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Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 16 October 1772) (Pashto: احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (احمد خان ابدالي), was the founder of the Durrani
Durrani
Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.[1][2][3][4] He began his career by enlisting as a young soldier in the military of the Afsharid kingdom and quickly rose to become a commander of the Abdali Regiment, a cavalry of four thousand Abdali Pashtun soldiers.[5] After the assassination of Nader Shah
Nader Shah
Afshar in 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani
Durrani
was chosen as King of Afghanistan. Rallying his Afghan tribes and allies, he pushed east towards the Mughal and the Maratha empires of India, west towards the disintegrating Afsharid Empire of Persia, and north toward the Khanate of Bukhara. Within a few years, he extended his control from Khorasan in the west to Kashmir
Kashmir
and North India
India
in the east, and from the Amu Darya
Amu Darya
in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south.[3][6] Durrani's mausoleum is located at Kandahar, Afghanistan, adjacent to the Shrine of the Cloak
Shrine of the Cloak
in the center of the city. Afghans often refer to him as Ahmad Shāh Bābā ("Ahmad Shah the Father").[2][7][8][9]

Contents

1 Early years 2 Rise to power 3 Forming the last Afghan empire

3.1 Indian invasions

3.1.1 Early invasions

3.2 Third battle of Panipat 3.3 Central Asia 3.4 Rise of the Sikhs in the Punjab

4 Death and legacy 5 Durrani's poetry 6 Personal life 7 See also 8 References 9 Notes 10 Bibliography 11 External links

Early years Further information: Hotak dynasty

An 1881 photo showing Shah Hussain Hotak's fortress in Old Kandahar, where Abdali and his brother Zulfikar were imprisoned. It was destroyed in 1738 by the Afsharid forces of Persia.

Durrani
Durrani
was born in or about 1722 to Mohammad Zaman Khan, chief of the Abdali tribe and Governor of Herat, and Zarghuna Alakozai. There has been some debate about Durrani's exact place of birth.[10] Most believe that he was born in Herat, Afghanistan.[1][4][11][12][13][14] He was born as Ahmed Khan.[15] Abdali's father suffered "Persian captivity for many years" at Kirman
Kirman
before being released from prison in 1715.[15] As a refugee, he "made his way to India" and joined his kinsmen at Multan.[15] After he raised his family there, he was recognized as the "scion of hereditary Sadozai chiefs". It is believed that Zaman Khan returned to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to fight the Persians and his Afghan rivals,[citation needed] but left one of his wives at Multan because she was "in the family way". So other sources believe that, Abdali was born at Multan
Multan
in 1722, after which she returned to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to reunite with her husband. He lost his father during his infancy.[16] Durrani's forefathers were Sadozais but his mother was from the Alakozai
Alakozai
tribe. In June 1729, the Abdali forces under Zulfiqar had surrendered to Nader Shah
Nader Shah
Afshar, the rising new ruler of Persia. However, they soon began a rebellion and took over Herat
Herat
as well as Mashad. In July 1730, he defeated Ibrahim Khan, a military commander and brother of Nader Shah. This prompted Nader Shah
Nader Shah
to retake Mashad and also intervene in the power struggle of Harat. By July 1731, Zulfiqar returned to his capital Farah where he had been serving as the governor since 1726. A year later Nadir's brother Ibrahim Khan took control of Farah. During this time Zulfiqar and the young Durrani fled to Kandahar
Kandahar
where they took refuge with the Ghiljis. They were later made political prisoners by Hussain Hotak, the Ghilji ruler of the Kandahar
Kandahar
region.[17] Nader Shah
Nader Shah
had been enlisting the Abdalis in his army since around 1729. After conquering Kandahar
Kandahar
in 1738, Durrani
Durrani
and his brother Zulfiqar were freed and provided with leading careers in Nader Shah's administration. Zulfiqar was made Governor of Mazandaran while Durrani remained working as Nader Shah's personal attendant. The Ghiljis, who are originally from the territories east of the Kandahar
Kandahar
region, were expelled from Kandahar
Kandahar
in order to resettle the Abdalis along with some Qizilbash
Qizilbash
and other Persians.[18] Durrani
Durrani
proved himself in Nader Shah's service and was promoted from a personal attendant (yasāwal) to command the Abdali Regiment, a cavalry of four thousand soldiers and officers. The Abdali Regiment was part of Nader Shah's military during his invasion of the Mughal Empire in 1738.[19] Popular history has it that the Shah could see the talent in his young commander. Later on, according to Pashtun legend, it is said that in Delhi
Delhi
Nader Shah
Nader Shah
summoned Durrani, and said, "Come forward Ahmad Abdali. Remember Ahmad Khan Abdali, that after me the Kingship will pass on to you.[20] Nader Shah
Nader Shah
recruited him because of his "impressive personality and valour" also because of his "loyalty to the Persian monarch".[16] Rise to power Further information: Durrani
Durrani
dynasty

Coronation
Coronation
of Ahmad Shah Durrani
Durrani
in 1747 by Abdul Ghafoor Breshna.

Nader Shah's rule abruptly ended in June 1747 when he was assassinated by his own guards. The guards involved in the assassination did so secretly so as to prevent the Abdalis from coming to their King's rescue. However, Durrani
Durrani
was told that the Shah had been killed by one of his wives. Despite the danger of being attacked, the Abdali contingent led by Durrani
Durrani
rushed either to save the Shah or to confirm what happened. Upon reaching the Shah's tent, they were only to see his body and severed head. Having served him so loyally, the Abdalis wept at having failed their leader,[21] and headed back to Kandahar. Before the retreat to Kandahar, he had "removed" the royal seal from Nader Shah's finger and the Koh-i-Noor
Koh-i-Noor
diamond tied "around the arm of his deceased master". On their way back to Kandahar, the Abdalis had "unanimously accepted" Durrani
Durrani
as their new leader. Hence he "assumed the insignia of royalty" as the "sovereign ruler of Afghanistan".[22]

At the time of Nadir's death, he commanded a contingent of Abdali Pashtuns. Realizing that his life was in jeopardy if he stayed among the Persians who had murdered Nader Shah, he decided to leave the Persian camp, and with his 4,000 troops he proceeded to Qandahar. Along the way and by sheer luck, they managed to capture a caravan with booty from India. He and his troops were rich; moreover, they were experienced fighters. In short, they formed a formidable force of young Pashtun soldiers who were loyal to their high-ranking leader.[12]

One of Durrani's first acts as chief was to adopt the titles Padishah-i-Ghazi ("victorious emperor"), and Durr-i- Durrani
Durrani
("pearl of pearls" or "pearl of the age").[2]

v t e

Campaigns of Ahmad Shah Durrani

Manipur (1748) Lahore
Lahore
(1752) Sabzavar (1755) Delhi
Delhi
(1757) Gohalwar (1757) Lahore
Lahore
(1759) Barari Ghat (1760) Sikandarabad 2 (1760) Kunjpura (1760) Panipat
Panipat
3 (1761) Gujranwala (1761) Sialkot (1761) Kup (1762) Sialkot (1763)

Forming the last Afghan empire Further information: Durrani
Durrani
Empire Following his predecessor, Durrani
Durrani
set up a special force closest to him consisting mostly of his fellow Durranis and other Pashtuns, as well as Tajiks, Qizilbash
Qizilbash
and other Muslims.[18] He began his military conquest by capturing Ghazni
Ghazni
from the Ghiljis and then wresting Kabul from the local ruler, and thus strengthened his hold over Khorasan. Leadership of the various Afghan tribes rested mainly on the ability to provide booty for the clan, and Durrani
Durrani
proved remarkably successful in providing both booty and occupation for his followers. Apart from invading the Punjab region
Punjab region
three times between the years 1747–1753, he captured Herat
Herat
in 1750.[22] Indian invasions See also: Indian Campaign of Ahmad Shah Durrani Early invasions

The Bala Hissar fort in Peshawar
Peshawar
was one of the royal residences of Ahmad Shah.

Abdali invaded the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
seven times from 1748 to 1767. According to Jaswant Lal Mehta, Durrani
Durrani
aroused the Afghans "religious passions" to fire and "sword into the land of infidels India." He crossed the Khyber pass
Khyber pass
in December 1747 with 40,000 troops for his first invasion of India. He occupied Peshawar
Peshawar
without any opposition.[23] He first crossed the Indus River
Indus River
in 1748, the year after his ascension – his forces sacked and absorbed Lahore. The following year (1749), the Mughal ruler was induced to cede Sindh and all of the Punjab including the vital trans Indus River
Indus River
to him, in order to save his capital from being attacked by the forces of the Durrani
Durrani
Empire. Having thus gained substantial territories to the east without a fight, Durrani
Durrani
and his forces turned westward to take possession of Herat, which was ruled by Nader Shah's grandson, Shah Rukh. The city fell to the Afghans in 1750, after almost a year of siege and bloody conflict; the Afghan forces then pushed on into present-day Iran, capturing Nishapur and Mashhad in 1751. Durrani
Durrani
then pardoned Shah Rukh and reconstituted Khorasan, but a tributary of the Durrani
Durrani
Empire. This marked the westernmost border of the Afghan Empire as set by the Pul-i-Abrisham, on the Mashhad-Tehran road.[24] Third battle of Panipat Main article: Battle of Panipat
Panipat
(1761)

Durrani
Durrani
sitting on a brown horse during the 1761 Battle of Panipat
Panipat
in Northern India.

The Mughal power in northern India
India
had been declining since the reign of Aurangzeb, who died in 1707. In 1751–52, the Ahamdiya treaty was signed between the Marathas and Mughals, when Balaji Bajirao
Balaji Bajirao
was the Peshwa
Peshwa
of the Maratha Empire.[25] Through this treaty, the Marathas controlled large parts of India
India
from their capital at Pune
Pune
and Mughal rule was restricted only to Delhi
Delhi
(Mughals remained the nominal heads of Delhi). Marathas were now straining to expand their area of control towards the Northwest of India. Durrani
Durrani
sacked the Mughal capital and withdrew with the booty he coveted. To counter the Afghans, Peshwa Balaji Bajirao
Balaji Bajirao
sent Raghunathrao. He succeeded in ousting Timur Shah and his court from India
India
and brought northwest of India
India
up to Peshawar under Maratha rule.[26] Thus, upon his return to Kandahar
Kandahar
in 1757, Durrani
Durrani
chose to return to India
India
and confront the Maratha forces to regain northwestern part of the subcontinent. In 1761, Durrani
Durrani
set out on his campaign to win back lost territories. The early skirmishes ended in victory for the Afghans against the Maratha garrisons in northwest India. By 1759, Durrani
Durrani
and his army had reached Lahore
Lahore
and were poised to confront the Marathas. By 1760, the Maratha groups had coalesced into a big enough army under the command of Sadashivrao Bhau. Once again, Panipat
Panipat
was the scene of a battle for control of northern India. The Third battle of Panipat
Panipat
was fought between Durrani's Afghan forces and the Maratha forces in January 1761, and resulted in a decisive Durrani
Durrani
victory.[27] This brought Punjab till north of Sutlej river
Sutlej river
under Afghan control. Ahmad Shah Durrani
Durrani
vacated Delhi
Delhi
soon after the battle.[28] Central Asia Main articles: Islamicisation and Turkicisation of Xinjiang, Dzungar conquest of Altishahr, and Dzungar genocide The historical area of what is modern day Xinjiang consisted of the distinct areas of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
and Dzungaria, and was originally populated by Indo-European Tocharian and Eastern Iranian Saka peoples who practiced the Buddhist
Buddhist
religion. The area was subjected to Turkification and Islamification at the hands of invading Turkic Muslims. Both the Buddhist
Buddhist
Turkic Uyghurs and Muslim Turkic Karluks participated in the Turkification and conquest of the native Buddhist Indo-European inhabitants of the Tarim Basin. The Turkic Muslims then proceeded to conquer the Turkic Buddhists in Islamic holy wars and converted them to Islam. The mixture between the invading Mongoloid Turkic peoples and the native Caucasian Indo-European inhabitants resulted in the modern day Turkic speaking hybrid Europoid-East Asian inhabitants of Xinjiang. The Turkification was carried out in the 9th and 10th centuries by two different Turkic Kingdoms, the Buddhist Uyghur Kingdom of Qocho
Kingdom of Qocho
and the Muslim Karluk Kara-Khanid Khanate. Halfway in the 20th century the Saka Iranic Buddhist
Buddhist
Kingdom of Khotan came under attack by the Turkic Muslim Karakhanid ruler Musa, and in what proved to be a pivotal moment in the Turkification and Islamification of the Tarim Basin, the Karakhanid leader Yusuf Qadir Khan conquered Khotan around 1006.[29] Professor James A. Millward described the original Uyghurs as physically Mongoloid, giving as an example the images in Bezeklik at temple 9 of the Uyghur patrons, until they began to mix with the Tarim Basin's original eastern Iranian inhabitants.[30] The modern Uyghurs are now a mixed hybrid of East Asian and Europoid populations.[31][32][33]

Ahmad Shah Durrani
Durrani
Portrait

The Turkic Muslim sedentary people of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
of Altishahr were originally ruled by the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
while the nomadic Buddhist
Buddhist
Dzungar Oirats
Oirats
in Dzungaria
Dzungaria
ruled over the Dzungar Khanate. The Naqshbandi Sufi Khojas, descendants of the Prophet Muhammad, had replaced the Chagatayid Khans as the ruling authority of the Tarim Basin in the early 17th century. There was a struggle between two factions of Khojas, the Afaqi (White Mountain) faction and the Ishaqi (Black Mountain) faction. The Ishaqi defeated the Afaqi, which resulted in the Afaqi Khoja inviting the 5th Dalai Lama, the leader of the Tibetan Buddhists, to intervene on his behalf in 1677. The 5th Dalai Lama then called upon his Dzungar Buddhist
Buddhist
followers in the Zunghar Khanate to act on this invitation. The Dzungar Khanate
Dzungar Khanate
then conquered the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
in 1680, setting up the Afaqi Khoja as their puppet ruler. Khoja Afaq asked the 5th Dalai Lama when he fled to Lhasa to help his Afaqi faction take control of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
(Kashgaria).[34] The Dzungar leader Galdan was then asked by the Dalai Lama to restore Khoja Afaq as ruler of Kashgararia.[35] Khoja Afaq collaborated with Galdan's Dzungars when the Dzungars conquered the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
from 1678–1680 and set up the Afaqi Khojas as puppet client rulers.[36][37][38][39] The Dalai Lama blessed Galdan's conquest of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
and Turfan Basin.[40] Since 1680 the Dzungars had ruled as suzerain masters over the Tarim, for 16 more years using the Chagatai as their puppet rulers. The Dzungars used a hostage arrangement to rule over the Tarim Basin, keeping as hostsges in Ili either the sons of the leaders like the Khojas and Khans or the leaders themselves. Although the Uighur's culture and religion was left alone, the Dzungars substantially exploited them economically .[41] The Uighurs were forced with multiple taxes by the Dzungars which were burdensome and set by a determined amount, and which they did not even have the ability to pay. They included water conservancy tax, draught animal tax, fruit tax, poll tax, land tax, tress and grass tax, gold and silver tax, and trade tax. Annually the Dzungars extracted a tax of 67,000 tangas of silver from the Kashgar people in Galdan Tseren's reign, a five percent tax was imposed on foreign traders and a ten percent tax imposed on Muslim merchants, people had to pay a fruit tax if they owned orchards and merchants had to pay a copper and silver tax. Annually the Dzungars extracted 100,000 silver tangas in tax from Yarkand and slapped livestock, stain, commerce, and a gold tax on them. The Dzungars extracted 700 taels of gold, and also extracted cotton, copper, and cloth, from the six regions of Keriya, Kashgar, Khotan, Kucha, Yarkand, and Aksu as stated by Russian topographer Yakoff Filisoff. The Dzungars extracted over 50% of the wheat harvests of Muslims according to Qi-yi-shi (Chun Yuan), 30–40% of the wheat harvests of Muslims according to the Xiyu tuzhi, which labelled the tax as "plunder" of the Muslims. The Dzungars also extorted extra taxes on cotton, silver, gold, and traded goods from the Muslims besides making them pay the official tax. "Wine, meat, and women" and "a parting gift" were forcibly extracted from the Uighurs daily by the Dzungars who went to physically gather the taxes from the Uighur Muslims, and if they dissatisfied with what they received, they would rape women, and loot and steal property and livestock. Gold necklaces, diamonds, pearls, and precious stones from India
India
were extracted from the Uighurs under Dāniyāl Khoja by Tsewang Rabtan when his daughter was getting married.[42] 67,000 patman (each patman is 4 piculs and 5 pecks) of grain 48,000 silver ounces were forced to be paid yearly by Kashgar to the Dzungars and cash was also paid by the rest of the cities to the Dzungars. Trade, milling, and distilling taxes, corvée labor, saffron, cotton, and grain were also extracted by the Dzungars from the Tarim Basin. Every harvest season, women and food had to be provided to Dzungars when they came to extract the taxes from them.[43] When the Dzungars levied the traditional nomadic Alban poll tax upon the Muslims of Altishahr, the Muslims viewed it as the payment of jizyah (a tax traditionally taken from non-Muslims by Muslim conquerors).[44] The Qing defeat of the Dzungars went hand in hand with the anti-Dzungar resistance of the ordinary Uighurs, "many of them, unable to bear their misery, which was like living in a sea of fire, fled but were not able to find a place to settle peacefully." The Uighurs carried out "acts of resistance" like hiding the goods which were collected as taxes or violently resisting the Dzungar Oirat tax collectors, but these incidents were infrequent and widespread anti-Dzungar opposition failed to materialize. Many opponents of Dzungar rule like Uighurs and some dissident Dzungars escaped and defected to Qing China during 1737–1754 and provided the Qing with intelligence on the Dzungars and voiced their grievances. 'Abdullāh Tarkhān Beg and his Hami Uighurs defected and submitted to Qing China after the Qing inflicted a devastating defeat at Chao-mo-do on the Dzungar leader Galdan in September 1696.[45] The Uighur leader Emin Khoja (Amīn Khoja) of Turfan revolted against the Dzungars in 1720 while the Dzungars under Tsewang Rabtan were being attacked by the Qing, and then he also defected and submitted to the Qing. The Uighurs in Kashgar under Yūsuf and his older brother Jahān Khoja of Yarkand revolted in 1754 against the Dzungars, but Jahān was taken prisoner by the Dzungars after he was betrayed by the Uch-Turfan Uighur Xi-bo-ke Khoja and Aksu Uighur Ayyūb Khoja. Kashgar and Yarkand were assaulted by 7,000 Khotan Uighurs under Sādiq, the son of Jahān Khoja. The Uighurs supported the 1755 Qing assault against the Dzungars in Ili, which occurred at the same time as the Uighur revolts against the Dzungars. Uighurs like Emin Khoja, 'Abdu'l Mu'min and Yūsuf Beg supported the Qing attack against Dawachi, the Dzungar Khan.[46] The Uch-Turfan UighurnBeg Khojis (Huojisi) supported the Qing General Ban-di against in tricking Davachi and taking him prisoner. The Qing and Amin Khoja and his sons worked together to defeat the Dzungars under Amursana.[47]

Afghan royal soldiers of the Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
(also referred to as the Afghan Empire).

From the 17th century to the middle of the 18th century, between China proper and Transoxania, all the land was under the sway of the Dzungars. In Semirechye the Kyrgyz and Kazakahs were forcibly driven out by the Dzungars and the Kashgar Khanate was conquered. However, the Dzungar Empire was annihilated by Qing China from 1755–1758 in a formidable assault, ending the Central Asian states danger from the Dzungar menace.[48] Uighur Muslims like Emin Khoja from Turfan revolted against their Dzungar Buddhist
Buddhist
rulers and pledged alleigance to Qing China to deliver them from Dzungar Buddhist
Buddhist
rule. The Qing crushed and annihilated the Dzungars in the Dzungar genocide. The Dzungar Buddhists brought back the Aqtaghliq Afaqi Khoja Burhan-ud-din and his brother Khan Khoja and installed them as puppet rulers in Kashgar. During the Qing's war against the Dzungars, Burhan-ud-din and his brother Khan Khoja then pledged alleigance to Qing China in exchange for delivering them from Dzungar rule. However, after the Qing defeated the Dzungars, the Afaqi Khoja brothers Burhan-ud-din and Khan Khoja reneged on the deal with the Qing, declared independence and revolted against the Qing. The Qing and loyal Uighurs like Emin Khoja crushed the revolt and drove Burhan-ud-din and Khan Khoja to Badakhshan. The Qing armies reached far in Central Asia and came to the outskirts of Tashkent
Tashkent
while the Kazakh rulers made their submissions as vassals to the Qing.[49] The Afaqi brothers died in Badakhshan
Badakhshan
and the ruler Sultan Shah delivered their bodies to the Qing. Ahmad Shah Durrani
Durrani
accused Sultan Shah of having caused the Afaqi brothers to die.[50] Durrani
Durrani
dispatched troops to Kokand
Kokand
after rumours that the Qing dynasty planned to launch an expedition to Samarkand, but the alleged expedition never happened and Ahmad Shah subsequently withdrew his forces when his attempt at an anti-Qing alliance among Central Asian states failed.[51] Durrani
Durrani
then sent envoys to Beijing
Beijing
to discuss the situation regarding the Afaqi Khojas.[52] Rise of the Sikhs in the Punjab During the Third Battle of Panipat
Third Battle of Panipat
between Marathas and Durrani, the Sikhs did not engage along with the Marathas and hence are considered neutral in the war. This was because of the flawed diplomacy on the part of Marathas in not recognizing their strategic potential. The exception was Ala Singh of Patiala, who sided with the Afghans and was actually being granted and coincidentally crowned the first Sikh Maharajah at the Sikh holy temple.[53] Death and legacy

The tomb of Ahmad Shah Durrani
Durrani
in Kandahar
Kandahar
City, which also serves as the Congregational Mosque
Congregational Mosque
and contains the sacred cloak that the Islamic Prophet
Islamic Prophet
Muhammad
Muhammad
wore.

Durrani
Durrani
died on 16 October 1772 in Kandahar
Kandahar
Province. He was buried in the city of Kandahar
Kandahar
adjacent to the Shrine of the Cloak, where a large tomb was built. It has been described in the following way:

Under the shimmering turquoise dome that dominates the sand-blown city of Kandahar
Kandahar
lies the body of Ahmad Shah Abdali, the young Kandahari warrior who in 1747 became the region's first Durrani
Durrani
king. The mausoleum is covered in deep blue and white tiles behind a small grove of trees, one of which is said to cure toothache, and is a place of pilgrimage. In front of it is a small mosque with a marble vault containing one of the holiest relics in the Islamic World, a kherqa, the Sacred Cloak of Mohammed that was given to Ahmad Shah by Mured Beg, the Emir of Bokhara. The Sacred Cloak is kept locked away, taken out only at times of great crisis but the mausoleum is open and there is a constant line of men leaving their sandals at the door and shuffling through to marvel at the surprisingly long marble tomb and touch the glass case containing Ahmad Shah's brass helmet. Before leaving they bend to kiss a length of pink velvet said to be from his robe. It bears the unmistakable scent of jasmine.[54]

In his tomb his epitaph is written:

The King of high rank, Ahmad Shah Durrani, Was equal to Kisra in managing the affairs of his government. In his time, from the awe of his glory and greatness, The lioness nourished the stag with her milk. From all sides in the ear of his enemies there arrived A thousand reproofs from the tongue of his dagger. The date of his departure for the house of mortality Was the year of the Hijra 1186 (1772 A.D.)[55]

Durrani's victory over the Marathas influenced the history of the subcontinent and, in particular, British policy in the region. His refusal to continue his campaigns deeper into India
India
prevented a clash with the East India
India
Company and allowed them to continue to acquire power and influence after they took complete control of the former Mughal province of Bengal
Bengal
in 1793. However, fear of another Afghan invasion was to haunt British policy for almost half a century after the battle of Panipat. The acknowledgment of Abdali's military accomplishments is reflected in a British intelligence report on the Battle of Panipat, which referred to Ahmad Shah as the 'King of Kings'.[56] This fear led in 1798 to a British envoy being sent to the Persian court in part to instigate the Persians in their claims on Herat
Herat
to forestall an Afghan invasion of India
India
that might have halted British East India
India
company's expansion.[56] Mountstuart Elphinstone wrote of Ahmad Shah:

His military courage and activity are spoken of with admiration, both by his own subjects and the nations with whom he was engaged, either in wars or alliances. He seems to have been naturally disposed to mildness and clemency and though it is impossible to acquire sovereign power and perhaps, in Asia, to maintain it, without crimes; yet the memory of no eastern prince is stained with fewer acts of cruelty and injustice. — Mountstuart Elphinstone

His successors, beginning with his son Timur and ending with Shuja Shah Durrani, proved largely incapable of governing the last Afghan empire and faced with advancing enemies on all sides. Much of the territory conquered by Ahmad Shah fell to others by the end of the 19th century. They not only lost the outlying territories but also alienated some Pashtun tribes
Pashtun tribes
and those of other Durrani
Durrani
lineages. Until Dost Mohammad Khan's ascendancy in 1826, chaos reigned in Afghanistan, which effectively ceased to exist as a single entity, disintegrating into a fragmented collection of small countries or units. This policy ensured that he did not continue on the path of other conquerors like Babur
Babur
or Muhammad
Muhammad
of Ghor and make India
India
the base for his empire. In Pakistan, a short-range ballistic missile Abdali-I, is named in the honour of Ahmed Shah Abdali.[57] Durrani's poetry

The flag of Ahmad Shah Durrani.

Durrani
Durrani
wrote a collection of odes in his native Pashto
Pashto
language. He was also the author of several poems in Persian. The most famous Pashto
Pashto
poem he wrote was Love of a Nation:

By blood, we are immersed in love of you. The youth lose their heads for your sake. I come to you and my heart finds rest. Away from you, grief clings to my heart like a snake. I forget the throne of Delhi when I remember the mountain tops of my beautiful Pakhtunkhwa. If I must choose between the world and you, I shall not hesitate to claim your barren deserts as my own.[58][59]

ستا د عشق له مينی ډک شول ځيګرونه ‬[60] Sta de ishq de weeno daq sho zegaronah ستا په لاره کـــې بايلــــــــي ځلمي سرونه ‬ Sta puh meena ke byley zalmey saronah تاته راشمــــه زړګــــی زمــــا فـــارغ شي ‬ Ta tuh reshema zergai ze mai farigh shey بې له تا مــــې انديښنې د زړه مارونه ‬ Bey ley ta mai andekhney de zlar maronah که هــــر څه مې د دنيا ملکونه ډير شي ‬ Ke har sa mi de dunia molkona der shi زما به هير نه شي دا ستا ښکلي باغونه ‬ ze ma ba heera na shi da sta shekeli baghona I will not forget it your beautiful gardens د ډيلـــي تخت هيرومه چې را ياد کړم ‬ De Delhi
Delhi
takht hayrawoona chey rayad kum زما د ښکلي پښتونخوا د غرو سرونه ‬ Ze mah de khekely or shekele Pakhtunkhwa de ghru saronah […][61][62]

Personal life During Nader Shah's invasion of India
India
in 1739, Abdali also accompanied him and stayed some days in the Red Fort of Delhi. When he was standing "outside the Jali gate near Diwan-i-Am", Asaf Jah I
Asaf Jah I
saw him. He was "an expert in physiognomy" and predicted that Abdali was "destined to become a king". When Nader Shah
Nader Shah
came to know about it, he "purportedly clipped" his ears with his dagger and made the remark "When you become a king, this will remind you of me". According to other sources, Nader Shah
Nader Shah
did not believe in it and asked him to be kind to his descendants "on the attaintment of royalty".[16]

Family tree

[

v t e

]

 

Aaleh Hazrat Ahmad Shah Durrani Lived: 1723–1773 Reign: 1747–1773

 

 

 

 

Aaleh Hazrat Timur Shah Durrani Lived: 1748–1793 Reign: 1772–1793

 

 

 

 

Aaleh Hazrat Mahmud Shah Durrani Lived: 1769–1829 Reign: 1801–1803, 1809–1818

 

 

 

 

Shahzada Kamran Durrani 1789–1840

 

 

 

 

Shahzada Bismillah Durrani 1810–1873

 

 

 

 

Shahzada Rasheed Khan Durrani 1832–1880

 

 

 

 

Shahzada Aalijah Nidda Durrani 1855–1926

 

 

 

 

Shahzada Mohammad Abdul Rahim Durrani 1877–1945

 

 

 

 

Shahzada Abdul Habib Khan Durrani 1899–1920

 

 

 

 

Shahzada Rehmatullah Khan Saddozai
Shahzada Rehmatullah Khan Saddozai
Durrani 1919–1992

 

 

 

 

Hayatullah Khan Durrani Born: 1964

 

 

 

 

Mohammad Abubakar Durrani Born: 1995

See also

List of monarchs of Afghanistan

References

^ a b "Aḥmad Shah Durrānī". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online Version. 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2010.  ^ a b c "Ahmad Shah and the Durrani
Durrani
Empire". Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. 1997. Retrieved 23 September 2010.  ^ a b Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
(1857). "Afghanistan". Andy Blunden. The New American Cyclopaedia, Vol. I. Archived from the original on 18 October 2010. Retrieved 23 September 2010.  ^ a b Clements, Frank (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: a historical encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-85109-402-8. Retrieved 23 September 2010.  ^ "The Durrani
Durrani
dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Retrieved 23 September 2010.  ^ Chayes, Sarah (2006). The Punishment of Virtue: Inside Afghanistan After the Taliban. Univ. of Queensland Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-932705-54-6. Retrieved 23 September 2010.  ^ Singh, Ganḍā (1959). Ahmad Shah Durrani: Father of Modern Afghanistan. Asia Publishing House. p. 457. ISBN 978-1-4021-7278-6. Retrieved 25 August 2010.  ^ "Ahmad Shah Abdali". Abdullah Qazi. Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Online. Archived from the original on 12 August 2010. Retrieved 23 September 2010. Afghans refer to him as Ahmad Shah Baba (Ahmad Shah, the father).  ^ Runion, Meredith L. (2007). The history of Afghanistan. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-313-33798-7. Retrieved 23 September 2010.  ^ http://www.britannica.com/topic/10162/supplemental-information ^ Mehta, J. L. (2005). Advanced study in the history of modern India 1707–1813. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 247. ISBN 978-1-932705-54-6. Retrieved 23 September 2010.  ^ a b Vogelsang, Willem (2002). The Afghans. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-631-19841-3. Retrieved 23 September 2010.  ^ Reddy, L. R. (2002). Inside Afghanistan: end of the Taliban
Taliban
era?. APH Publishing. p. 64. ISBN 978-81-7648-319-3. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ Behnke, Alison (2003). Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in Pictures. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-8225-4683-2. Retrieved 23 September 2010.  ^ a b c Mehta, p.246 ^ a b c Mehta, p.247 ^ Sarkar, p. 124 ^ a b C. Collin-Davies (1999). "Ahmad Shah Durrani". Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
(CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0). ^ Griffiths, John. C (2001) Afghanistan: A History of Conflict p12 ^ Singer, Andre (1983). Lords of the Khyber: The story of the North West Frontier.  ^ Olaf Caroe, The Pathans (1981 reprint) ^ a b Mehta, p.248 ^ Mehta, p.249 ^ Sykes, Percy (2008)A History of Persia READ books. ISBN 978-1-4437-2408-1 p.76 ^ Patil, Vishwas. Panipat. ^ Roy, Kaushik. India's Historic Battles: From Alexander the Great to Kargil. Permanent Black, India. pp. 80–1. ISBN 978-81-7824-109-8.  ^ for a detailed account of the battle fought see Chapter VI of The Fall of the Moghul Empire of Hindustan by H. G. Keene. Available online. ^ G S Sardesai's Marathi Riyasat, volume 2."The reference for this letter as given by Sardesai in Riyasat – Peshwe Daftar letters 2.103, 146; 21.206; 1.202, 207, 210, 213; 29, 42, 54, and 39.161. Satara Daftar – document number 2.301, Shejwalkar's Panipat, page no. 99. Moropanta's account – 1.1, 6, 7" ^ James A. Millward (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. pp. 55–. ISBN 978-0-231-13924-3.  ^ Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 43. ISBN 0231139241. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  ^ Carter Vaughn Findley (15 October 2004). The Turks in World History. Oxford University Press. pp. 242–. ISBN 978-0-19-988425-4.  ^ Khan, Razib (March 28, 2008). "Uyghurs are hybrids". Discover Magazine.  ^ Khan, Razib (September 22, 2009). "Yes, Uyghurs are a new hybrid population". Discover Magazine.  ^ Millward 2007, p. 86. ^ Millward 2007, p. 87. ^ Millward 2007, p. 88. ^ ed. Starr 2004, p. 50. ^ Kim 2008, p. 117 ^ Newby 1998, p. 279. ^ Millward 2007, p. 90. ^ eds. Dani & Masson & Unesco 2003, p. 193. ^ eds. Dani & Masson & Unesco 2003, pp. 196–7. ^ Millward 2007, p. 92. ^ Saintly Brokers: Uyghur Muslims, Trade, and the Making of Qing Central Asia, 1696—1814. ProQuest. 2008. pp. 175–. ISBN 978-1-109-10126-3.  ^ eds. Dani & Masson & Unesco 2003, p. 199. ^ eds. Dani & Masson & Unesco 2003, p. 200. ^ eds. Dani & Masson & Unesco 2003, p. 201. ^ eds. Dani & Masson & Unesco 2003, p. 334. ^ Newby 2005, p. 22. ^ Newby 2005, p. 33. ^ Newby 2005, p. 34. ^ Newby 2005, p. 35. ^ Sinha, Narendra Krishna (2008) [1973]. "Ala Singh". Rise of the Sikh power. University of Michigan. p. 37.  ^ Lamb, Christina (2002). The Sewing Circles of Herat. HarperCollins. First Perennial edition (2004), p. 38. ISBN 0-06-050527-3. ^ Nancy Hatch Dupree – An Historical Guide To Afghanistan – The South (Chapter 16) ^ a b " Afghanistan
Afghanistan
1747–1809: Sources in the India
India
Office Records"[dead link] ^ Asia Times Online :: South Asia news, business and economy from India
India
and Pakistan ^ "Ahmad Shah Durrani
Durrani
( Pashto
Pashto
Poet)". Abdullah Qazi. Afghanistan Online. Archived from the original on 8 September 2010. Retrieved 23 September 2010.  ^ "A Profile of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
– Ahmad Shah Durrani
Durrani
( Pashto
Pashto
Poet)". Kimberly Kim. Mine Action Information Center. Retrieved 23 September 2010.  ^ "1".  ^ Said Hyder Akbar/Susan Burton: Come Back to Afghanistan, Trying to Rebuild a Country with My Father, My [...] [1], USA, 2005 ^ http://www.payamewatan.com/literature/ahmadshah-baba.htm literature/ahmadshah-baba

Notes

Jaswant Lal Mehta. Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707–1813. ISBN 9781932705546.  L. J. Newby. The Empire And the Khanate. ISBN 9789004145504.  Sir Jadunath Sarkar. Fall of the Mughal Empire: 1789–1803. ISBN 9780861317493. 

Bibliography

Caroe, Olaf (1958). The Pathans: 500 B.C.-A.D. 1957. Oxford in Asia Historical Reprints. Oxford University Press, 1983. ISBN 0-19-577221-0. Clements, Frank. Conflict in Afghanistan: a historical encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, 2003. ISBN 1-85109-402-4. Dupree, Nancy Hatch. An Historical Guide to Afghanistan. 2nd Edition. Revised and Enlarged. Afghan Air Authority, Afghan Tourist Organization, 1977. Elphinstone, Mountstuart. 1819. An account of the kingdom of Caubul, and its dependencies in Persia, Tartary, and India: Comprising a view of the Afghaun nation, and a history of the Dooraunee monarchy. Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, and J. Murry, 1819. Griffiths, John C. (1981). Afghanistan: a history of conflict. Carlton Books, 2001. ISBN 1-84222-597-9. Habibi, Abdul Hai. 2003. "Afghanistan: An Abridged History." Fenestra Books. ISBN 1-58736-169-8. Hopkins, B. D. 2008. The Making of Modern Afghanistan. Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. ISBN 0-230-55421-0. Malleson, George Bruce (1878). History of Afghanistan, from the Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 1878. Elibron Classic Replica Edition. Adamant Media Corporation, 2005. ISBN 1-4021-7278-8. Romano, Amy. A Historical Atlas of Afghanistan. The Rosen Publishing Group, 2003. ISBN 0-8239-3863-8. Singh, Ganda (1959). Ahmad Shah Durrani, father of modern Afghanistan. Asia Publishing House, Bombay. (PDF version archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130207183925/https://web.archive.org/web/20130207183925/http://www.khyber.org/books/pdf/ahmad-shah-baba.pdf 66 MB) Vogelsang, Willem. The Afghans. Wiley-Blackwell, 2002. Oxford, UK & Massachusette, US. ISBN 0-631-19841-5.

Alikuzai, Hamid Wahed: A Concise History of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
[2] in 25 Volumes, USA, 2013, Vo 14, Pg. 62, ISBN 978-1-4907-1441-7 (sc); ISBN 978-1-4907-1442-4 (e)

External links

Find more aboutAhmad Shah Durraniat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

Detailed genealogy of the Durrani
Durrani
dynasty Abdali Tribe History Third Battle of Panipat, 1761 Famous Diamonds: The Koh-I-Noor Invasions of Ahmad Shah Abdali The story of the Koh-i Noor

Regnal titles

Preceded by Hussain Hotak Emir of Afghanistan 1747–1772 Succeeded by Timur Shah Durrani

v t e

Monarchs of Afghanistan

Hotaki dynasty

Mirwais Hotak Abdul Aziz Hotak Mahmud Hotaki Ashraf Hotaki Hussain Hotaki

Durrani
Durrani
dynasty

Ahmad Shah Durrani Timur Shah Durrani Zaman Shah Durrani Mahmud Shah Durrani Shuja Shah Durrani Ali Shah Durrani Ayub Shah Durrani

Emirate (Barakzai dynasty)

Dost Mohammad Khan Akbar Khan Sher Ali Khan Mohammad Afzal Khan Mohammad Azam Khan Mohammad Yaqub Khan Ayub Khan Abdur Rahman Khan Habibullah Khan Nasrullah Khan

Kingdom

Amanullah Khan Inayatullah Khan Habibullah Kalakani Mohammed Nadir Shah Mohammed Zahir Shah

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Durrani dynasty
Durrani dynasty
(1747–1862)

Rulers

Ahmad Shah Durrani Timur Shah Durrani Zaman Shah Durrani Mahmud Shah Durrani Shuja Shah Durrani Ali Shah Durrani Ayub Shah Durrani

Events

Maratha conquest of North-west India Third battle of Panipat

Adversaries

Sadashivrao Bhau Ranjit Singh Mohammad Shah Qajar

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Pashtun-related topics

Dynasties

Lodi dynasty Suri dynasty Hotak dynasty Durrani
Durrani
dynasty Barakzai dynasty more

Key figures

Bahlul Lodi Sher Shah Suri Mirwais Hotak Ahmad Shah Khan Ahmad Shah Durrani Dost Mohammad Khan Malalai of Maiwand Saidu Baba Abdur Rahman Khan Mahmud Tarzi Soraya Tarzi Amanullah Khan Mohammed Nadir Shah Mullah Powindah Sartor Faqir Umra Khan Mirzali Khan Bacha Khan Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai Wali Khan Zahir Shah Daoud Khan Abdul Ahad Mohmand Mohammad Najibullah Ghulam Ishaq Khan Mohammed Omar Hamid Karzai Asfandyar Wali Khan Zalmay Khalilzad Mohammad Ashraf Ghani Abdur Rab Nishtar Abdul Waheed Kakar Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan) Karnal Sher Khan Malala Yousafzai

Culture

Pashtun culture Pashtun cuisine Pashtunwali Pashto Pashtunization Pashtun dress Pashto
Pashto
media Pashto
Pashto
singers Pashtun tribes Loya jirga Adam Khan and Durkhanai Yusuf Khan and Sherbano Jirga

Poets

Amir Kror Suri Pir Roshan Rahman Baba Khushal Khattak Nazo Tokhi Abdul Hamid Baba Hussain Hotak Ahmad Shah Durrani Hamza Baba Ajmal Khattak Kabir Stori Ghani Khan

Topics and controversies

Pashtun nationalism Pashtunistan Afghan (ethnonym) Durand Line Bannu Resolution Khudai Khidmatgar Kalabagh Dam Taliban Names of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Anti-Pashtun sentiment

Battles and conflicts

First Battle of Panipat Battle of Gulnabad Third Battle of Panipat Battle of Attock Battle of Multan Battle of Shopian Battle of Nowshera Battle of Jamrud Siege of Malakand Anglo-Afghan Wars Battle of Maiwand Tirah Campaign Battle of Saragarhi Soviet–Afghan War War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
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Afghanistan
(2015–present)

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Timeline Maurya Empire Indo-Greek Kingdom Kushan Empire Grand Trunk Road Mughal Empire Ahmed Shah Durrani British Raj North-West Frontier Province Khudai Khidmatgar Pakistan Movement Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan Soviet–Afghan War

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 70344981 LCCN: n84226939 GND: 119290

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