Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 16 October 1772) (Pashto:
احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī
(احمد خان ابدالي), was the founder of the
and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of
Afghanistan. He began his career by enlisting as a young
soldier in the military of the Afsharid kingdom and quickly rose to
become a commander of the Abdali Regiment, a cavalry of four thousand
Abdali Pashtun soldiers.
After the assassination of
Nader Shah Afshar in 1747, Ahmad Shah
Durrani was chosen as King of Afghanistan. Rallying his Afghan tribes
and allies, he pushed east towards the Mughal and the Maratha empires
of India, west towards the disintegrating Afsharid Empire of Persia,
and north toward the Khanate of Bukhara. Within a few years, he
extended his control from Khorasan in the west to
Kashmir and North
India in the east, and from the
Amu Darya in the north to the Arabian
Sea in the south.
Durrani's mausoleum is located at Kandahar, Afghanistan, adjacent to
Shrine of the Cloak
Shrine of the Cloak in the center of the city. Afghans often refer
to him as Ahmad Shāh Bābā ("Ahmad Shah the Father").
1 Early years
2 Rise to power
3 Forming the last Afghan empire
3.1 Indian invasions
3.1.1 Early invasions
3.2 Third battle of Panipat
3.3 Central Asia
3.4 Rise of the Sikhs in the Punjab
4 Death and legacy
5 Durrani's poetry
6 Personal life
7 See also
11 External links
Further information: Hotak dynasty
An 1881 photo showing Shah Hussain Hotak's fortress in Old Kandahar,
where Abdali and his brother Zulfikar were imprisoned. It was
destroyed in 1738 by the Afsharid forces of Persia.
Durrani was born in or about 1722 to Mohammad Zaman Khan, chief of the
Abdali tribe and Governor of Herat, and Zarghuna Alakozai. There has
been some debate about Durrani's exact place of birth. Most
believe that he was born in Herat, Afghanistan.
He was born as Ahmed Khan. Abdali's father suffered "Persian
captivity for many years" at
Kirman before being released from prison
in 1715. As a refugee, he "made his way to India" and joined his
kinsmen at Multan. After he raised his family there, he was
recognized as the "scion of hereditary Sadozai chiefs". It is believed
that Zaman Khan returned to
Afghanistan to fight the Persians and his
Afghan rivals, but left one of his wives at Multan
because she was "in the family way". So other sources believe that,
Abdali was born at
Multan in 1722, after which she returned to
Afghanistan to reunite with her husband. He lost his father during his
Durrani's forefathers were Sadozais but his mother was from the
Alakozai tribe. In June 1729, the Abdali forces under Zulfiqar had
Nader Shah Afshar, the rising new ruler of Persia.
However, they soon began a rebellion and took over
Herat as well as
Mashad. In July 1730, he defeated Ibrahim Khan, a military commander
and brother of Nader Shah. This prompted
Nader Shah to retake Mashad
and also intervene in the power struggle of Harat. By July 1731,
Zulfiqar returned to his capital Farah where he had been serving as
the governor since 1726. A year later Nadir's brother Ibrahim Khan
took control of Farah. During this time Zulfiqar and the young Durrani
Kandahar where they took refuge with the Ghiljis. They were
later made political prisoners by Hussain Hotak, the Ghilji ruler of
Nader Shah had been enlisting the Abdalis in his army since around
1729. After conquering
Kandahar in 1738,
Durrani and his brother
Zulfiqar were freed and provided with leading careers in Nader Shah's
administration. Zulfiqar was made Governor of Mazandaran while Durrani
remained working as Nader Shah's personal attendant. The Ghiljis, who
are originally from the territories east of the
Kandahar region, were
Kandahar in order to resettle the Abdalis along with
Qizilbash and other Persians.
Durrani proved himself in Nader Shah's service and was promoted from a
personal attendant (yasāwal) to command the Abdali Regiment, a
cavalry of four thousand soldiers and officers. The Abdali Regiment
was part of Nader Shah's military during his invasion of the Mughal
Empire in 1738.
Popular history has it that the Shah could see the talent in his young
commander. Later on, according to Pashtun legend, it is said that in
Nader Shah summoned Durrani, and said, "Come forward Ahmad
Abdali. Remember Ahmad Khan Abdali, that after me the Kingship will
pass on to you.
Nader Shah recruited him because of his
"impressive personality and valour" also because of his "loyalty to
the Persian monarch".
Rise to power
Coronation of Ahmad Shah
Durrani in 1747 by Abdul Ghafoor Breshna.
Nader Shah's rule abruptly ended in June 1747 when he was assassinated
by his own guards. The guards involved in the assassination did so
secretly so as to prevent the Abdalis from coming to their King's
Durrani was told that the Shah had been killed by one
of his wives. Despite the danger of being attacked, the Abdali
contingent led by
Durrani rushed either to save the Shah or to confirm
what happened. Upon reaching the Shah's tent, they were only to see
his body and severed head. Having served him so loyally, the Abdalis
wept at having failed their leader, and headed back to Kandahar.
Before the retreat to Kandahar, he had "removed" the royal seal from
Nader Shah's finger and the
Koh-i-Noor diamond tied "around the arm of
his deceased master". On their way back to Kandahar, the Abdalis had
Durrani as their new leader. Hence he "assumed
the insignia of royalty" as the "sovereign ruler of Afghanistan".
At the time of Nadir's death, he commanded a contingent of Abdali
Pashtuns. Realizing that his life was in jeopardy if he stayed among
the Persians who had murdered Nader Shah, he decided to leave the
Persian camp, and with his 4,000 troops he proceeded to Qandahar.
Along the way and by sheer luck, they managed to capture a caravan
with booty from India. He and his troops were rich; moreover, they
were experienced fighters. In short, they formed a formidable force of
young Pashtun soldiers who were loyal to their high-ranking
One of Durrani's first acts as chief was to adopt the titles
Padishah-i-Ghazi ("victorious emperor"), and Durr-i-
Durrani ("pearl of
pearls" or "pearl of the age").
Campaigns of Ahmad Shah Durrani
Barari Ghat (1760)
Sikandarabad 2 (1760)
Panipat 3 (1761)
Forming the last Afghan empire
Following his predecessor,
Durrani set up a special force closest to
him consisting mostly of his fellow Durranis and other Pashtuns, as
well as Tajiks,
Qizilbash and other Muslims. He began his military
conquest by capturing
Ghazni from the Ghiljis and then wresting Kabul
from the local ruler, and thus strengthened his hold over Khorasan.
Leadership of the various Afghan tribes rested mainly on the ability
to provide booty for the clan, and
Durrani proved remarkably
successful in providing both booty and occupation for his followers.
Apart from invading the
Punjab region three times between the years
1747–1753, he captured
Herat in 1750.
See also: Indian Campaign of Ahmad Shah Durrani
The Bala Hissar fort in
Peshawar was one of the royal residences of
Abdali invaded the
Mughal Empire seven times from 1748 to 1767.
According to Jaswant Lal Mehta,
Durrani aroused the Afghans "religious
passions" to fire and "sword into the land of infidels India." He
Khyber pass in December 1747 with 40,000 troops for his
first invasion of India. He occupied
Peshawar without any
opposition. He first crossed the
Indus River in 1748, the year
after his ascension – his forces sacked and absorbed Lahore.
The following year (1749), the Mughal ruler was induced to cede Sindh
and all of the Punjab including the vital trans
Indus River to him, in
order to save his capital from being attacked by the forces of the
Durrani Empire. Having thus gained substantial territories to the east
without a fight,
Durrani and his forces turned westward to take
possession of Herat, which was ruled by Nader Shah's grandson, Shah
Rukh. The city fell to the Afghans in 1750, after almost a year of
siege and bloody conflict; the Afghan forces then pushed on into
present-day Iran, capturing Nishapur and Mashhad in 1751.
pardoned Shah Rukh and reconstituted Khorasan, but a tributary of the
Durrani Empire. This marked the westernmost border of the Afghan
Empire as set by the Pul-i-Abrisham, on the Mashhad-Tehran road.
Third battle of Panipat
Main article: Battle of
Durrani sitting on a brown horse during the 1761 Battle of
The Mughal power in northern
India had been declining since the reign
of Aurangzeb, who died in 1707. In 1751–52, the Ahamdiya treaty was
signed between the Marathas and Mughals, when
Balaji Bajirao was the
Peshwa of the Maratha Empire. Through this treaty, the Marathas
controlled large parts of
India from their capital at
Pune and Mughal
rule was restricted only to
Delhi (Mughals remained the nominal heads
of Delhi). Marathas were now straining to expand their area of control
towards the Northwest of India.
Durrani sacked the Mughal capital and
withdrew with the booty he coveted. To counter the Afghans, Peshwa
Balaji Bajirao sent Raghunathrao. He succeeded in ousting Timur Shah
and his court from
India and brought northwest of
India up to Peshawar
under Maratha rule. Thus, upon his return to
Kandahar in 1757,
Durrani chose to return to
India and confront the Maratha forces to
regain northwestern part of the subcontinent.
Durrani set out on his campaign to win back lost territories.
The early skirmishes ended in victory for the Afghans against the
Maratha garrisons in northwest India. By 1759,
Durrani and his army
Lahore and were poised to confront the Marathas. By 1760,
the Maratha groups had coalesced into a big enough army under the
command of Sadashivrao Bhau. Once again,
Panipat was the scene of a
battle for control of northern India. The Third battle of
fought between Durrani's Afghan forces and the Maratha forces in
January 1761, and resulted in a decisive
Durrani victory. This
brought Punjab till north of
Sutlej river under Afghan control. Ahmad
Delhi soon after the battle.
Main articles: Islamicisation and Turkicisation of Xinjiang, Dzungar
conquest of Altishahr, and Dzungar genocide
The historical area of what is modern day Xinjiang consisted of the
distinct areas of the
Tarim Basin and Dzungaria, and was originally
populated by Indo-European Tocharian and Eastern Iranian Saka peoples
who practiced the
Buddhist religion. The area was subjected to
Turkification and Islamification at the hands of invading Turkic
Muslims. Both the
Buddhist Turkic Uyghurs and Muslim Turkic Karluks
participated in the Turkification and conquest of the native Buddhist
Indo-European inhabitants of the Tarim Basin. The Turkic Muslims then
proceeded to conquer the Turkic Buddhists in Islamic holy wars and
converted them to Islam. The mixture between the invading Mongoloid
Turkic peoples and the native Caucasian Indo-European inhabitants
resulted in the modern day Turkic speaking hybrid Europoid-East Asian
inhabitants of Xinjiang. The Turkification was carried out in the 9th
and 10th centuries by two different Turkic Kingdoms, the Buddhist
Kingdom of Qocho
Kingdom of Qocho and the Muslim Karluk Kara-Khanid Khanate.
Halfway in the 20th century the Saka Iranic
Buddhist Kingdom of Khotan
came under attack by the Turkic Muslim Karakhanid ruler Musa, and in
what proved to be a pivotal moment in the Turkification and
Islamification of the Tarim Basin, the Karakhanid leader Yusuf Qadir
Khan conquered Khotan around 1006.
Professor James A. Millward described the original Uyghurs as
physically Mongoloid, giving as an example the images in Bezeklik at
temple 9 of the Uyghur patrons, until they began to mix with the Tarim
Basin's original eastern Iranian inhabitants. The modern Uyghurs
are now a mixed hybrid of East Asian and Europoid
The Turkic Muslim sedentary people of the
Tarim Basin of Altishahr
were originally ruled by the
Chagatai Khanate while the nomadic
Dzungaria ruled over the Dzungar Khanate.
The Naqshbandi Sufi Khojas, descendants of the Prophet Muhammad, had
replaced the Chagatayid Khans as the ruling authority of the Tarim
Basin in the early 17th century. There was a struggle between two
factions of Khojas, the Afaqi (White Mountain) faction and the Ishaqi
(Black Mountain) faction. The Ishaqi defeated the Afaqi, which
resulted in the Afaqi Khoja inviting the 5th Dalai Lama, the leader of
the Tibetan Buddhists, to intervene on his behalf in 1677. The 5th
Dalai Lama then called upon his Dzungar
Buddhist followers in the
Zunghar Khanate to act on this invitation. The
Dzungar Khanate then
Tarim Basin in 1680, setting up the Afaqi Khoja as their
Khoja Afaq asked the 5th Dalai Lama when he fled to Lhasa to help his
Afaqi faction take control of the
Tarim Basin (Kashgaria). The
Dzungar leader Galdan was then asked by the Dalai Lama to restore
Khoja Afaq as ruler of Kashgararia. Khoja Afaq collaborated with
Galdan's Dzungars when the Dzungars conquered the
Tarim Basin from
1678–1680 and set up the Afaqi Khojas as puppet client
rulers. The Dalai Lama blessed Galdan's conquest of
Tarim Basin and Turfan Basin.
Since 1680 the Dzungars had ruled as suzerain masters over the Tarim,
for 16 more years using the Chagatai as their puppet rulers. The
Dzungars used a hostage arrangement to rule over the Tarim Basin,
keeping as hostsges in Ili either the sons of the leaders like the
Khojas and Khans or the leaders themselves. Although the Uighur's
culture and religion was left alone, the Dzungars substantially
exploited them economically . The Uighurs were forced with
multiple taxes by the Dzungars which were burdensome and set by a
determined amount, and which they did not even have the ability to
pay. They included water conservancy tax, draught animal tax, fruit
tax, poll tax, land tax, tress and grass tax, gold and silver tax, and
trade tax. Annually the Dzungars extracted a tax of 67,000 tangas of
silver from the Kashgar people in Galdan Tseren's reign, a five
percent tax was imposed on foreign traders and a ten percent tax
imposed on Muslim merchants, people had to pay a fruit tax if they
owned orchards and merchants had to pay a copper and silver tax.
Annually the Dzungars extracted 100,000 silver tangas in tax from
Yarkand and slapped livestock, stain, commerce, and a gold tax on
them. The Dzungars extracted 700 taels of gold, and also extracted
cotton, copper, and cloth, from the six regions of Keriya, Kashgar,
Khotan, Kucha, Yarkand, and Aksu as stated by Russian topographer
Yakoff Filisoff. The Dzungars extracted over 50% of the wheat harvests
of Muslims according to Qi-yi-shi (Chun Yuan), 30–40% of the wheat
harvests of Muslims according to the Xiyu tuzhi, which labelled the
tax as "plunder" of the Muslims. The Dzungars also extorted extra
taxes on cotton, silver, gold, and traded goods from the Muslims
besides making them pay the official tax. "Wine, meat, and women" and
"a parting gift" were forcibly extracted from the Uighurs daily by the
Dzungars who went to physically gather the taxes from the Uighur
Muslims, and if they dissatisfied with what they received, they would
rape women, and loot and steal property and livestock. Gold necklaces,
diamonds, pearls, and precious stones from
India were extracted from
the Uighurs under Dāniyāl Khoja by
Tsewang Rabtan when his daughter
was getting married.
67,000 patman (each patman is 4 piculs and 5 pecks) of grain 48,000
silver ounces were forced to be paid yearly by Kashgar to the Dzungars
and cash was also paid by the rest of the cities to the Dzungars.
Trade, milling, and distilling taxes, corvée labor, saffron, cotton,
and grain were also extracted by the Dzungars from the Tarim Basin.
Every harvest season, women and food had to be provided to Dzungars
when they came to extract the taxes from them.
When the Dzungars levied the traditional nomadic Alban poll tax upon
the Muslims of Altishahr, the Muslims viewed it as the payment of
jizyah (a tax traditionally taken from non-Muslims by Muslim
The Qing defeat of the Dzungars went hand in hand with the
anti-Dzungar resistance of the ordinary Uighurs, "many of them, unable
to bear their misery, which was like living in a sea of fire, fled but
were not able to find a place to settle peacefully." The Uighurs
carried out "acts of resistance" like hiding the goods which were
collected as taxes or violently resisting the Dzungar Oirat tax
collectors, but these incidents were infrequent and widespread
anti-Dzungar opposition failed to materialize. Many opponents of
Dzungar rule like Uighurs and some dissident Dzungars escaped and
defected to Qing China during 1737–1754 and provided the Qing with
intelligence on the Dzungars and voiced their grievances. 'Abdullāh
Tarkhān Beg and his Hami Uighurs defected and submitted to Qing China
after the Qing inflicted a devastating defeat at Chao-mo-do on the
Dzungar leader Galdan in September 1696. The Uighur leader Emin
Khoja (Amīn Khoja) of Turfan revolted against the Dzungars in 1720
while the Dzungars under
Tsewang Rabtan were being attacked by the
Qing, and then he also defected and submitted to the Qing. The Uighurs
in Kashgar under Yūsuf and his older brother Jahān Khoja of Yarkand
revolted in 1754 against the Dzungars, but Jahān was taken prisoner
by the Dzungars after he was betrayed by the Uch-Turfan Uighur
Xi-bo-ke Khoja and Aksu Uighur Ayyūb Khoja. Kashgar and Yarkand were
assaulted by 7,000 Khotan Uighurs under Sādiq, the son of Jahān
Khoja. The Uighurs supported the 1755 Qing assault against the
Dzungars in Ili, which occurred at the same time as the Uighur revolts
against the Dzungars. Uighurs like Emin Khoja, 'Abdu'l Mu'min and
Yūsuf Beg supported the Qing attack against Dawachi, the Dzungar
Khan. The Uch-Turfan UighurnBeg Khojis (Huojisi) supported the
Qing General Ban-di against in tricking Davachi and taking him
prisoner. The Qing and Amin Khoja and his sons worked together to
defeat the Dzungars under Amursana.
Afghan royal soldiers of the
Durrani Empire (also referred to as the
From the 17th century to the middle of the 18th century, between China
proper and Transoxania, all the land was under the sway of the
Dzungars. In Semirechye the Kyrgyz and Kazakahs were forcibly driven
out by the Dzungars and the Kashgar Khanate was conquered. However,
the Dzungar Empire was annihilated by Qing China from 1755–1758 in a
formidable assault, ending the Central Asian states danger from the
Dzungar menace. Uighur Muslims like Emin Khoja from Turfan
revolted against their Dzungar
Buddhist rulers and pledged alleigance
to Qing China to deliver them from Dzungar
Buddhist rule. The Qing
crushed and annihilated the Dzungars in the Dzungar genocide.
The Dzungar Buddhists brought back the Aqtaghliq Afaqi Khoja
Burhan-ud-din and his brother Khan Khoja and installed them as puppet
rulers in Kashgar. During the Qing's war against the Dzungars,
Burhan-ud-din and his brother Khan Khoja then pledged alleigance to
Qing China in exchange for delivering them from Dzungar rule. However,
after the Qing defeated the Dzungars, the Afaqi Khoja brothers
Burhan-ud-din and Khan Khoja reneged on the deal with the Qing,
declared independence and revolted against the Qing. The Qing and
loyal Uighurs like Emin Khoja crushed the revolt and drove
Burhan-ud-din and Khan Khoja to Badakhshan. The Qing armies reached
far in Central Asia and came to the outskirts of
Tashkent while the
Kazakh rulers made their submissions as vassals to the Qing. The
Afaqi brothers died in
Badakhshan and the ruler Sultan Shah delivered
their bodies to the Qing. Ahmad Shah
Durrani accused Sultan Shah of
having caused the Afaqi brothers to die.
Durrani dispatched troops to
Kokand after rumours that the Qing
dynasty planned to launch an expedition to Samarkand, but the alleged
expedition never happened and Ahmad Shah subsequently withdrew his
forces when his attempt at an anti-Qing alliance among Central Asian
Durrani then sent envoys to
Beijing to discuss the
situation regarding the Afaqi Khojas.
Rise of the Sikhs in the Punjab
Third Battle of Panipat
Third Battle of Panipat between Marathas and Durrani, the
Sikhs did not engage along with the Marathas and hence are considered
neutral in the war. This was because of the flawed diplomacy on the
part of Marathas in not recognizing their strategic potential. The
exception was Ala Singh of Patiala, who sided with the Afghans and was
actually being granted and coincidentally crowned the first Sikh
Maharajah at the Sikh holy temple.
Death and legacy
The tomb of Ahmad Shah
Kandahar City, which also serves as
Congregational Mosque and contains the sacred cloak that the
Durrani died on 16 October 1772 in
Kandahar Province. He was buried in
the city of
Kandahar adjacent to the Shrine of the Cloak, where a
large tomb was built. It has been described in the following way:
Under the shimmering turquoise dome that dominates the sand-blown city
Kandahar lies the body of Ahmad Shah Abdali, the young Kandahari
warrior who in 1747 became the region's first
Durrani king. The
mausoleum is covered in deep blue and white tiles behind a small grove
of trees, one of which is said to cure toothache, and is a place of
pilgrimage. In front of it is a small mosque with a marble vault
containing one of the holiest relics in the Islamic World, a kherqa,
the Sacred Cloak of Mohammed that was given to Ahmad Shah by Mured
Beg, the Emir of Bokhara. The Sacred Cloak is kept locked away, taken
out only at times of great crisis but the mausoleum is open and there
is a constant line of men leaving their sandals at the door and
shuffling through to marvel at the surprisingly long marble tomb and
touch the glass case containing Ahmad Shah's brass helmet. Before
leaving they bend to kiss a length of pink velvet said to be from his
robe. It bears the unmistakable scent of jasmine.
In his tomb his epitaph is written:
The King of high rank, Ahmad Shah Durrani,
Was equal to Kisra in managing the affairs of his government.
In his time, from the awe of his glory and greatness,
The lioness nourished the stag with her milk.
From all sides in the ear of his enemies there arrived
A thousand reproofs from the tongue of his dagger.
The date of his departure for the house of mortality
Was the year of the Hijra 1186 (1772 A.D.)
Durrani's victory over the Marathas influenced the history of the
subcontinent and, in particular, British policy in the region. His
refusal to continue his campaigns deeper into
India prevented a clash
with the East
India Company and allowed them to continue to acquire
power and influence after they took complete control of the former
Mughal province of
Bengal in 1793. However, fear of another Afghan
invasion was to haunt British policy for almost half a century after
the battle of Panipat. The acknowledgment of Abdali's military
accomplishments is reflected in a British intelligence report on the
Battle of Panipat, which referred to Ahmad Shah as the 'King of
Kings'. This fear led in 1798 to a British envoy being sent to the
Persian court in part to instigate the Persians in their claims on
Herat to forestall an Afghan invasion of
India that might have halted
India company's expansion. Mountstuart Elphinstone
wrote of Ahmad Shah:
His military courage and activity are spoken of with admiration, both
by his own subjects and the nations with whom he was engaged, either
in wars or alliances. He seems to have been naturally disposed to
mildness and clemency and though it is impossible to acquire sovereign
power and perhaps, in Asia, to maintain it, without crimes; yet the
memory of no eastern prince is stained with fewer acts of cruelty and
— Mountstuart Elphinstone
His successors, beginning with his son Timur and ending with Shuja
Shah Durrani, proved largely incapable of governing the last Afghan
empire and faced with advancing enemies on all sides. Much of the
territory conquered by Ahmad Shah fell to others by the end of the
19th century. They not only lost the outlying territories but also
Pashtun tribes and those of other
Until Dost Mohammad Khan's ascendancy in 1826, chaos reigned in
Afghanistan, which effectively ceased to exist as a single entity,
disintegrating into a fragmented collection of small countries or
units. This policy ensured that he did not continue on the path of
other conquerors like
Muhammad of Ghor and make
base for his empire.
In Pakistan, a short-range ballistic missile Abdali-I, is named in the
honour of Ahmed Shah Abdali.
The flag of Ahmad Shah Durrani.
Durrani wrote a collection of odes in his native
Pashto language. He
was also the author of several poems in Persian. The most famous
Pashto poem he wrote was Love of a Nation:
By blood, we are immersed in love of you.
The youth lose their heads for your sake.
I come to you and my heart finds rest.
Away from you, grief clings to my heart like a snake.
I forget the throne of Delhi
when I remember the mountain tops of my beautiful Pakhtunkhwa.
If I must choose between the world and you,
I shall not hesitate to claim your barren deserts as my own.
ستا د عشق له مينی ډک شول ځيګرونه 
Sta de ishq de weeno daq sho zegaronah
ستا په لاره کـــې بايلــــــــي ځلمي
Sta puh meena ke byley zalmey saronah
تاته راشمــــه زړګــــی زمــــا
Ta tuh reshema zergai ze mai farigh shey
بې له تا مــــې انديښنې د زړه مارونه
Bey ley ta mai andekhney de zlar maronah
که هــــر څه مې د دنيا ملکونه ډير شي
Ke har sa mi de dunia molkona der shi
زما به هير نه شي دا ستا ښکلي باغونه
ze ma ba heera na shi da sta shekeli baghona
I will not forget it your beautiful gardens
د ډيلـــي تخت هيرومه چې را ياد کړم
Delhi takht hayrawoona chey rayad kum
زما د ښکلي پښتونخوا د غرو سرونه
Ze mah de khekely or shekele Pakhtunkhwa de ghru saronah
During Nader Shah's invasion of
India in 1739, Abdali also accompanied
him and stayed some days in the Red Fort of Delhi. When he was
standing "outside the Jali gate near Diwan-i-Am",
Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I saw him.
He was "an expert in physiognomy" and predicted that Abdali was
"destined to become a king". When
Nader Shah came to know about it, he
"purportedly clipped" his ears with his dagger and made the remark
"When you become a king, this will remind you of me". According to
Nader Shah did not believe in it and asked him to be
kind to his descendants "on the attaintment of royalty".
Aaleh Hazrat Ahmad Shah Durrani
Aaleh Hazrat Timur Shah Durrani
Aaleh Hazrat Mahmud Shah Durrani
Shahzada Kamran Durrani
Shahzada Bismillah Durrani
Shahzada Rasheed Khan Durrani
Shahzada Aalijah Nidda Durrani
Shahzada Mohammad Abdul Rahim Durrani
Shahzada Abdul Habib Khan Durrani
Shahzada Rehmatullah Khan Saddozai
Shahzada Rehmatullah Khan Saddozai Durrani
Hayatullah Khan Durrani
Mohammad Abubakar Durrani
List of monarchs of Afghanistan
^ a b "Aḥmad Shah Durrānī".
Encyclopædia Britannica Online
Version. 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
^ a b c "Ahmad Shah and the
Durrani Empire". Library of Congress
Country Studies on Afghanistan. 1997. Retrieved 23 September
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Friedrich Engels (1857). "Afghanistan". Andy Blunden. The New
American Cyclopaedia, Vol. I. Archived from the original on 18 October
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^ a b Clements, Frank (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: a historical
encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-85109-402-8.
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Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 23
^ Chayes, Sarah (2006). The Punishment of Virtue: Inside Afghanistan
After the Taliban. Univ. of Queensland Press. p. 99.
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^ Singh, Ganḍā (1959). Ahmad Shah Durrani: Father of Modern
Afghanistan. Asia Publishing House. p. 457.
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^ "Ahmad Shah Abdali". Abdullah Qazi.
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Afghans refer to him as Ahmad Shah Baba (Ahmad Shah, the
^ Runion, Meredith L. (2007). The history of Afghanistan. Greenwood
Publishing Group. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-313-33798-7. Retrieved
23 September 2010.
^ Mehta, J. L. (2005). Advanced study in the history of modern India
1707–1813. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 247.
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^ a b Vogelsang, Willem (2002). The Afghans. Wiley-Blackwell.
p. 228. ISBN 978-0-631-19841-3. Retrieved 23 September
^ Reddy, L. R. (2002). Inside Afghanistan: end of the
APH Publishing. p. 64. ISBN 978-81-7648-319-3. Retrieved 22
^ Behnke, Alison (2003).
Afghanistan in Pictures. Twenty-First Century
Books. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-8225-4683-2. Retrieved 23 September
^ a b c Mehta, p.246
^ a b c Mehta, p.247
^ Sarkar, p. 124
^ a b C. Collin-Davies (1999). "Ahmad Shah Durrani". Encyclopaedia of
Islam (CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0).
^ Griffiths, John. C (2001) Afghanistan: A History of Conflict p12
^ Singer, Andre (1983). Lords of the Khyber: The story of the North
^ Olaf Caroe, The Pathans (1981 reprint)
^ a b Mehta, p.248
^ Mehta, p.249
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^ Patil, Vishwas. Panipat.
^ Roy, Kaushik. India's Historic Battles: From Alexander the Great to
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^ for a detailed account of the battle fought see Chapter VI of The
Fall of the Moghul Empire of Hindustan by H. G. Keene. Available
^ G S Sardesai's Marathi Riyasat, volume 2."The reference for this
letter as given by Sardesai in Riyasat – Peshwe Daftar letters
2.103, 146; 21.206; 1.202, 207, 210, 213; 29, 42, 54, and 39.161.
Satara Daftar – document number 2.301, Shejwalkar's Panipat, page
no. 99. Moropanta's account – 1.1, 6, 7"
^ James A. Millward (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of
Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. pp. 55–.
^ Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of
Xinjiang (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 43.
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^ Carter Vaughn Findley (15 October 2004). The Turks in World History.
Oxford University Press. pp. 242–.
^ Khan, Razib (March 28, 2008). "Uyghurs are hybrids". Discover
^ Khan, Razib (September 22, 2009). "Yes, Uyghurs are a new hybrid
population". Discover Magazine.
^ Millward 2007, p. 86.
^ Millward 2007, p. 87.
^ Millward 2007, p. 88.
^ ed. Starr 2004, p. 50.
^ Kim 2008, p. 117
^ Newby 1998, p. 279.
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^ Millward 2007, p. 92.
^ Saintly Brokers: Uyghur Muslims, Trade, and the Making of Qing
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^ Newby 2005, p. 33.
^ Newby 2005, p. 34.
^ Newby 2005, p. 35.
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power. University of Michigan. p. 37.
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First Perennial edition (2004), p. 38. ISBN 0-06-050527-3.
^ Nancy Hatch Dupree – An Historical Guide To
Afghanistan – The South (Chapter 16)
^ a b "
Afghanistan 1747–1809: Sources in the
^ Asia Times Online :: South Asia news, business and economy from
India and Pakistan
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Pashto Poet)". Abdullah Qazi. Afghanistan
Online. Archived from the original on 8 September 2010. Retrieved 23
^ "A Profile of
Afghanistan – Ahmad Shah
Kimberly Kim. Mine Action Information Center. Retrieved 23 September
^ Said Hyder Akbar/Susan Burton: Come Back to Afghanistan, Trying to
Rebuild a Country with My Father, My [...] , USA, 2005
Jaswant Lal Mehta. Advanced Study in the History of Modern India
1707–1813. ISBN 9781932705546.
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Caroe, Olaf (1958). The Pathans: 500 B.C.-A.D. 1957. Oxford in Asia
Historical Reprints. Oxford University Press, 1983.
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and its dependencies in Persia, Tartary, and India: Comprising a view
of the Afghaun nation, and a history of the Dooraunee monarchy.
Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, and J. Murry, 1819.
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Macmillan, 2008. ISBN 0-230-55421-0.
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Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 1878. Elibron Classic
Replica Edition. Adamant Media Corporation, 2005.
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Vogelsang, Willem. The Afghans. Wiley-Blackwell, 2002. Oxford, UK
& Massachusette, US. ISBN 0-631-19841-5.
Alikuzai, Hamid Wahed: A Concise History of
Afghanistan  in 25
Volumes, USA, 2013, Vo 14, Pg. 62, ISBN 978-1-4907-1441-7 (sc);
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