24] Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
established the movement on 23 March 1889 by formally accepting allegiance from his supporters. Since his death, the Community has been led by a number of Caliphs and has spread to 209 countries and territories of the world as of 2016 with concentrations in South Asia, West Africa, East Africa
East Africa
and Indonesia. The Ahmadis have a strong missionary tradition and formed the first Muslim
Muslim
missionary organization to arrive in Britain and other Western countries.[25][26][27][28][29] Currently, the Community is led by its Caliph, Mirza
Mirza
Masroor Ahmad, and is estimated to number between 10 and 20 million worldwide.[30][31][32][33] The population is almost entirely contained in the single, highly organized and united movement. In this sense there is only one major branch. However, in the early history of the Community, a number of Ahmadis broke away over the nature of Ahmad's prophethood and succession and formed the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement
Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement
for the Propagation of Islam, which today represents a small fraction of all Ahmadis. Some Ahmadiyya-specific beliefs have been thought of as opposed to contemporary mainstream Islamic thought since the movement's birth, and some Ahmadis have subsequently faced persecution.[34][33][35][36] Many Muslims consider Ahmadi Muslims as either kafirs or heretics.[37][38][39][40]

Contents

1 Naming and etymology

1.1 Lexicology

2 Summary of beliefs 3 Articles of faith

3.1 Unity of God 3.2 Angels 3.3 Books 3.4 Prophets 3.5 Day of Judgement 3.6 Divine decree

4 Five pillars 5 Distinct teachings

5.1 Second Coming 5.2 Seal of Prophets 5.3 Jihad 5.4 Abrogation 5.5 Religion
Religion
and science 5.6 Other

6 History

6.1 First Caliphate 6.2 Second Caliphate 6.3 Third Caliphate 6.4 Fourth Caliphate 6.5 Fifth Caliphate

7 Demographics 8 Organizational structure

8.1 The Caliph 8.2 The Consultative Council 8.3 The Headquarters 8.4 Institutions 8.5 Auxiliary organizations 8.6 The Community 8.7 Annual events

9 Persecution

9.1 Algeria 9.2 Bangladesh 9.3 India 9.4 Indonesia 9.5 Pakistan 9.6 Palestine 9.7 Saudi Arabia 9.8 United Kingdom

10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Naming and etymology See also: Muhammad
Muhammad
(name), Ahmad
Ahmad
(name), and Ḥ-M-D

Ahmadiyya

Arabic أحمدية

Romanization Aḥmadīya(t)

Literal meaning fellowship/followers of Aḥmad, i.e., Muhammad; commendation; the state or quality of giving praise

The Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
movement was founded in 1889, but the name Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
was not adopted until about a decade later. In a manifesto dated 4 November 1900, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
explained that the name did not refer to himself but to Ahmad, the alternative name of Muhammad.[41][42] According to him, the meaning of the name Muhammad—"the most praised one"—indicated the glorious destiny and grandeur of the Islamic prophet that was manifest after the migration to Medina; but Ahmad, an Arabic
Arabic
elative form which means "highly praised" and also "one who praises the most", conveyed the beauty of his sermons, the peace that he was destined to establish, and the qualities of perseverance and forbearance that found particular emphasis during his earlier life at Mecca. According to Ahmad, these two names thus reflected two aspects or modalities of Islam, and in later times it was the latter aspect that commanded greater attention.[43][44][45][46] Labelling a group or school in Islam
Islam
after anyone (or anything) other than Muhammad
Muhammad
the prophet of Islam, he thus rejected as religious innovation (bid‘ah).[47] Accordingly, in Ahmad's view, this was the reason that the Old Testament had prophesied a messenger like unto Moses, in reference to Muhammad, while according to the Quran
Quran
61:6, Jesus
Jesus
used the elative form Ahmad
Ahmad
when referring to that messenger since it reflected his own disposition and circumstances. Further, his reading of Quran
Quran
48:29 was that Moses, who himself characterized power and glory, described Muhammad
Muhammad
and those with him as unyielding against the disbelievers and tender among themselves which comported with the name Muhammad
Muhammad
and with the early Muslims who achieved swift military successes against their oppressors, while Jesus, whose life consisted purely of preaching and involved nothing of might or fighting, described them as like unto a seed-produce that sends forth its sprout, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick and stands firm on its stem. This latter description which, according to him, comported with the name Ahmad, suggested a gradual, measured and peaceful emergence and intimated another community of Muslims: those with the promised Mahdi, the counterpart of Jesus
Jesus
in the latter times.[48] In view of these exegetical rationales, he considered the term Ahmadi—in relation to the early days of Muhammad's proclamation[49] and in order to distinguish the movement from other Muslim
Muslim
groups[50][51]—as most befitting for himself and the movement:

The name which is appropriate for this Movement and which I prefer for myself and for my Jamā'at is Muslims of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Section. And it is permissible that it also be referred to as Muslims of the Ahmadi school of thought.[52]

Lexicology The term Ahmadiyya—formed by way of suffixation (nisba) from Ahmad and the suffix -iyya(t) (comparable to the English -ness)—is an abstract noun used in reference to the movement itself; while the term Ahmadi (adjectivally denoting affiliation to Ahmad) is a noun used in reference to an adherent of the movement, whether male or female. Despite Ahmadis dissociating the name from their founder, deriving it instead from Islamic prophecy[53] and the name variant of Muhammad,[54] some Sunni
Sunni
Muslims, especially in the Indian subcontinent from where the movement originated, refer to Ahmadis using the pejorative terms Qadiyani—derived from Qadian, the home town of Ghulam Ahmad; or Mirzai—from Mirza, one of his titles.[55][56][57] Both are externally attributed names and are never used by the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community itself.[58] Summary of beliefs The Six articles of Islamic Faith
Faith
and the Five Pillars of Islam constitute the basis of Ahmadi belief and practice. Likewise, Ahmadis accept the Quran
Quran
as their holy text, face the Kaaba
Kaaba
during prayer, follow the sunnah (normative practice of Muhammad) and accept the authority of the ahadith (sing. hadith; reported sayings of and narrations about Muhammad).[59][60][61] In the derivation of Ahmadi doctrine and practice, the Quran
Quran
has supreme authority followed by the sunnah and the hadith. Quranic rulings cannot be overruled by any other secondary or explanatory source. If a hadith is found to be in manifest conflict with the Quran
Quran
and defies all possible efforts at harmonization, it is rejected regardless of the classification of its authenticity.[62][63]Their acceptance of the authority of the four Rightly Guided caliphs (successors) as legitimate leaders of the Muslim
Muslim
community following Muhammad’s death and their belief that a caliph need not be a descendant of Muhammad
Muhammad
fundamentally aligns Ahmadis with the Sunni
Sunni
tradition of Islam
Islam
rather than with the Shi'a tradition. In matters of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), Ahmadis reject strict adherence (taqlid) to any particular school of thought (madhhab), giving foremost precedence to the Quran
Quran
and sunnah, but usually base their rulings on the Hanafi
Hanafi
methodology in cases where these sources lack clear elaboration.[64][65][66][67][68] What essentially distinguishes Ahmadi Muslims from other Muslims is their belief in Mirza
Mirza
Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of the movement, as both the promised Mahdi
Mahdi
(Guided One) and Messiah
Messiah
foretold by Muhammad
Muhammad
to appear in the end times. Summarising his claim, Ahmad
Ahmad
writes:

The task for which God
God
has appointed me is that I should remove the malaise that afflicts the relationship between God
God
and His creatures and restore the relationship of love and sincerity between them. Through the proclamation of truth and by putting an end to religious conflicts, I should bring about peace and manifest the Divine verities that have become hidden from the eyes of the world. I am called upon to demonstrate spirituality which lies buried under egoistic darkness. It is for me to demonstrate by practice, and not by words alone, the Divine powers which penetrate into a human being and are manifested through prayer or attention. Above all, it is my task to re-establish in people’s hearts the eternal plant of the pure and shining Unity of God
God
which is free from every impurity of polytheism, and which has now completely disappeared. All this will be accomplished, not through my power, but through the power of the Almighty God, Who is the God
God
of heaven and earth.[69]

In keeping with this, he believed his objective was to defend and propagate Islam
Islam
globally through peaceful means, to revive the forgotten Islamic values of peace, forgiveness and sympathy for all mankind, and to establish peace in the world through the teachings of Islam. He believed that his message had special relevance for the Western world, which, he believed, had descended into materialism.[70] Ahmadi teachings state that all the major world religions had divine origins and were part of the divine plan towards the establishment of Islam
Islam
as the final religion, because it was the most complete and perfected the previous teachings of other religions[71] (but they believe that all other religions have drifted away from their original form and have been corrupted). The message which the founders of these religions brought was, therefore, essentially the same as that of Islam, albeit incomplete. The completion and consummation of the development of religion came about with the advent of Muhammad. However, the global conveyance, recognition and eventual acceptance of his message (i.e. the perfection of the manifestation of Muhammad’s prophethood) was destined to occur with the coming of the Mahdi.[72] Thus, Ahmadi Muslims regard Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
as that Mahdi
Mahdi
and, by extension, the "Promised One" of all religions fulfilling eschatological prophecies found in the scriptures of the Abrahamic religions, as well as Zoroastrianism, the Indian religions, Native American traditions and others.[73] Ahmadi Muslims believe that Ahmad was divinely commissioned as a true reflection of Muhammad's prophethood to establish the unity of God
God
and to remind mankind of their duties towards God
God
and His creation.[74][75] Summarising the Islamic faith, Ahmad
Ahmad
writes:

There are only two complete parts of faith. One is to love God
God
and the other is to love mankind to such a degree that you consider the suffering and the trials and tribulations of others as your own and that you pray for them.[76]

Articles of faith Ahmadi Muslims subscribe to the same beliefs as the majority of Muslims, but with a difference of opinion on the meaning of Khatam an-Nabiyyin. The six articles of faith are identical to those believed in by Sunni
Sunni
Muslims, and are based on the Quran
Quran
and traditions of Muhammad: Unity of God

The Shahada, outside the Mahmood Mosque
Mosque
in Zurich, proclaiming the oneness of God

Main article: Tawhid Ahmadi Muslims firmly believe in the absolute Unity of God. Acknowledgement of this principle is the most important and the cardinal principle of Islam
Islam
as interpreted by the Community. All other Islamic beliefs spring from this belief. The belief in the Unity of God
God
is thought to influence a person's life in all its aspects and is believed to have much wider meaning and deeper applications. For example, elaborating on the Oneness of God, the Quranic verse "There is no all-encompassing power except God" is believed to negate all forms of fear with the exception of the fear of God. It instills a sense of complete dependence on God
God
and that every good emanates from Him. In general, the belief in unity of God
God
is thought to liberate believers from all forms of carnal passions, slavery and perceptions of earthly imprisonment. The founder of the Community writes:

The Unity of God
God
is a light which illumines the heart only after the negation of all deities, whether they belong to the inner world or the outer world. It permeates every particle of man's being. How can this be acquired without the aid of God
God
and His Messenger? The duty of man is only to bring death upon his ego and turn his back to devilish pride. He should not boast of his having been reared in the cradle of knowledge but should consider himself as if he were merely an ignorant person, and occupy himself in supplications. Then the light of Unity will descend upon him from God
God
and will bestow new life upon Him.[77]

It is further believed that the Islamic concept of Oneness of God inculcates the realization of the Oneness of the human species and thus removes all impediments in this regard. The diversity of all human races, ethnicities and colours are considered worthy of acceptance. Moreover, it is thought that a belief in the Unity of God creates a sense of absolute harmony between the Creator and the creation. It is understood that there can be no contradiction between the word of God
God
and work of God.[78][79] Islam
Islam
recognises God
God
as the fountain-head of all excellences, free from all imperfection as understood by the Community. God
God
is recognised as a Living God
God
who manifests himself everywhere and listens to the prayers of his servants. Distinctively, however, Ahmadi Muslims recognise that the attributes of God
God
are eternal. On account of this, Ahmadi teachings propound the view that God
God
communicates with mankind as he did before. Angels Main article: Islamic view of angels The belief in angels is fundamental to the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community. They are spiritual beings created by God
God
to obey him and implement his commandments. Unlike human beings, angels have no free will and cannot act independently. Under God's command, they bring revelations to the Prophets, bring punishment on the Prophets' enemies, glorify God
God
with his praise, and keep records of human beings' deeds. Angels are not visible to the physical eye. Yet, according to the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim Community, they do sometimes appear to man in one form or another. This appearance, however, is not physical but a spiritual manifestation.[80] Ahmadi Muslims regards angels as celestial beings who have their own entity as persons. The major role they play is the transmission of messages from God
God
to human beings. According to the Quran, the entire material universe as well as the religious universe is governed by some spiritual powers, which are referred to as angels. Whatever they do is in complete submission to the Will of God
God
and the design that he created for things. According to Islam, as interpreted by Ahmadi Muslims, they cannot deviate from the set course or functions allocated to them, or from the overall plan of things made by God.[81] Books Main article: Islamic holy books

Some of the many Quran
Quran
translations by Ahmadi translators at the 2009 Frankfurt Book Fair

For Ahmadi Muslims, the third article in Islam
Islam
is concerned with the belief in all the divine scriptures as revealed by God
God
to his Prophets. This includes, the Torah, the Gospel, the Psalms, the scrolls of Abraham, and the Quran. Before the advent of Islam, the history of religion is understood as a series of dispensations where each messenger brought teachings suitable for the time and place. Thus, at the time of their inception, the divine teachings sent by God concurred in their fundamentals, with the exception of minor details that were chosen to complement the time and place. With the exception of the Quran, it is believed that the divine scriptures are susceptible to human interpolation. Islam
Islam
recognises that God
God
sent his prophets to every nation and isolated communities of the world. Thus, according to the Ahmadi teachings, books outside of the Abrahamic tradition, such as the Vedas
Vedas
and Avesta
Avesta
are too considered as being of divine origin. Among the recognised books, the Community believes that the Quran
Quran
is the final divine scripture revealed by God
God
to mankind. The teachings of the Quran
Quran
are considered timeless.[82] Prophets Main articles: Prophets in Islam, Prophethood (Ahmadiyya), and Khatam an-Nabiyyin According to the Ahmadi Muslim
Muslim
view, the fourth article of faith in Islam
Islam
is concerned with the belief in all divine prophets sent by God. Ahmadi Muslims believe that when the world is filled with unrighteousness and immorality, or when a specific part of the world displays these attributes, or when the followers of a certain law (religion) become corrupt or incorporate corrupted teachings into the faith, thus making the faith obsolete or in need of a Divine Sustainer, then a Prophet of God
God
is sent to re-establish His Divine Will. Aside from the belief in all prophets in the Quran
Quran
and the Old Testament, the Community also regards Zoroaster, Krishna, Buddha, Confucius
Confucius
as prophets.[83][not in citation given] According to the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
belief, the technical Islamic terms "warner" (natheer), "prophet" (nabi), "messenger" (rasul) and "envoy" (mursal) are synonymous in meaning. However, there are two kinds of prophethood as understood by the Community: Law-bearing prophets, who bring a new law and dispensation, such as Moses
Moses
(given the Torah) and Muhammad
Muhammad
(given the Quran); and non-law-bearing prophets, who appear within a given dispensation such as Jeremiah, Jesus
Jesus
and Mirza
Mirza
Ghulam Ahmad. Adam
Adam
is regarded as the first human with whom God
God
spoke with and revealed to him his divine will and thus the first prophet but is not regarded as the first human on earth by the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim Community, contrary to mainstream Islamic, Jewish and Christian beliefs. This view is based on the Quran
Quran
itself, according to the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community.[84] Ahmadis believe Muhammad
Muhammad
to be the final law-bearing prophet but teach the continuity of prophethood. Day of Judgement Main article: Qiyamat The fifth article of faith relates to the Day of Judgment.[85] According to the Ahmadis, after belief in one God, belief in the Day of Judgement is the most emphasized doctrine mentioned in the Quran.[85] According to Ahmadi Muslim
Muslim
beliefs, the entire universe will come to an end on the Day of Judgment, a position also taken by all other Islamic sects and schools of thought. The dead will be resurrected and accounts will be taken of their deeds. People with good records will enter into Heaven while those with bad records will be thrown into Hell.[85] Hell is understood in Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
as a temporary abode, lasting an extremely long time but not everlasting, much like in mainstream Judaism. It is thought to be like a hospital, where souls are cleansed of their sins, and this view is based on the Quran
Quran
and Hadith.[86] Divine decree Main articles: Qadar
Qadar
and Taqdir The Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community believes that divine decree controls the eventual outcome of all actions in this universe. Within the boundaries of divine decree, man is given free will to choose the course.[87] Ahmadi Muslims believe that they will be judged on the basis of their intentions and deeds on the Day of Judgment. Ahmadis believe that science is the study of the acts of God
God
and religion is the study of the word of God
God
and the two cannot possibly contradict each other. They believe that Adam, the prophet, was simply the first Prophet and not the first human on earth, as understood by them being in the Quran. Ahmadi Muslims do believe in the theory of biological evolution, albeit guided by God.[citation needed] Five pillars

Though many Ahmadi Muslims perform Hajj, they are not technically permitted by Saudi law.

Main article: Five pillars of Islam The Pillars of Islam
Islam
(arkan al-Islam; also arkan ad-din, "pillars of religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory for all Ahmadi Muslims.[88] The Quran
Quran
presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are (1) the shahadah (creed), (2) daily prayers (salat), (3) almsgiving (zakah), (4) fasting during Ramadan
Ramadan
and (5) the pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
(hajj) at least once in a lifetime.[89] Ahmadi Muslims agree with both Shia and Sunni sects on the essential details for the performance of these acts. However, in Pakistan
Pakistan
Ahmadi Muslims are prohibited by law, and to some extent in other Muslim
Muslim
countries by persecution, from self-identifying as Muslims. This creates some level of difficulty in performing the obligatory acts. Although Ahmadi Muslims from some countries do perform the pilgrimage to Mecca, they are not technically allowed under Saudi law.[90] Distinct teachings Although the Five Pillars of Islam
Five Pillars of Islam
and the six articles of belief of Ahmadi Muslims are identical to those of mainstream Sunni
Sunni
Muslims and central to Ahmadi belief,[91] distinct Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
beliefs include the following: Second Coming Contrary to mainstream Islamic belief, Ahmadi Muslims believe that Jesus
Jesus
was crucified and survived the four hours on the cross. He was later revived from a swoon in the tomb.[92] Ahmadis believe that Jesus died in Kashmir
Kashmir
of old age whilst seeking the Lost Tribes of Israel.[93] Jesus' remains are believed to be entombed in Kashmir under the name Yuz Asaf. In particular, it is believed that the biblical and the Islamic prophecies concerning the second coming of Jesus
Jesus
were metaphorical in nature and not literal, and that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Ahmad
fulfilled in his person these prophecies and the second advent of Jesus. Ahmadi Muslims also believe that the "Promised Messiah" and the " Imam
Imam
Mahdi" are the same person, and that it is through his teachings, influence and prayers and those of his followers that Islam
Islam
will defeat the Anti-Christ
Anti-Christ
or Dajjal
Dajjal
in a period similar to the period of time it took for nascent Christianity
Christianity
to rise (see also: Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
relationship with Christianity) and that the Dajjal's power will slowly fade away, heralding the prophecised final victory of Islam
Islam
and the age of peace.

The White Minaret in Qadian, India. For Ahmadi Muslims, it symbolises the advent of the Promised Messiah
Messiah
and the ultimate preeminence of Islam

Seal of Prophets See also: Khatam an-Nabiyyin
Khatam an-Nabiyyin
and Prophethood (Ahmadiyya) Although Ahmadi Muslims believe that the Quran
Quran
is the final message of God
God
for mankind, they also believe that God
God
continues to communicate with his chosen individuals in the same way he is believed to have done in the past. All of God's attributes are eternal. In particular, Ahmadi Muslims believes that Muhammad
Muhammad
brought prophethood to perfection and was the last law-bearing prophet and the apex of humankind's spiritual evolution. New prophets can come, but they must be completely subordinate to Muhammad
Muhammad
and will not be able to exceed him in excellence nor alter his teaching or bring any new law or religion. They are also thought of as reflections of Muhammad
Muhammad
rather than independently made into Prophets, like the Prophets of antiquity.[94] Jihad Main article: Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
view on Jihad According to Ahmadi Muslim
Muslim
belief, Jihad
Jihad
can be divided into three categories: Jihad
Jihad
al-Akbar (Greater Jihad) is that against the self and refers to striving against one's low desires such as anger, lust and hatred; Jihad
Jihad
al-Kabīr (Great Jihad) refers to the peaceful propagation of Islam, with special emphasis on spreading the true message of Islam
Islam
by the pen; Jihad
Jihad
al-Asghar (Smaller Jihad) is an armed struggle only to be resorted to in self-defence under situations of extreme religious persecution whilst not being able to follow one's fundamental religious beliefs, and even then only under the direct instruction of the Caliph.[95] Ahmadi Muslims point out that as per Islamic prophecy, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
rendered Jihad
Jihad
in its military form as inapplicable in the present age as Islam, as a religion, is not being attacked militarily but through literature and other media, and therefore the response should be likewise.[96] They believe that the answer of hate should be given by love.[97] Concerning terrorism, the fourth Caliph of the Community wrote in 1989:

As far as Islam
Islam
is concerned, it categorically rejects and condemns every form of terrorism. It does not provide any cover or justification for any act of violence, be it committed by an individual, a group or a government.[98]

Abrogation Unlike Sunni
Sunni
Muslims but like Shia Muslims, Ahmadi Muslims believe that no verse of the Quran
Quran
abrogates or cancels another verse. All Quranic verses have equal validity, in keeping with their emphasis on the "unsurpassable beauty and unquestionable validity of the Qur'ān".[99] The harmonization of apparently incompatible rulings is resolved through their juridical deflation in Ahmadī fiqh, so that a ruling (considered to have applicability only to the specific situation for which it was revealed), is effective not because it was revealed last, but because it is most suited to the situation at hand.[100] Religion
Religion
and science See also: Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
views on evolution Ahmadi Muslims believe that there cannot be a conflict between the word of God
God
and the work of God, and thus religion and science must work in harmony with each other.[101] With particular reference to this relationship, the second Caliph of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community states that in order to understand God's revelation, it is necessary to study His work, and in order to realize the significance of His work, it is necessary to study His word.[102] According to the Nobel laureate, Abdus Salam, a devout Ahmadi Muslim, 750 verses of the Quran (almost one eighth of the book) exhort believers to study Nature, to reflect, to make the best use of reason in their search for the ultimate and to make the acquiring of knowledge and scientific comprehension part of the community's life.[103] Other Other distinct beliefs include:

That the history of religion is cyclic and is renewed every seven millennia. The present cycle from the time of the Biblical Adam
Adam
is split into seven epochs or ages, parallel to the seven days of the week, with periods for light and darkness. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
appeared as the promised Messiah
Messiah
at the sixth epoch heralding the seventh and final age of mankind,[104] as a day in the estimation of God
God
is like a thousand years of man's reckoning.[Quran 22:47] According to Ghulam Ahmad, just as the sixth day of the week is reserved for Jumu'ah
Jumu'ah
(congregational prayers), likewise his age is destined for a global assembling of mankind in which the world is to unite under one universal religion: Islam.

History

Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
timeline

1882 Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
(without publicity) claims to be the Mujaddid
Mujaddid
of the fourteenth Islamic century

1889 Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
establishes the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
movement

1890 Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
announces his claim to 'The Promised Messiah' and 'The Imam
Imam
Mahdi' of the Latter days

1908 Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
dies in Lahore. Hakeem Noor-ud-Din
Hakeem Noor-ud-Din
is elected as the First Caliph

1914 Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad
Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad
is elected as the Second Caliph

1947 Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad
Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad
migrates to Lahore, Pakistan

1948 Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad
Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad
establishes the city of Rabwah
Rabwah
as the new headquarters of the Community

1965 Mirza Nasir Ahmad
Mirza Nasir Ahmad
is elected as the Third Caliph

1982 Mirza Tahir Ahmad
Mirza Tahir Ahmad
is elected as the Fourth Caliph

1984 Mirza Tahir Ahmad
Mirza Tahir Ahmad
migrates to London, England, moving the headquarters to London

2003 Mirza Masroor Ahmad
Mirza Masroor Ahmad
is elected as the Fifth Caliph

Main article: Timeline of Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
history Formally, the history of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community begins when Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
took the oath of allegiance from a number of his companions at a home in Ludhiana, India, on 23 March 1889. However, the history can be taken back to the early life Ahmad, when he reportedly started receiving revelations concerning his future, but also as far back as the traditions of various world religions. At the end of the 19th century, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
of Qadian
Qadian
proclaimed himself to be the "Centennial Reformer of Islam" (Mujaddid), metaphorical second coming of Jesus
Jesus
and the Mahdi
Mahdi
(guided one) awaited by the Muslims and obtained a considerable number of followers especially within the United Provinces, the Punjab and Sindh.[105] He and his followers claim that his advent was foretold by Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, and also by many other religious scriptures of the world. Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
emerged in India
India
as a movement within Islam, also in response to the Christian and Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
missionary activity that was widespread in the 19th century. The Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
faith claims to represent the latter-day revival of the religion of Islam. Overseas Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
missionary activities started at an organized level as early as 1913 (for example, the UK mission in Putney, London). For many modern nations of the world, the Ahmadiyya movement was their first contact with the proclaimants from the Muslim world.[106] The Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
movement is considered by some historians[107] as one of the precursors to the Civil Rights Movement in America. According to some experts,[108] Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
were "arguably the most influential community in African-American Islam" until the 1950s. Today, the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community has one of the most active missionary programs in the world. It is particularly large in Africa. In the post colonial era, the Community is credited for much of the spread of Islam
Islam
in the continent.[109] First Caliphate After the death of Mirza
Mirza
Ghulam Ahmad, Hakeem Noor-ud-Din
Hakeem Noor-ud-Din
was unanimously elected as his first successor and Caliph of the Community. Within the stretch of his Caliphate, a period which lasted six years, he oversaw a satisfactory English translation of the Quran, the establishment of the first Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
mission in England and the introduction of various newspapers and magazines of the Community. As a result of growing financial requirements of the Community, he set up an official treasury. Most notably, however, he dealt with internal dissensions, when a number high-ranking office bearers of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Council disagreed with some of the administrative concepts and the authority of the Caliph. Second Caliphate

The Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community Flag, first designed in 1939, during the Second Caliphate

Soon after the death of the first caliph, Mirza
Mirza
Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad
Ahmad
was elected as the second caliph, in accordance with the will of his predecessor. However, a faction led by Maulana Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali and Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din
Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din
strongly opposed his succession and refused to accept him as the next caliph, which soon led to the formation of the Lahore
Lahore
Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Movement. This was due to certain doctrinal differences they held with the caliph such as the nature of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad's prophethood and succession.[110] It has also been theorised that a clash of personalities with that of the dissenters and the caliph himself, who had a relatively poor academic background, also played a role.[111] However, the Lahore
Lahore
Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
movement, which settled in Lahore, has had relatively little success and has failed to attract a sizeable following.[112] In the history of the Community, this event is referred to as 'The Split' and is sometimes alluded to a prophecy of the founder. Elected at a young age, Mahmood Ahmad's Caliphate
Caliphate
spanned a period of almost 52 years. He established the organizational structure of the Community and directed extensive missionary activity outside the subcontinent of India. Several weeks following his election, delegates from all over India
India
were invited to discuss about propagation of Islam. Two decades later, Mahmood Ahmad
Ahmad
launched a twofold scheme for the establishment of foreign missions and the moral upbringing of Ahmadi Muslims. The Tehrik-e-Jedid and Waqf-e-Jedid or the 'new scheme' and the 'new dedication' respectively, initially seen as a spiritual battle against the oppressors of the Ahmadi Muslims, called upon members of the Community to dedicate their time and money for the sake of their faith. In time the scheme produced a vast amount of literature in defence of Islam
Islam
in general and the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
beliefs in particular. The funds were also spent on the training and dispatching of Ahmadi missionaries outside the Indian sub-continent.[113] During his time, missions were established in 46 countries, mosques were constructed in many foreign countries and the Quran
Quran
published in several major languages of the world. Although the Community continued to expand in the course of succeeding Caliphates, sometimes at a faster pace, the second caliph is credited for much of its inception. Ahmad
Ahmad
wrote many written works, the most significant of which is the ten volume commentary of the Quran.[113] Third Caliphate Elected on 8 November 1965, Mirza Nasir Ahmad
Mirza Nasir Ahmad
succeeded as the third Caliph of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community. Started by his predecessor, he is credited with the expansion of the missionary work, particularly in Africa, and is seen as having shown great leadership and guidance to the Community during the period when the National Assembly of Pakistan
Pakistan
declared the Community as a non- Muslim
Muslim
minority.[114][115] Nusrat Jahan Scheme, a scheme dedicated to serving parts of Africa
Africa
by running numerous medical clinics and schools was one of the many outcomes of his 1970 tour of West Africa, regarded as the first ever visit to the continent made by an Ahmadi Caliph. During his visit for the foundation stone ceremony of the Basharat Mosque, the first mosque in modern Spain, he coined the popular Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
motto: Love for all, Hatred for None.[116][117] Mirza Nasir Ahmad
Mirza Nasir Ahmad
established the Fazl-e-Umar Foundation in honour of his predecessor, oversaw the compilations of dialogues and sayings of the founder of the Community, Mirza
Mirza
Ghulam Ahmad, and also directed the complete collection of the dreams, visions and verbal revelations claimed to have been received by the founder.[114] Fourth Caliphate

Baitur Rehman Mosque
Mosque
near Washington, D.C
Washington, D.C
is one of several mosques inaugurated by the fourth caliph

Mirza Tahir Ahmad
Mirza Tahir Ahmad
was elected as the fourth Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim
Muslim
Community on 10 June 1982, a day after the death of his predecessor. Following the Ordinance XX that was promulgated by the government of Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1984, which rendered the Caliph unable to perform his duties and put the very institution in jeopardy, Ahmad left Pakistan
Pakistan
and migrated to London, England, moving the headquarters of the Community to Fazl Mosque, the first mosque in London.[118] For Ahmadi Muslims, the migration marked a new era in the history of the Community. Ahmad
Ahmad
launched the first Muslim
Muslim
satellite television network, Muslim
Muslim
Television Ahmadiyya;[119] instituted the Waqfe Nau Scheme, a program to dedicate Ahmadi Muslim
Muslim
children for the services of the Community; and inaugurated various funds for humanitarian causes such as the Maryum Shaadi Fund, the Syedna Bilal Fund, for victims of persecution, and the disaster relief charity Humanity First.[119] To the Community, Ahmad
Ahmad
is noted for his regular Question & Answer Sessions he held in multiple languages with people of various faiths, professions and cultural backgrounds. However, Ahmad
Ahmad
also wrote many books – the most significant of which include Islam's Response to Contemporary Issues, Murder in the name of Allah, Absolute Justice, Kindness and Kinship, Gulf Crisis and The New World Order and his magnum opus[120] Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge & Truth. Fifth Caliphate Following the death of the fourth Caliph in 2003, the Electoral College for the first time in the history of the Community convened in the western city of London, after which Mirza Masroor Ahmad
Mirza Masroor Ahmad
was elected as the fifth and current Caliph of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim Community. In his effort to promote his message of peace and facilitate service to humanity, Ahmad
Ahmad
travels globally meeting heads of state, holding peace conferences, and exhibiting Islamic solutions to world problems.[121] In response to ongoing conflicts, Ahmad
Ahmad
has sent letters to world leaders, including Queen Elizabeth and Pope Francis. Being the spiritual head of millions of Ahmadi Muslims residing in over 200 countries and territories of the world, Ahmad travels globally, teaching, conveying and maintaining correspondence with communities of believers and individuals, expounding principles of the Islamic faith. Demographics

Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
population map.

See also: Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
by country As of 2016[update] the community has been established in 209 countries and territories of the world with concentrations in South Asia, West Africa, East Africa
East Africa
and Indonesia. The community is a minority Muslim sect in almost every country of the world.[122] In some countries like Pakistan, it is practically illegal to be an Ahmadi Muslim.[123] Together, these factors make it difficult to estimate the Ahmadiyya population for both the community itself as well as independent organizations. For this reason, the community gives a figure of "tens of millions";[124] however, most independent sources variously estimate the population to be at least 10 to 20 million[125] worldwide, thereby representing around 1% of the world's Muslim population.[126] In 2001, the World Christian Encyclopedia, estimated that the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
movement was the fastest growing sect within Islam.[127] It is estimated that the country with the largest Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
population is Pakistan, with an estimated 4 million Ahmadi Muslims. The population is almost entirely contained in the single, organized and united movement, headed by the Caliph. The other is the Lahore
Lahore
Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Movement, which represents less than 0.2% of the total Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
population.[112] Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
are estimated to be from 60,000 to 1 million in India.[128] Organizational structure The Caliph Main article: Khalifatul Masih

Baitul Futuh
Baitul Futuh
Mosque, one of the largest mosques in Europe. The Caliph's Friday Sermon is televised live throughout the world, via MTA TV

Ahmadi Muslims believe that the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
caliphate is the resumption of the Rightly Guided Caliphate. This is believed to have been re-established with the appearance of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
whom Ahmadis believe was the promised Messiah
Messiah
and Mahdi. Ahmadi Muslims maintain that in accordance with Quranic verses (such as [Quran 24:55]) and numerous Hadith
Hadith
on the issue, Khilāfah or the Caliphate
Caliphate
can only be established by God
God
Himself and is a divine blessing given to those who believe and work righteousness and uphold the unity of God. Therefore, any movement to establish the Caliphate
Caliphate
centred around human endeavours alone is bound to fail, particularly when the condition of the people diverges from the precepts of prophethood and they are as a result disunited, their inability to elect a caliph caused fundamentally by the lack of righteousness in them. It is believed that through visions, dreams and spiritual guidance, God instils into the hearts and minds of the believers of whom to elect. No campaigning, speeches or speculation of any kind are permitted. Thus the caliph is designated neither necessarily by right (i.e. the rightful or competent one in the eyes of the people) nor merely by election but primarily by God.[129] According to Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
thought, it is not essential for a caliph to be the head of a state, rather the spiritual and religious significance of the Caliphate
Caliphate
is emphasised. It is above all a spiritual office, with the purpose to uphold, strengthen, spread the teachings of Islam and maintain the high spiritual and moral standards within the global community established by Muhammad. If a caliph does happen to bear governmental authority as a head of state, it is incidental and subsidiary in relation to his overall function as a caliph.[130][131] The caliph is also referred to by Ahmadi Muslims as Amir al-Mu'minin (Leader of the Faithful). The current and fifth caliph is Mirza Masroor Ahmad. The Consultative Council The Majlis-ash-Shura or the Consultative Council, in terms of importance, is the highest ranking institution within the Community after the Caliphate. It was established in 1922 by the second caliph, Mirza
Mirza
Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad. This advisory body meets formally at least once a year. At the international level, the council is presided over by the caliph. Its main purpose is to advise the caliph on important matters such as finance, projects, education and other issues relating to members of the Community. It is required for the caliph to carry out his duties through consultation, taking into consideration the views of the members of the council. However, it is not incumbent upon him to always accept the views and recommendations of the members.The caliph may comment, issue instructions, announce his decisions on the proposals during the course of the proceedings or may postpone the matter under further reflection. However, in most cases the caliph accepts the advice given by the majority. At the national level, the council is presided over by the ʾAmīr (National President). At the conclusion of the proceedings, the recommendations are sent to the caliph for approval which he may accept, reject or partially accept.[132] The Headquarters

The Fazl Mosque, the first mosque in London, represents the current world headquarters of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community

The principal headquarters of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community is the city, town or place where the caliph resides. As such, since the forced exile of the fourth caliph from Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1984, the official headquarters of the Community has been based in London, England. Although the Islamic holy cities of Mecca
Mecca
and Medina
Medina
are acknowledged to be more sacred, Qadian
Qadian
is considered to be the spiritual headquarters of the Community.[133] It is believed, and prophesied, that in the future, the Ahmadiyya Caliphate
Ahmadiyya Caliphate
will once again return to Qadian, the birthplace of Mirza
Mirza
Ghulam Ahmad. However, the Ahmadiyya city of Rabwah
Rabwah
in Pakistan, since its founding on 20 September 1948 by the second caliph, after the Indian partition, coordinates majority of the organization's activity around the world. In particular, the city is responsible for, but not exclusively, the two central bodies of the Community; Central Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Council and the Council for 'The New Scheme'.[134][135] Another, but much smaller body, the Council for 'New Dedication' , is also active. All central bodies work under the directive of the caliph. Sadr Anjuman Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
or the Central Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Council, first set up by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
in 1906, is today responsible for organizing the Community activities in India, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Bangladesh; whereas the Anjuman Tehrik-i-Jadid or the Council for 'The New Scheme', first set up by the second caliph, is responsible for missions outside the Indian subcontinent.[134] Each council is further divided into further directorates, such as the Department of Financial Affairs, the Department of Publications, the Department of Education, the Department of External Affairs, and the Department of Foreign Missions among others.[136] Under the latter council, the Community has built over 15,000 mosques, over 500 schools, over 30 hospitals and translated the Quran
Quran
into over 70 languages.[137] The Anjuman Waqf-i-Jadid or the Council for 'The New Dedication' , also initiated by the second caliph, is responsible for training and coordinating religious teachers in rural communities around the world. Institutions

Pakistani campus of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
University in Rabwah

Of all religious institutions of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community, Jāmi’ah al-Ahmadīyya, sometimes translated as Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
University of Theology
Theology
and Languages, is particularly notable. It is an international Islamic seminary and educational institute with several campuses throughout Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America. Founded in 1906 as a section in Madrassa Talim ul Islam
Islam
(later Talim-ul-Islam College) by Mirza
Mirza
Ghulam Ahmad, it is the main centre of the Ahmadiyya Muslim
Muslim
Community for Islamic learning and the training of missionaries. Graduates may be appointed by the Caliph either as missionaries of the Community[135] (often called Murrabi, Imam, or Mawlana) or as Qadis or Muftis of the Community with a specialisation in matters of fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence). Some Jamia alumni have also become Islamic historians. As of 2008, there are over 1,300 graduates of the University working as missionaries throughout the world.[137] Auxiliary organizations There are five organizations auxiliary to the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim Community. Each organization is responsible for the spiritual and moral training of their members. The Lajna Ima’illah is the largest of all the organizations and consists of female members above the age of 15; Majlis Khuddamul Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
is for male members between the ages of 15 and 40; Majlis Ansarullah is for male members above the age of 40; Nasiratul Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
is for girls between the ages of 7 and 15; and Atfalul Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
is for boys between the ages of 7 and 15.[135] The Community The International Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community is divided into National Communities, each with its National Headquarters. Each National Community is further divided into Regional Communities, which is again partitioned into Local Communities.[138] In many cases, each Local Community will have its own mosque, centre or a mission house. The Amīr, or the National President, though overseen by the central bodies of the Community, directs the National Amila or the National Executive Body which consists of national secretaries such as the General Secretary, Secretary for Finance, Secretary for Preaching, Secretary for moral Training, Secretary for Education, among others. This layout is replicated at regional and local levels with each of their own President and Executive Bodies.[135][139]

The Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Flag and the German flags at the 2009 German Annual Convention

Annual events Unlike the Muslim holidays
Muslim holidays
of Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
and Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Adha
also celebrated by Ahmadi Muslims, there are several functions observed by Ahmadis though not regarded as religious holidays. As such, functions are not considered equally obligatory nor is it necessary to celebrate them on the day normally set for celebration. The most important religious function of the Community is Jalsa Salana
Jalsa Salana
or the Annual Convention, first initiated by Mirza
Mirza
Ghulam Ahmad, is the formal annual gathering of the Community, for the purpose of increasing one's religious knowledge and the promotion of harmony, friendship, and solidarity within members of the Community.[140] Other functions include "Life of the Holy Prophet Day", "Promised Messiah
Messiah
Day", "Promised Reformer Day" and " Caliphate
Caliphate
Day". Persecution Main article: Persecution of Ahmadis An official Ahmadi website claims there are tens of millions of members, but the number of Ahmadis have variously been put at 10 million to 20 million.[125] The Ahmadis are active translators of the Quran
Quran
and proselytizers for the faith; converts to Islam
Islam
in many parts of the world first discover Islam
Islam
through the Ahmadis. However, in many Islamic countries the Ahmadis have been defined as heretics and non- Muslim
Muslim
and subjected to persecution and often systematic oppression.[35] Algeria In March 2016, Algerian authorities refused an attempt by Ahmadis to register as an association under Algerian law. In June 2016, a planned Ahmadi mosque was raided and shut down in Larbraa. Since March 2016, more than 280 Ahmadis have been arrested and have faced prosecution. Algerian officials have publicly called Ahmadis heretics and a threat to Algeria. In June 2016, The Minister of Religious Affairs and Endowments, Mohamed Aissa, described Ahmadi presence in Algeria as part of a "prepared sectarian invasion". In February 2017, he stated that Ahmadis are "not Muslim." In April 2017, Ahmed Ouyahia, President Abdelaziz Bouteflika’s chief of cabinet called on Algerians to "preserve the country from the Shia and Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
sects". [141] Bangladesh Main article: Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
in Bangladesh In Bangladesh, fundamentalist Islamic groups have demanded that Ahmadiyyas be "officially" declared to be kafirs (infidels). Ahmadiyyas have become a persecuted group, targeted via protests and acts of violence.[142] According to Amnesty International, followers have been subject to "house arrest", and several have been killed. In late 2003, several large violent marches, led by Moulana Moahmud Hossain Mumtazi, were directed to occupy an Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
mosque. In 2004, all Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
publications were banned.[143] India India
India
has a significant Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
population.[144] Most Ahmadis in India
India
live in Kerala, Rajasthan, Odisha, Haryana, Bihar, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, and a few in Punjab in the area of Qadian. Indian law regards Ahmadis as Muslims. A landmark ruling by the Kerala High Court on 8 December 1970 in the case of Shihabuddin Imbichi Koya Thangal vs K.P. Ahammed Koya, citation A.I.R. 1971 Ker 206 upheld their legal status as Muslims.[145] In this case, the court ruled that Ahmadis are Muslims and that they cannot be declared apostates by other Muslim
Muslim
sects because they hold true to the two fundamental beliefs of Islam: that there is no god but Allah
Allah
and that Muhammad
Muhammad
was a servant and messenger of God.[146] There are hence no legal restrictions on the religious activities of Ahmadis in India
India
and Ahmadis are free to practice their religion and call themselves Muslims.[145] However, there is some discrimination against Ahmadis in India
India
from fellow Muslims of other sects. Specifically, the Islamic University of India
India
and Darul Uloom Deoband have declared Ahmadis to be non-Muslims.[147] Ahmadis are also not permitted by Muslim
Muslim
leaders of the other sects to sit on the All India Muslim
Muslim
Personal Law Board, an independent body of Islamic religious leaders that the Indian government recognises as representatives of Indian Muslims.[148] In February 2012 the Andhra Pradesh Wakf Board took a series of unprecedented decisions and asked the Qazis in the state not to perform Nikah
Nikah
for those belonging to Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
community.[149] Indonesia See also: Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
in Indonesia Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
had existed before Proclamation of Indonesian Independence.[citation needed] However, Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
as a controversial religious minority in Indonesia
Indonesia
has only risen sharply in the 2000s with a rise of Islamic fundamentalism. In 2008, many Muslims in Indonesia
Indonesia
protested against the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
movement. With large demonstrations, these religious conservatives put pressure on the government to monitor and harass the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
community in Indonesia. Public opinion in Indonesia
Indonesia
is split into two major views on how Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
should be treated:

Majority of Muslims throughout Indonesia
Indonesia
hold that it should be banned outright on the basis that Ahmadiyah rejected the central tenet of Islam
Islam
that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the last messenger of God; furthermore, Ahmadis should not use Islam
Islam
as their banner but should constitute their own recognised religion in order to ensure their freedom of religion in Indonesia Some minorities including Ahmadis and numerous non-governmental organizations hold that Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
should be free to act and say as it pleases under the banner of Islam
Islam
in keeping with the Constitutional right of freedom of religion.

In June 2008, a law was passed to curtail "proselytising" by Ahmadiyya members.[150] An Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
mosque was burned.[151] Human rights groups objected to the restrictions on religious freedom. On 6 February 2011 some Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
members were killed at Pandeglang, Banten province.[152] In the past few years there has been an increase in attacks on religious freedom, including incidents of physical abuse, preventing groups from performing prayers, and burning their mosques. Data from the Setara Institute for Democracy and Peace
Peace
show 17, 18, and 64 incidents for the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 respectively.[153] Although the data cover persecution of all religions, the recent persecution of Ahmadis is significant and severe, followed by persecution of Christians and persecution of other Islamic sects who claim to be "genuine/pure/fundamentalist Muslims". As of 2011, the sect faces widespread calls for a total "ban" in Indonesia.[154] On 6 February 2011, hundreds of mainstream Muslims surrounded an Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
household and beat three people to death. Footage of the bludgeoning of their naked bodies – while policeman looked on – was posted on the internet and subsequently broadcast on international media.[155] Pakistan Main article: Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
in Pakistan See also: Ordinance XX

The Shahada, the basic creed of Islam
Islam
and of Ahmadi Muslims being erased by Pakistani police

Approximately 2–5 million Ahmadis live in Pakistan, which has the largest population of Ahmadis in the world.[156] It is the only state to have officially declared the Ahmadis to be non-Muslims as they do not consider Muhammad
Muhammad
to be the final prophet;[145] and their freedom of religion has been curtailed by a series of ordinances, acts and constitutional amendments. In 1974, Pakistan's parliament adopted a law declaring Ahmadis to be non-Muslims;[157] the country's constitution was amended to define a Muslim
Muslim
"as a person who believes in the finality of the Prophet Muhammad".[158] In 1984, General Zia-ul-Haq, the then military ruler of Pakistan, issued Ordinance XX.[159][160] The ordinance, which was supposed to prevent "anti-Islamic activities", forbids Ahmadis to call themselves Muslim or to "pose as Muslims". This means that they are not allowed to profess the Islamic creed publicly or call their places of worship mosques.[161] Although a derogatory religious slur,[162] the term Qadiani is widely used in Pakistan
Pakistan
to refer to Ahmadis and is the term used by the government in its constitution.[163] Ahmadis in Pakistan
Pakistan
are also barred by law from worshipping in non-Ahmadi mosques or public prayer rooms, performing the Muslim
Muslim
call to prayer, using the traditional Islamic greeting in public, publicly quoting from the Quran, preaching in public, seeking converts, or producing, publishing, and disseminating their religious materials. These acts are punishable by imprisonment of up to three years.[90] In applying for a passport or a national ID card, all Pakistanis are required to sign an oath declaring Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
to be an impostor prophet and all Ahmadis to be non-Muslims.[164] The word "Muslim" was erased from the gravestone of the Nobel prize winning theoretical physicist Abdus Salam, because he was an Ahmadi.[164] As a result of the cultural implications of the laws and constitutional amendments regarding Ahmadis in Pakistan, persecution and hate-related incidents are constantly reported from different parts of the country. Ahmadis have been the target of many attacks led by various religious groups.[165] All religious seminaries and madrasas in Pakistan
Pakistan
belonging to different sects of Islam
Islam
have prescribed essential reading materials specifically targeted at refuting Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
beliefs.[166] In a 2005 survey in Pakistan, pupils in private schools of Pakistan expressed their opinions on religious tolerance in the country. The figures assembled in the study reflect that even in the educated classes of Pakistan, Ahmadis are considered to be the least deserving minority in terms of equal opportunities and civil rights. In the same study, the teachers in these elite schools showed an even lower amount of tolerance towards Ahmadis than their pupils.[167] Ahmadis are harassed by certain schools, universities and teachers in Pakistan's Punjab province. The harassment includes social boycott, expulsions, threats and violence against Ahmadi students by extremist students, teachers and principals of the majority sect.[168] 28 May 2010 saw the worst single incident of violence against Ahmadis to date (see May 2010 attacks on Ahmadi mosques in Lahore), when several members of an extremist religious group (allegedly Tehrik-i-Taliban Punjab) entered two Ahmadi mosques in Lahore
Lahore
and opened fire; three of them later detonated themselves. In total, the attacks claimed the lives of 86 people and injured well over 100.[169] The members were gathered in the mosques attending Friday services.[170] In response to the attacks, Pakistan
Pakistan
minister for minorities Shahbaz Bhatti
Shahbaz Bhatti
visited the Ahmadi community.[citation needed] Palestine Main article: Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
in Palestine Ahmadis were reported to be persecuted in the Palestinian Authority-controlled areas in 2010.[171] In 2010, Mohammed Sharif Ouda, head of the Ahmadi community in Israel, told Arutz Sheva radio that the Palestinian Authority is "encouraging the cold-blooded murder of Ahmadis" by failing to take concrete action to protect the community.[171] Saudi Arabia Main article: Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
in Saudi Arabia Ahmadis are continuously persecuted in Saudi Arabia.[172] In a 2006–2007 nationwide campaign to track down and deport Ahmadi Muslim foreign workers, the Saudi religious police arrested 56–60[173] Ahmadi Muslims of Indian, Pakistani and Syrian origin from major cities across the country. In May 2012, Saudi authorities arrested two Saudi Sunni
Sunni
Muslim
Muslim
citizens for their conversion to Ahmadiyya Islam.[174] They were arrested three months after joining the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
and refusing to abandon their beliefs. As of May 2014, the two accused of apostasy had served two years in prison awaiting trial. They have not been released since then[175][176] On 24 January 2007, Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
sent an open letter to the Saudi king King Abdullah asking him to cease religious persecution of the Ahmadi faith in Saudi Arabia. Two letters were sent in November 2006 and February 2007 asking him to remove the travel ban on critics of the Saudi government.[177] Under Saudi religious law, Ahmadis, along with non-Muslims, are forbidden from entering Mecca, which restricts their ability to perform the mandatory Hajj
Hajj
pilgrimage. United Kingdom Ahmadis in the UK have endured killings, mass protests by other Muslims against Ahmadi mosque construction,[178] and threats and intimidation.[179] In March 2016, the First Minister of Scotland, Nicola Sturgeon, attended the wake of an Ahmadi, Asad Shah, 40, killed by a Sunni, Tanveer Ahmed, 32, in what the police characterised as "religious prejudice".[180] In April 2016, leaflets calling for death to Ahmadis were found in Stockwell Green mosque.[181][182] The mosque claimed that it was unaware of the leaflets being placed on its premises. The leaflets were authored in the name of an ex-head, Yusuf Ludhianvi, of Khatam-e-Nabuwwat (or Khatme Nabuwwat) – an anti- Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
organization. The organization is fully known as Almi Majlis-e-Tahafuz Khatmi Nubuwat or the International Committee for the Protection of the Finality of Prophethood.[183] In October 2017, BBC Radio 4's File
File
on 4 programme investigated the publication and broadcasting of anti-Ahmadiyyah material in the UK, and asked when and whether media regulators should intervene.[184] See also

Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
portal

List of Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
buildings and structures Islamic schools and branches Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement
Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement
for the Propagation of Islam List of Ahmadis

References

^ "Ahmadiyya". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ "History of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Community". Human Rights Watch. 2005.  ^ Valentine, Simon (2008). Islam
Islam
and the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
jamaʻat: history, belief, practice. Columbia University Press. p. xv. ISBN 978-0-231-70094-8.  ^ Morgan, Diane (2009). Essential Islam: a comprehensive guide to belief and practice. Greenwood Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-313-36025-1.  ^ "Founding of Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Jamaat".  ^ Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A., eds. (2012). "Ahmadiya". Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.  ^ "Who are the Ahmadi?".  ^ "10 Fabrications Muslim
Muslim
Leaders Need to Stop Making About Ahmadi Muslims".  ^ Claudia Preckel. (2013, p.174), 'Screening Ṣiddīq Ḥasan Khān's Library: The Use of Ḥanbalī Literature in 19th century Bhopal' in B. Krawietz & G. Tamer (eds.), Islamic Theology, Philosophy and Law: Debating Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, p.208 ^ Andrea Lathan (2008) ‘The Relativity of Categorizing in the Context of the Aḥmadiyya’ Die Welt des Islams, 48 (3/4): 376 ^ Antonio R. Gualtieri (1989). Conscience and Coercion: Ahmadi Muslims and Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
in Pakistan. Guernica Editions. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-920717-41-7.  ^ B.A Rafiq (1978). Truth about Ahmadiyyat, Reflection of all the Prophets. London
London
Mosque. ISBN 0-85525-013-5.  ^ I. Y. Kotin, 'Ahmaddiya' in M. Juergensmeyer & W. C. Roof (eds.), Encyclopedia of Global Religion, SAGE Publications, 2012 p.21 ^ Steffen Rink (1997). Religionen feiern: Feste und Feiertage religiöser Gemeinschaften in Deutschland. Diagonal-Verlag. p. 137.  ^ Samina Awan (2009), ‘Redefinition of Identities, Subalterns and Political Islam: A Case of Majlis i Ahrar in Punjab’, Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan, 46 (2), pp.188–9 ^ Murtaza Khan: The Name Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
and Its Necessity, 1945 ^ Valentine, Simon (2008). Islam
Islam
and the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
jamaʻat: history, belief, practice. Columbia University Press. p. xv. ISBN 978-0-231-70094-8.  ^ Antonio R. Gualtieri (1989). Conscience and Coercion: Ahmadi Muslims and Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
in Pakistan. Guernica Editions. p. 18–20. ISBN 978-0-920717-41-7.  ^ Friedmann, Yohanan (2003). Prophecy Continuous: Aspects of Ahmadi Religious Thought and Its Medieval Background. Oxford University Press. pp. 116–17, 121. ISBN 965-264-014-X.  ^ Adil Hussain Khan. From Sufism to Ahmadiyya: A Muslim
Muslim
Minority Movement in South Asia
South Asia
Indiana University Press, (2015) ISBN 978-0253015297 pp.2, 42–8 ^ Antonio R. Gualtieri (1989). Conscience and Coercion: Ahmadi Muslims and Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
in Pakistan. Guernica Editions. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-920717-41-7.  ^ "An Overview". Alislam.org. Retrieved 2012-11-14.  ^ Valentine, Simon (2008). Islam
Islam
and the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
jamaʻat: history, belief, practice. Columbia University Press. p. xv and passim. ISBN 978-0-231-70094-8.  ^ Louis J. Hammann."Ahmaddiyyat - An Introduction" Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim Community [online], 1985 ^ Geaves, Ron (2017). Islam
Islam
and Britain: Muslim
Muslim
Mission in an Age of Empire. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-4742-7173-8.  "They were the first Muslim organization to send missionaries to the West..." ^ Gilham, Jamie (2014). Loyal Enemies: British Converts to Islam, 1850–1950. C. Hurst & Co. pp. 123–213. ISBN 978-1-84904-275-8.  ^ Umar Ryad. (2015, p.47), 'Salafiyya, Ahmadiyya, and European Converts to Islam
Islam
in the Interwar Period' in B. Agai et al. (eds.), Muslims in Interwar Europe: A Transcultural Historical Perspective, Leiden: BRILL, pp.47–87 " In the interwar period the Ahmadiyya occupied a pioneering place as a Muslim
Muslim
missionary movement in Europe; they established mosques, printed missionary publications in a variety of European languages, and attracted many European converts to Islam." ^ Jonker, Gerdien (2015). The Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Quest for Religious Progress: Missionizing Europe
Europe
1900–1965. Brill Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-30529-8.  ^ Hendrik Kraemer. "World Cultures and World Religions: The Coming Dialogue" James Clarke & Co., 1960, p 267 "The spirit of their tenets and the militant vigour of their founder have made the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
naturally a group with strong missionary and reforming zeal, both inside the lands of Islam
Islam
where they are represented and outside. They constitute almost exclusively the " Muslim
Muslim
Missions" in Western countries and elsewhere...They devote themselves with sincere enthusiasm to the task of proclaiming Islam
Islam
to the world in a rationalist, often combative way, and try in Muslim
Muslim
lands to purify and reform the dominant type of popular Islam." ^ "Major Branches of Religions". Adherents.com. 28 October 2005. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.  ^ See:

Breach of Faith. Human Rights Watch. June 2005. p. 8. Retrieved 29 March 2014. Estimates of around 20 million would be appropriate  Larry DeVries; Don Baker; Dan Overmyer. Asian Religions in British Columbia. University of Columbia Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-1662-5. Retrieved 29 March 2014. The community currently numbers around 15 million spread around the world  Juan Eduardo Campo. Encyclopedia of Islam. p. 24. ISBN 0-8160-5454-1. Retrieved 29 March 2014. The total size of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
community in 2001 was estimated to be more than 10 million  " Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslims". pbs.org. Retrieved 6 October 2013. 

^ " Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community: An Overview". Al Islam. The Ahmadiyya Muslim
Muslim
Community. Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.  ^ a b Lawton, Kim (20 January 2012). " Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslims". WNET. Archived from the original on 10 March 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015 – via PBS.  ^ Lago, Colin, ed. (2011). The Handbook of Transcultural Counselling and Psychotherapy. UK: McGraw-Hill Education
McGraw-Hill Education
(published 1 October 2011). p. 312. ISBN 9780335238514.  ^ a b Balzani, Marzia. "Localising Diaspora: The Ahmadi Muslims and the Problem of Multi-sited Ethnography". Retrieved 17 April 2016.  ^ Cloudhury, Barnie (26 July 2003). "Islamic sect gathers in Surrey". BBC News. Archived from the original on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2015.  ^ " Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Islam
Islam
– Beliefs History Practices". ReligionFacts. Archived from the original on 27 July 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2015.  ^ "Who are the Ahmadi?". BBC News. 28 May 2010. Archived from the original on 30 May 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2015.  ^ Burhani, Ahmad
Ahmad
Najib (2013). When Muslims are not Muslims: the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
community and the discourse on heresy in Indonesia. Santa Barbara, California: University of California. ISBN 9781303424861.  ^ Haq, Zia (2 October 2011). "'Heretical' Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
sect raises Muslim hackles". Hindustan Times. New Delhi: HT Media. Archived from the original on 19 April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.  ^ I. Y. Kotin, 'Ahmaddiya' in M. Juergensmeyer & W. C. Roof (eds.), Encyclopedia of Global Religion, SAGE Publications, 2012 p.21 ^ Murtaza Khan: The Name Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
and Its Necessity, 1945 ^ Samina Awan (2009), ‘Redefinition of Identities, Subalterns and Political Islam: A Case of Majlis i Ahrar in Punjab’, Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan, 46 (2), pp.188–9 ^ Valentine, Simon (2008). Islam
Islam
and the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
jamaʻat: history, belief, practice. Columbia University Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-231-70094-8.  ^ Steffen Rink (1997). Religionen feiern: Feste und Feiertage religiöser Gemeinschaften in Deutschland. Diagonal-Verlag. p. 137.  ^ Murtaza Khan: The Name Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
and Its Necessity, 1945, pp.22–5 ^ Malfūẓāt [Dialogues], Vol.2, (London: The Gresham Press, 1984), pp. 208–209. ^ Mirza
Mirza
Ghulam Ahmad: Commentary on The Holy Quran, Volume 1 Surah Fatiha, Islam
Islam
International, 2004, pp. 46–57 ^ Steffen Rink (1997). Religionen feiern: Feste und Feiertage religiöser Gemeinschaften in Deutschland. Diagonal-Verlag. p. 137.  ^ Valentine, Simon (2008). Islam
Islam
and the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
jamaʻat: history, belief, practice. Columbia University Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-231-70094-8.  ^ Geaves, Ron (2017). Islam
Islam
and Britain: Muslim
Muslim
Mission in an Age of Empire. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-4742-7173-8.  ^ Majmu'a Ishtihārāt, Vol.3, (London: The Gresham Press, 1984), p.364, dated 4 November 1900 ^ Khálid Durán, Munir D. Ahmed (2005), 'Pakistan' in W. Ende & U. Steinbach (eds.), Der Islam
Islam
in der Gegenwart (5th edition) Munich: CH Beck, p.355 ^ Steffen Rink (1997). Religionen feiern: Feste und Feiertage religiöser Gemeinschaften in Deutschland. Diagonal-Verlag. p. 137.  ^ Antonio R. Gualtieri (1989). Conscience and Coercion: Ahmadi Muslims and Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
in Pakistan. Guernica Editions. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-920717-41-7.  ^ Valentine, Simon (2008). Islam
Islam
and the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
jamaʻat: history, belief, practice. Columbia University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-231-70094-8.  ^ Qasmi, Ali Usman (2015). The Ahmadis and the Politics of Religious Exclusion in Pakistan. Anthem Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-78308-425-8.  ^ Andrea Lathan (2008) ‘The Relativity of Categorizing in the Context of the Aḥmadiyya’ Die Welt des Islams, 48 (3/4): p.377 ^ Annemarie Schimmel et al.: Der Islam
Islam
III. Volksfrömmigkeit, Islamische Kultur, Zeitgenössische Strömungen. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1990, S. 418–420 ^ Marzia Balzani.'An ethnographer among the Ahmadis: Learning Islam
Islam
in the suburbs' in Gabriele Marranci (ed.) Studying Islam
Islam
in Practice. Routledge, 2014, p.117. ^ "Islam", Al Islam
Islam
Online ^ Andrea Lathan (2008) ‘The Relativity of Categorizing in the Context of the Aḥmadiyya’ Die Welt des Islams, 48 (3/4): 377 ^ Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
(2004) The Essence of Islam, Vol. II, p.129—39, Tilford: Islam
Islam
International ^ Adil Hussain Khan. "From Sufism to Ahmadiyya: A Muslim
Muslim
Minority Movement in South Asia" Indiana University Press, 6 apr. 2015 ISBN 978-0253015297

"It may be useful to mention that Ahmadis do not actually adhere to the Hanafi
Hanafi
school of thought like most South Asian Muslims, even though many rulings are loosely based on Hanafi
Hanafi
methodology." p.12 "Ahmadis claim to base their legal methodology primarily on rulings and principles of the Hanafi
Hanafi
madhhab but reject strict adherence to any particular school of thought, which is likely a direct result of Ghulam Ahmad’s Ahl-i Hadith
Hadith
influence." p.59

^ Andrea Lathan (2008) ‘The Relativity of Categorizing in the Context of the Aḥmadiyya’ Die Welt des Islams, 48 (3/4): 377–8 "For him [Ghulam Ahmad] the main source of law was the Qurʾān, followed by the Prophet’s actions and statements (sunna) and the traditions (aḥādīth). The tradition would only meet approval if it did not contradict the Qurʾān. If all three sources did not lead to a solution, Ghulām Aḥmad would refer to the jurisprudence (fiqh) of the Ḥanafī school and to the ijtihād by the scholars of the Aḥmadiyya." ^ Muniruddin Ahmed, Das Fiqh
Fiqh
der Ahmadiyya. Archived 15 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Mirza
Mirza
Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmad: What is Ahmadiyyat? Question Answered by the Head of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Community, 1963; pp.26–31 ^ "Question & Answer Session (3 March 1996) with Hadhrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad, Islam
Islam
Ahmadiyya". Youtube. Retrieved 8 February 2017.  ^ A.R. Dard. Life of Ahmad
Ahmad
(PDF). Islami International Publications. p. XV. Retrieved 3 September 2014. [permanent dead link] ^ Ina Wunn: Muslimische Gruppierungen in Deutschland. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2007, S. 158 ^ "The Promised Messiah
Messiah
– Prophecies Fulfilled". Alislam.org. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011.  ^ "The Holy Quran". Alislam.org. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011.  ^ Invitation to Ahmadiyyat by Mirza
Mirza
Bashir-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad
Ahmad
Part II, Argument 4, Chapter "Promised Messiah, Promised One of All Religions" ^ Simon Ross Valentine. Islam
Islam
and the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
jamaʻat: history, belief, practice. Columbia University Press. pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-0-231-70094-8.  ^ Nasir Mahmood Malik (2007). "Raising Ahmadi Children in the West" (PDF). Al Islam. Retrieved 10 June 2011.  ^ " Islam
Islam
– A Threat or a Source of Peace". Review of Religions. Retrieved 3 September 2014.  ^ " Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
on the Unity of Allah". Al Islam. Archived from the original on 3 July 2014.  ^ Welcome to Ahmadiyyat, the True Islam
Islam
(PDF). Islami International Publications. p. 54.  ^ "Allah". Alislam.org. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011.  ^ Welcome to Ahmadiyyat, the True Islam
Islam
(PDF). Islam
Islam
International Publications. p. 64.  ^ Welcome to Ahmadiyyat, the True Islam
Islam
(PDF). Islam
Islam
International Publications. p. 65.  ^ "A Book of Religious Knowledge" by Waheed Ahmad, pg. 34 ^ "Finality of Prophet hood Hadhrat Muhammad
Muhammad
(PUBH) the Last Prophet – Al Islam
Islam
Online". Alislam.org. 29 November 1966. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011.  ^ "Man Lived on Earth Even Before the Advent of Adam". Alislam.org. Retrieved 18 June 2012.  ^ a b c Welcome to Ahmadiyyat, The True Islam
Islam
(PDF). Islam International Publications. p. 72.  ^ Welcome to Ahmadiyyat, the True Islam
Islam
(PDF). Islami International Publications. p. 73.  ^ Welcome to Ahmadiyyat, The True Islam
Islam
(PDF). Islam
Islam
International Publications. pp. 73–74.  ^ Robert Dannin. Black Pilgrimage to Islam. p. 37. Retrieved 3 September 2014.  ^ Juan Eduardo Campo. Encyclopedia of Islam. p. 24. Retrieved 3 September 2014.  ^ a b " Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Islam". Retrieved 3 September 2014.  ^ "Islam". Al Islam.  ^ "Jesus, a Humble Prophet of God". Al Islam.  ^ "Death of Jesus", by Shahid Aziz, Bulletin October 2001, Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat Islam
Islam
Lahore
Lahore
(UK) The Promised Mehdi and Messiah, p. 50, " Jesus
Jesus
Migrated to India", by Aziz Ahmad
Ahmad
Chaudhry, Islam
Islam
International Publications Limited ^ The Promised Messiah
Messiah
and Mehdi – The Question of Finality of Prophethood, by Dr. Aziz Ahmad
Ahmad
Chaudhry, Islam
Islam
International Publications Limited. ^ "Suspension of Jihad". Archived from the original on 14 April 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2014.  ^ Simon Ross Valentine. Islam
Islam
and the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Jama'at: History, Belief, Practice. Columbia University Press. p. 190. Retrieved 3 September 2014.  ^ "True Concept of Islamic Jihad". Review of Religions. Retrieved 3 September 2014.  ^ "Is Islam
Islam
a Threat to Poland and World Peace?". Review of Religions. Retrieved 3 September 2014.  ^ Friedmann, Jihād in Ahmadī Thought, ISBN 965-264-014-X, p. 227 ^ Friedmann, Jihād in Ahmadī Thought, p. 227 ^ Mathieu Guidère. Historical Dictionary of Islamic Fundamentalism. p. 22. Retrieved 3 September 2014.  ^ "From the Archives:Why I believe in Islam". Review of Religions. Retrieved 3 September 2014.  ^ Ayub K. Ommaya. "The Rise and Decline of Science in Islam". Retrieved 3 September 2014.  ^ Daud A Hanif (2003). "Prophets of God". The Muslim
Muslim
Sunrise (2).  ^ "H.H. Risley and E.A. Gait, (1903), Report of the Census of India, 1901, Calcutta, Superintendent of Government Printing, p. 373". Chinese Heritage of the Australian Federation Project. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012.  ^ Egdunas Racius. The Multiple Nature of the Islamic Da'wa (PDF). University of Helsinki. pp. 158–160. ISBN 952-10-0489-4.  ^ Michael Angelo Gomez (2005). Black Crescent: the experience and legacy of African Muslims in the Americas. Cambridge University Press. pp. 254–256.  ^ Timothy Miller (1995). America's alternative religions. State University of New York Press. p. 280.  ^ Michael Nkuzi Nnam. Colonial Mentality in Africa. US. p. 89. ISBN 0-7618-3291-2.  ^ Simon Ross Valentine. Islam
Islam
and the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Jama'at: History, Belief, Practice. Columbia University Press. p. 56. Retrieved 25 August 2014.  ^ Friedmann, Yohanan (2003). Prophecy Continuous: Aspects of Ahmadi Religious Thought and Its Medieval Background. Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 965-264-014-X.  ^ a b The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement
Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement
has unofficially stated its total population to be up to 30,000, of which 5,000 to 10,000 live in Pakistan. On this basis, the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement
Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement
represents approximately 0.2% of the total Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
population.See:

Simon Ross Valentine (6 October 2008). Islam
Islam
and the Ahmadiyya Jamaʻat: History, Belief, Practice. Columbia University Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-231-70094-8.  "Pakistan: Situation of members of the Lahori Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Movement in Pakistan". Retrieved 30 April 2014. 

^ a b Moulvi Bashir Ahmad
Ahmad
Dehlavi. "Hazrat Mirza
Mirza
Bashiruddin Mahmood Ahmad". Retrieved 25 August 2014.  ^ a b "Hazrat Hafiz Mirza
Mirza
Nasir Ahmad". Retrieved 25 August 2014.  ^ Ishtiaq Ahmed. The Politics of Religion
Religion
in South and Southeast Asia. Routledge. p. 89. Retrieved 28 August 2014.  ^ Iain Adamson. A Man of God. p. 127.  ^ "The Lives of the Successors of the Promised Messiah". Archived from the original on 17 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.  ^ Richard C. Martín. Encyclopedia of Islam
Islam
& the Muslim
Muslim
World. p. 31. Retrieved 3 September 2014.  ^ a b "Hadhrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad
Mirza Tahir Ahmad
(1928–2003)". London
London
Book Fair. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2014.  ^ David Buckley. Where the Waters Meet: Convergence and Complementarity in Therapy and Theology. Karnac Books. p. 75. Retrieved 3 September 2014.  ^ "Clamoring for the Khalifa". The Wall Street Journal. 12 May 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2014.  ^ "The Minority's Minority".  ^ "The 1974 ouster of the 'heretics': What really happened?".  ^ "An Overview". Al Islam. Retrieved 4 March 2014.  ^ a b See:

Breach of Faith. Human Rights Watch. June 2005. p. 8. Retrieved 29 March 2014. Estimates of around 20 million would be appropriate  Larry DeVries; Don Baker; Dan Overmyer. Asian Religions in British Columbia. University of Columbia Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-1662-5. Retrieved 29 March 2014. The community currently numbers around 15 million spread around the world  Juan Eduardo Campo. Encyclopedia of Islam. p. 24. ISBN 0-8160-5454-1. Retrieved 29 March 2014. The total size of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
community in 2001 was estimated to be more than 10 million  " Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslims". pbs.org. Retrieved 6 October 2013. 

^ A figure of 10 to 20 million represents 0.62% to 1.25% of the worlds Muslim
Muslim
population. ^ As of 2001[update] the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Movement had been the fastest growing sect according to the World Christian Encyclopedia for a number of decades. For this, see earlier editions. The 2001 edition placed the growth rate at 3.25%, which was the highest of all Islamic sects and schools of thought. See:

David B. Barrett; George Thomas Kurian; Todd M. Johnson, eds. (15 February 2001). World Christian Encyclopedia. Oxford University Press USA. ISBN 0195079639. 

^ "Wretched Of The Land".  ^ The Holy Quran
Quran
with English Translation and Commentary. Surrey: Islam
Islam
International Publications. p. 1870. ISBN 1-85372-045-3.  ^ Mirza
Mirza
Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad. Khilafat-e-Rashidah (PDF). Islam International Publications. ISBN 1-85372-620-6.  ^ Rafi Ahmad. "The Islamic Khilafat – Its Rise, Fall, and Re-emergence".  ^ Welcome to Ahmadiyyat, the true Islam
Islam
(PDF). Islam
Islam
International Publications. pp. 318–324. Retrieved 24 August 2014.  ^ Welcome to Ahmadiyyat, the true Islam
Islam
(PDF). Islam
Islam
International Publications. p. 324. Retrieved 24 August 2014.  ^ a b Simon Ross Valentine. Islam
Islam
and the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Jama'at: History, Belief, Practice. p. 86. Retrieved 24 August 2014.  ^ a b c d "Organisational Structure". Archived from the original on 17 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.  ^ Welcome to Ahmadiyyat, the true Islam
Islam
(PDF). Islam
Islam
International Publications. pp. 324–342. Retrieved 24 August 2014.  ^ a b "Tehrike-Jadid-Scheme" (PDF). Retrieved 25 August 2014.  ^ Jamie S. Scott. The Religions of Canadians. University of Toronto Press. p. 198. Retrieved 25 August 2014.  ^ Welcome to Ahmadiyyat, the true Islam
Islam
(PDF). Islam
Islam
International Publications. pp. 357–360. Retrieved 24 August 2014.  ^ "Renewing a Pledge of Unity and Peace". Washington Post. 5 September 2005. Retrieved 25 August 2014.  ^ Algeria: Wave of arrests and prosecutions of hundreds of Ahmadis Amnesty International. 19 June 2017 ^ "Violent Dhaka rally against sect", BBC News ^ Bangladesh: The Ahmediyya Community – their rights must be protected Archived 21 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Amnesty International ^ "Number of Ahmadis in India". Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. 1 November 1991. Retrieved 9 March 2009.  ^ a b c Hoque, Ridwanul (21 March 2004). "On right to freedom of religion and the plight of Ahmadiyas". The Daily Star.  ^ "Shihabuddin Imbichi Koya Thangal vs K.P. Ahammed Koya on 8 December 1970". Indian Kanoon. Retrieved 28 October 2011. The various texts quoted in the ruling dispel doubts about Ahamadis on the crucial twin tests "that there is no God
God
but Allah...and Mohammad is the servant and Messenger of God."  ^ "Answer: Darul Ifta Deoband India". darulifta-deoband.org.  ^ Naqvi, Jawed (1 September 2008). " Religious violence
Religious violence
hastens India's leap into deeper obscurantism". Dawn. Retrieved 23 December 2009.  ^ Courtesy: Two Circles (20 February 2012). "Don't perform nikaah of Qadiyanis: AP Wakf board to Qazis". Siasat Urdu Daily, Hyderabad. Retrieved 10 March 2012.  ^ " Indonesia
Indonesia
to ban Ahmadi activities". AsiaNews.IT. 6 September 2008.  ^ Anti- Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Mullah Burning Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Mosques – Indonesia. Al Jazeera.  ^ "Six killed in clash between villagers and Ahmadiyah followers". The Jakarta Post. 6 February 2011. Archived from the original on 27 August 2011.  ^ Gillian Terzis (18 February 2011). " Indonesia
Indonesia
is no longer a poster child for pluralism". The Guardian.  ^ McGeown, Kate. "Islamic sect Ahmadiyah faces ban in Indonesia" BBC. 21 April 2011. (Video) ^ Allard, Tom. Trial begins after shocking mob violence ends in slaying. The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 April 2011. ^ The 1998 Pakistani census states that there are 291,000 (0.22%) Ahmadis in Pakistan. However, the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Community has boycotted the census since 1974 which renders official Pakistani figures to be inaccurate. Independent groups have estimated the Pakistani Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
population to be somewhere between 2 million and 5 million Ahmadis. However, the 4 million figure is the most quoted figure. See:

over 2 million: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (4 December 2008). "Pakistan: The situation of Ahmadis, including legal status and political, education and employment rights; societal attitudes toward Ahmadis (2006 – Nov. 2008)". Retrieved 28 June 2012. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) 3 million: International Federation for Human Rights: International Fact-Finding Mission. Freedoms of Expression, of Association and of Assembly in Pakistan. Ausgabe 408/2, Januar 2005, S. 61 (PDF) 3–4 million: Commission on International Religious Freedom: Annual Report of the United States
United States
Commission on International Religious Freedom. 2005, S. 130 4.910.000: James Minahan: Encyclopedia of the stateless nations. Ethnic and national groups around the world. Greenwood Press . Westport 2002, page 52 "Pakistan: Situation of members of the Lahori Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Movement in Pakistan". Retrieved 30 April 2014. 

^ Khan, Naveeda. "Trespasses of the State: Ministering to Theological Dilemmas through the Copyright/Trademark" Archived 26 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Sarai Reader 2005: Bare Acts. p. 184. ^ "Constitution (Second Amendment) Act, 1974". Retrieved 3 September 2014.  ^ The presentation before the parliament can be seen here: Khan, Naveeda. Mahzaharnama (PDF). Islam
Islam
International Publications. ISBN 1-85372-386-X.  ^ Khan, Naveeda. "Trespasses of the State: Ministering to Theological Dilemmas through the Copyright/Trademark" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2011.  Sarai Reader 2005: Bare Acts. p. 178. ^ Heiner Bielefeldt: " Muslim
Muslim
Voices in the Human Rights Debate", Human rights quarterly, 1995 vol. 17 no. 4 p. 587. ^ Antonio R. Gualtieri (1989). Conscience and Coercion: Ahmadis and Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
in Pakistan. Guernica Editions. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-920717-41-7.  ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
Penal Code, Official Pakistani Government document Chap. XV "Of Offences Relating to Religion"" (PDF). pp. 79–81.  ^ a b Hanif, Mohammed (16 June 2010). "Why Pakistan's Ahmadi community is officially detested". BBC News.  ^ Persecution of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Community in Pakistan: An Analysis Under International Law and International Relations Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol 16, September 2003 "Eight die in Pakistan
Pakistan
sect attack", BBC News "Sect offices closed in Pakistan", BBC News ^ Denizens of Alien Worlds. T Rahman – Contemporary South Asia, 2004. A Survey of the Education System of Pakistan, by Tariq Rahman, page 15. ^ Peace
Peace
and Democracy in South Asia, Volume 1, Number 1, January 2005. Passports to Privilege: The English-Medium Schools In Pakistan, Tariq Rahman. ^ "Ahmadis: The lightning rod that attracts the most hatred". The Dawn. 28 October 2011.  ^ "Clarification – 86 Ahmadis died in the Lahore
Lahore
attacks". Al Islam. 12 June 2010.  ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
mosque raids kill scores". BBC News. 28 May 2010.  ^ a b "Palestinian Muslims who reject violence are persecuted". israeltoday.co.il.  ^ " Persecution of Ahmadis
Persecution of Ahmadis
in Saudi Arabia". Persecution.org. Retrieved 11 March 2012.  ^ Depending on the source there were 56–60 Ahmadis arrested in the years 2006–2007 ^ U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, International Religious Freedom Report for 2012: Saudi Arabia (20 May 2013). ^ HAW urges Saudi to free two Ahmadis held for apostasy, The Daily Star, Lebanon News (15 May 2014). ^ "Saudi Arabia: 2 Years Behind Bars on Apostasy
Apostasy
Accusation". Human Rights Watch. 15 May 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2015.  ^ "Letter to King Abdullah". HRW. 8 February 2007. Retrieved 23 October 2011.  ^ Bunglawala, Inayat (8 December 2009). "Freedom of worship for Ahmadis". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 8 December 2010.  ^ Porter, Tom (8 April 2016). "Hate leaflets calling for killing of Ahmadi Muslims distributed across London".  ^ Asad Shah: Nicola Sturgeon
Nicola Sturgeon
joins 500 people at vigil as defiant locals declare 'This is not who we are' dailyrecord.co.uk 25 March 2016. ^ "'Kill Ahmadis' leaflets found in UK mosque – BBC News". Retrieved 2016-08-15.  ^ "The Muslim
Muslim
Council of Britain is failing Ahmadis like Asad Shah". The Guardian. 2016-04-25. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-08-15.  ^ "Renowned Scholar Maulana Yusuf Ludhianvi Martyred in Karachi". www.albalagh.net. Retrieved 2016-08-15.  ^ Presenter: Manveen Rana; Producers: Richard Fenton-Smith & Sajid Iqbal; Editor: Gail Champion (3 October 2017). "Extremism: Hidden in Plain Sight". File
File
on 4. BBC. BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 3 October 2017. 

Further reading

Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad
Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad
(1980). Invitation to Ahmadiyyat. Routledge & Kegan Ltd. ISBN 0-7100-0119-3.  Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad
Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad
(1924). Ahmadiyyat or the true Islam
Islam
(PDF). Islam
Islam
International Publications. ISBN 1-85372-982-5.  Mirza Tahir Ahmad
Mirza Tahir Ahmad
(2004). With Love to the Muslims of the World: The Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Perspective (PDF). Surrey: Islam
Islam
International Publications. ISBN 1-85372-744-X.  Mirza Tahir Ahmad
Mirza Tahir Ahmad
(1985). An Elementary Study of Islam. Surrey: Islam International Publications. ISBN 1-85372-562-5.  Syed Hasanat Ahmad
Ahmad
(2010). An Introduction to the Hidden Treasures of Islam
Islam
(PDF). Surrey: Islam
Islam
International Publications. ISBN 978-1-84880-050-2.  Humphrey J Fisher (1963). Ahmadiyya: a study in contemporary Islam
Islam
on the West African coast. Nigeria: Oxford University Press.  Yohanan Friedmann
Yohanan Friedmann
(2003). Prophecy Continuous: Aspects of Ahmadi Religious Thought and Its Medieval Background. Oxford University Press. ISBN 965-264-014-X.  Antonio R. Gualtieri (1989). Conscience And Coercion. Canada: Guernica Editions. ISBN 0-920717-41-1.  Antonio Gualtieri (2004). The Ahmadis: community, gender, and politics in a Muslim
Muslim
society. Canada: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-2738-9.  Shaikh Abdul Hadi (2008). Basics of Religious Education (PDF) (5th ed.). Canada: Islam
Islam
International Publications. ISBN 1882494-03-2.  Farhan Iqbal; Imtiaz Ahmed Sra (2014). With Love to Muhammad, The Khatam-un-Nabiyyin: The Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim
Muslim
Understanding of Finality of Prophethood (PDF). Canada: Islam
Islam
International Publications. ISBN 978-0-9937731-0-5.  Muhammad
Muhammad
Zafarullah Khan (1978). Ahmadiyyat: the renaissance of Islam. Tabshir Publications. ISBN 0-85525-015-1.  Simon Ross Valentine (2008). Islam
Islam
and the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
jamaʻat: history, belief, practice. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-70094-8.  Karimullah Zirvi. Welcome to Ahmadiyyat, the True Islam
Islam
(PDF). Islam International Publications. 

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