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v t e

Mahavira, The Torch-bearer of Ahinsa

Ahimsa
Ahimsa
(IAST: ahiṃsā, Pāli:[1] avihiṃsā) means 'not to injure' and 'compassion' and refers to a key virtue in Indian religions.[2][3][4] The word is derived from the Sanskrit root hiṃs – to strike; hiṃsā is injury or harm, a-hiṃsā is the opposite of this, i.e. cause no injury, do no harm.[5][6] Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is also referred to as nonviolence, and it applies to all living beings—including all animals—in ancient Indian religions.[7] Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is one of the cardinal virtues[3] and an important tenet of Jainism, Hinduism, and Buddhism. Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is a multidimensional concept,[8] inspired by the premise that all living beings have the spark of the divine spiritual energy; therefore, to hurt another being is to hurt oneself. Ahimsa
Ahimsa
has also been related to the notion that any violence has karmic consequences. While ancient scholars of Hinduism
Hinduism
pioneered and over time perfected the principles of Ahimsa, the concept reached an extraordinary status in the ethical philosophy of Jainism.[3][9] Most popularly, Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
strongly believed in the principle of ahimsa.[10] Ahimsa's precept of 'cause no injury' includes one's deeds, words, and thoughts.[11][12] Classical literature of Hinduism
Hinduism
such as Mahabharata and Ramayana, as well as modern scholars[13] debate principles of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
when one is faced with war and situations requiring self-defence. The historic literature from India and modern discussions have contributed to theories of Just War, and theories of appropriate self-defence.[14]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Hinduism

2.1 Ancient Vedic texts 2.2 The Epics 2.3 Self-defence, criminal law, and war 2.4 Non-human life 2.5 Modern times 2.6 Yoga

3 Jainism 4 Buddhism

4.1 War 4.2 Laws

5 See also 6 References

6.1 Bibliography

7 External links

Etymology[edit] The word Ahimsa—sometimes spelled as Ahinsa[2][15]—is derived from the Sanskrit root hiṃs – to strike; hiṃsā is injury or harm, a-hiṃsā is the opposite of this, i.e. non harming or nonviolence.[2][16] There is a debate on the origins of the word Ahimsa, and how its meaning evolved. Mayrhofer as well as Dumot suggest the root word may be han which means kill, which leads to the interpretation that ahimsa means do not kill. Schmidt as well as Bodewitz explain the proper root word is hiṃs and the Sanskrit verb hinasti, which leads to the interpretation ahimsa means do not injure, or do not hurt. Wackernagel-Debrunner concur with the latter explanation.[17][18] Ancient texts use ahimsa to mean non-injury, a broader concept than non-violence. Non-injury implies not killing others, as well as not hurting others mentally or verbally; it includes avoiding all violent means—including physical violence—anything that injures others. In classical Sanskrit literature of Hinduism, another word Adrohi is sometimes used instead of Ahimsa, as one of the cardinal virtues necessary for moral life. One example is in Baudhayana
Baudhayana
Dharmasutra 2.6.23: वाङ्-मनः-कर्म-दण्डैर् भूतानाम् अद्रोही (One who does not injure others with words, thoughts or acts is named Adrohi).[17][19] Hinduism[edit] Ancient Vedic texts[edit] Ahimsa
Ahimsa
as an ethical concept evolved in Vedic texts.[9][20] The oldest scripts, along with discussing ritual animal sacrifices, indirectly mention Ahimsa, but do not emphasise it. Over time, the Hindu scripts revise ritual practices and the concept of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is increasingly refined and emphasised, ultimately Ahimsa
Ahimsa
becomes the highest virtue by the late Vedic era (about 500 BC). For example, hymn 10.22.25 in the Rig Veda
Veda
uses the words Satya
Satya
(truthfulness) and Ahimsa
Ahimsa
in a prayer to deity Indra;[21] later, the Yajur Veda
Veda
dated to be between 1000 BC and 600 BC, states, "may all beings look at me with a friendly eye, may I do likewise, and may we look at each other with the eyes of a friend".[9][22] The term Ahimsa
Ahimsa
appears in the text Taittiriya Shakha
Taittiriya Shakha
of the Yajurveda (TS 5.2.8.7), where it refers to non-injury to the sacrificer himself.[23] It occurs several times in the Shatapatha Brahmana
Shatapatha Brahmana
in the sense of "non-injury".[24] The Ahimsa
Ahimsa
doctrine is a late Vedic era development in Brahmanical culture.[25] The earliest reference to the idea of non-violence to animals ("pashu-Ahimsa"), apparently in a moral sense, is in the Kapisthala Katha Samhita of the Yajurveda
Yajurveda
(KapS 31.11), which may have been written in about the 8th century BCE.[26] Bowker states the word appears but is uncommon in the principal Upanishads.[27] Kaneda gives examples of the word Ahimsa
Ahimsa
in these Upanishads.[12] Other scholars[8][28] suggest Ahimsa
Ahimsa
as an ethical concept that started evolving in the Vedas, becoming an increasingly central concept in Upanishads. The Chāndogya Upaniṣad, dated to the 8th or 7th century BCE, one of the oldest Upanishads, has the earliest evidence for the Vedic era use of the word Ahimsa
Ahimsa
in the sense familiar in Hinduism
Hinduism
(a code of conduct). It bars violence against "all creatures" (sarvabhuta) and the practitioner of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is said to escape from the cycle of rebirths (CU 8.15.1).[29] Some scholars state that this 8th or 7th-century BCE mention may have been an influence of Jainism
Jainism
on Vedic Hinduism.[30] Others scholar state that this relationship is speculative, and though Jainism
Jainism
is an ancient tradition the oldest traceable texts of Jainism
Jainism
tradition are from many centuries after the Vedic era ended.[31][32] Chāndogya Upaniṣad
Chāndogya Upaniṣad
also names Ahimsa, along with Satyavacanam (truthfulness), Arjavam (sincerity), Danam (charity), Tapo (penance/meditation), as one of five essential virtues (CU 3.17.4).[8][33] The Sandilya Upanishad
Upanishad
lists ten forbearances: Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacharya, Daya, Arjava, Kshama, Dhriti, Mitahara and Saucha.[34][35] According to Kaneda,[12] the term Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is an important spiritual doctrine shared by Hinduism, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism. It literally means 'non-injury' and 'non-killing'. It implies the total avoidance of harming of any kind of living creatures not only by deeds, but also by words and in thoughts. The Epics[edit] The Mahabharata, one of the epics of Hinduism, has multiple mentions of the phrase Ahimsa
Ahimsa
Paramo Dharma
Dharma
(अहिंसा परमॊ धर्मः), which literally means: non-violence is the highest moral virtue. For example, Mahaprasthanika Parva
Mahaprasthanika Parva
has the verse:[36]

अहिंसा परमॊ धर्मस तथाहिंसा परॊ दमः। अहिंसा परमं दानम अहिंसा परमस तपः। अहिंसा परमॊ यज्ञस तथाहिस्मा परं बलम। अहिंसा परमं मित्रम अहिंसा परमं सुखम। अहिंसा परमं सत्यम अहिंसा परमं शरुतम॥

The above passage from Mahabharata
Mahabharata
emphasises the cardinal importance of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
in Hinduism, and literally means:

Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the highest virtue, Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the highest self-control, Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the greatest gift, Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the best suffering, Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the highest sacrifice, Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the finest strength, Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the greatest friend, Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the greatest happiness, Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the highest truth, and Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is the greatest teaching.[37][38]

Some other examples where the phrase Ahimsa
Ahimsa
Paramo Dharma
Dharma
are discussed include Adi Parva, Vana Parva
Vana Parva
and Anushasana Parva. The Bhagavad Gita, among other things, discusses the doubts and questions about appropriate response when one faces systematic violence or war. These verses develop the concepts of lawful violence in self-defence and the theories of just war. However, there is no consensus on this interpretation. Gandhi, for example, considers this debate about non-violence and lawful violence as a mere metaphor for the internal war within each human being, when he or she faces moral questions.[39] Self-defence, criminal law, and war[edit] The classical texts of Hinduism
Hinduism
devote numerous chapters discussing what people who practice the virtue of Ahimsa, can and must do when they are faced with war, violent threat or need to sentence someone convicted of a crime. These discussions have led to theories of just war, theories of reasonable self-defence and theories of proportionate punishment.[14][40] Arthashastra
Arthashastra
discusses, among other things, why and what constitutes proportionate response and punishment.[41][42]

War

The precepts of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
under Hinduism
Hinduism
require that war must be avoided, with sincere and truthful dialogue. Force must be the last resort. If war becomes necessary, its cause must be just, its purpose virtuous, its objective to restrain the wicked, its aim peace, its method lawful.[14][41] War can only be started and stopped by a legitimate authority. Weapons used must be proportionate to the opponent and the aim of war, not indiscriminate tools of destruction.[43] All strategies and weapons used in the war must be to defeat the opponent, not designed to cause misery to the opponent; for example, use of arrows is allowed, but use of arrows smeared with painful poison is not allowed. Warriors must use judgment in the battlefield. Cruelty to the opponent during war is forbidden. Wounded, unarmed opponent warriors must not be attacked or killed, they must be brought to your realm and given medical treatment.[41] Children, women and civilians must not be injured. While the war is in progress, sincere dialogue for peace must continue.[14][40]

Self-defence

In matters of self-defence, different interpretations of ancient Hindu texts have been offered. For example, Tähtinen suggests self-defence is appropriate, criminals are not protected by the rule of Ahimsa, and Hindu scriptures support the use of violence against an armed attacker.[44][45] Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is not meant to imply pacifism.[46] Alternate theories of self-defence, inspired by Ahimsa, build principles similar to theories of just war. Aikido, pioneered in Japan, illustrates one such principles of self-defence. Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido, described his inspiration as Ahimsa.[47] According to this interpretation of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
in self-defence, one must not assume that the world is free of aggression. One must presume that some people will, out of ignorance, error or fear, attack other persons or intrude into their space, physically or verbally. The aim of self-defence, suggested Ueshiba, must be to neutralise the aggression of the attacker, and avoid the conflict. The best defence is one where the victim is protected, as well as the attacker is respected and not injured if possible. Under Ahimsa
Ahimsa
and Aikido, there are no enemies, and appropriate self-defence focuses on neutralising the immaturity, assumptions and aggressive strivings of the attacker.[48][49]

Criminal law

Tähtinen concludes that Hindus have no misgivings about death penalty; their position is that evil-doers who deserve death should be killed, and that a king in particular is obliged to punish criminals and should not hesitate to kill them, even if they happen to be his own brothers and sons.[50] Other scholars[40][41] conclude that the scriptures of Hinduism suggest sentences for any crime must be fair, proportional and not cruel.

Pacifism

There is no consensus on pacifism among modern Hindu scholars. The conflict between pacifistic interpretations of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
and the theories of just war prescribed by the Gita has been resolved by some scholars such as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, as being an allegory,[51] wherein the battlefield is the soul and Arjuna, the war is within each human being, where man's higher impulses struggle against his own evil impulses.[39] Non-human life[edit] The Hindu precept of 'cause no injury' applies to animals and all life forms. This precept isn't found in the oldest verses of Vedas, but increasingly becomes one of the central ideas between 500 BC and 400 AD.[52][53] In the oldest texts, numerous ritual sacrifices of animals, including cows and horses, are highlighted and hardly any mention is made of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
to non-human life.[54][55] Hindu texts
Hindu texts
dated to 1st millennium BC, initially mention meat as food, then evolve to suggestions that only meat obtained through ritual sacrifice can be eaten, thereafter evolving to the stance that one should eat no meat because it hurts animals, with verses describing the noble life as one that lives on flowers, roots and fruits alone.[52][56] Later texts of Hinduism
Hinduism
declare Ahimsa
Ahimsa
one of the primary virtues, declare any killing or harming any life as against dharma (moral life). Finally, the discussion in Upanishads
Upanishads
and Hindu Epics[57] shifts to whether a human being can ever live his or her life without harming animal and plant life in some way; which and when plants or animal meat may be eaten, whether violence against animals causes human beings to become less compassionate, and if and how one may exert least harm to non-human life consistent with ahimsa precept, given the constraints of life and human needs.[58][59] The Mahabharata permits hunting by warriors, but opposes it in the case of hermits who must be strictly non-violent. Sushruta Samhita, a Hindu text written in the 3rd or 4th century, in Chapter XLVI suggests proper diet as a means of treating certain illnesses, and recommends various fishes and meats for different ailments and for pregnant women,[60][61] and the Charaka Samhita
Charaka Samhita
describes meat as superior to all other kinds of food for convalescents.[62] Across the texts of Hinduism, there is a profusion of ideas about the virtue of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
when applied to non-human life, but without a universal consensus.[63] Alsdorf claims the debate and disagreements between supporters of vegetarian lifestyle and meat eaters was significant. Even suggested exceptions – ritual slaughter and hunting – were challenged by advocates of Ahimsa.[64][65][66] In the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
both sides present various arguments to substantiate their viewpoints. Moreover, a hunter defends his profession in a long discourse.[67] Many of the arguments proposed in favor of non-violence to animals refer to the bliss one feels, the rewards it entails before or after death, the danger and harm it prevents, as well as to the karmic consequences of violence.[68][69] The ancient Hindu texts
Hindu texts
discuss Ahimsa
Ahimsa
and non-animal life. They discourage wanton destruction of nature including of wild and cultivated plants. Hermits (sannyasins) were urged to live on a fruitarian diet so as to avoid the destruction of plants.[70][71] Scholars[72][73] claim the principles of ecological non-violence is innate in the Hindu tradition, and its conceptual fountain has been Ahimsa
Ahimsa
as their cardinal virtue. The classical literature of Hinduism
Hinduism
exists in many Indian languages. For example, Tirukkuṛaḷ, written between 200 BC and 400 AD, and sometimes called the Tamil Veda, is one of the most cherished classics on Hinduism
Hinduism
written in a South Indian language. Tirukkuṛaḷ dedicates Chapters 26, 32 and 33 of Book I to the virtue of Ahimsa, namely, vegetarianism, non-harming, and non-killing, respectively. Tirukkuṛaḷ
Tirukkuṛaḷ
says that Ahimsa
Ahimsa
applies to all life forms.[74][75][76] Modern times[edit]

Gandhi promoted the principle of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
very successfully by applying it to all spheres of life, particularly to politics.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, prominent figures of Indian spirituality such as Swami Vivekananda,[77] Ramana Maharshi,[78] Swami Sivananda,[79] A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami[80] and in the present time Vijaypal Baghel emphasised the importance of Ahimsa. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
promoted the principle of Ahimsa, very successful by applying it to all spheres of life, particularly to politics (Swaraj).[81] His non-violent resistance movement satyagraha had an immense impact on India, impressed public opinion in Western countries, and influenced the leaders of various civil and political rights movements such as the American civil rights movement's Martin Luther King, Jr. and James Bevel. In Gandhi's thought, Ahimsa precludes not only the act of inflicting a physical injury, but also mental states like evil thoughts and hatred, unkind behavior such as harsh words, dishonesty and lying, all of which he saw as manifestations of violence incompatible with Ahimsa.[18] Gandhi believed Ahimsa
Ahimsa
to be a creative energy force, encompassing all interactions leading one's self to find satya, "Divine Truth".[82] Sri Aurobindo
Aurobindo
criticised the Gandhian concept of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
as unrealistic and not universally applicable; he adopted a pragmatic non-pacifist position, saying that the justification of violence depends on the specific circumstances of the given situation.[83] Sri Aurobindo
Aurobindo
also indicated that Gandhi's Ahimsa
Ahimsa
led to partition of India as it blocked the forceful action that the Indian people were engaged in during the 1920s and 30s, which caused delay in independence, allowing other forces to take root, including those who wanted India divided. Gandhi stated that he viewed " Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is in Hinduism, it is in Christianity as well as in Islam."[84] He added, " Nonviolence
Nonviolence
is common to all religions, but it has found the highest expression and application in Hinduism
Hinduism
(I do not regard Jainism
Jainism
or Buddhism
Buddhism
as separate from Hinduism)."[84] When questioned whether violence and non-violence is both taught in Quran, he stated, "I have heard it from many Muslim friends that the Koran teaches the use of non-violence. (... The) argument about non-violence in the Holy Koran is an interpolation, not necessary for my thesis."[84][85] A historical and philosophical study of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
was instrumental in the shaping of Albert Schweitzer's principle of "reverence for life". Schweitzer praised Indian philosophical and religious traditions for ethics of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
as, "the laying down of the commandment not to kill and not to damage is one of the greatest events in the spiritual history of mankind", but suggested that "not-killing and not-harming" is not always practically possible as in self-defence, nor ethical as in chronic starving during a famine case.[86] Yoga[edit] Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is imperative for practitioners of Patañjali's eight limb Raja yoga system. It is included in the first limb and is the first of five Yamas
Yamas
(self restraints) which, together with the second limb, make up the code of ethical conduct in Yoga
Yoga
philosophy.[87][88] Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is also one of the ten Yamas
Yamas
in Hatha Yoga
Yoga
according to verse 1.1.17 of its classic manual Hatha Yoga
Yoga
Pradipika.[89] The significance of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
as the very first restraint in the very first limb of Yoga
Yoga
(Yamas), is that it defines the necessary foundation for progress through Yoga. It is a precursor to Asana, implying that success in Yogasana can be had only if the self is purified in thought, word and deed through the self-restraint of Ahimsa. Jainism[edit] Main article: Ahimsa
Ahimsa
in Jainism See also: Jain vegetarianism

The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolises the Jain Vow of Ahimsa. The word in the middle is "Ahimsa". The wheel represents the dharmacakra which stands for the resolve to halt the cycle of reincarnation through relentless pursuit of truth and non-violence.

In Jainism, the understanding and implementation of Ahimsā is more radical, scrupulous, and comprehensive than in any other religion.[90] Killing any living being out of passions is considered hiṃsā (to injure) and abstaining from such an act is ahimsā (noninjury).[91] The vow of ahimsā is considered the foremost among the 'five vows of Jainism'. Other vows like truth (satya) are meant for safeguarding the vow of ahimsā.[92] In the practice of Ahimsa, the requirements are less strict for the lay persons (sravakas) who have undertaken anuvrata (Smaller Vows) than for the Jain monastics who are bound by the Mahavrata
Mahavrata
"Great Vows".[93] The statement ahimsā paramo dharmaḥ is often found inscribed on the walls of the Jain temples.[4] Like in Hinduism, the aim is to prevent the accumulation of harmful karma.[94] When Mahavira
Mahavira
revived and reorganised the Jain faith in the 6th or 5th century BCE,[95] Ahimsa
Ahimsa
was already an established, strictly observed rule.[96] Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
(Ādinātha), the first Jain Tirthankara, whom modern Western historians consider to be a historical figure, followed by Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
(Pārśvanātha)[97] the twenty-third Tirthankara lived in about the 8th century BCE.[98] He founded the community to which Mahavira's parents belonged.[99] Ahimsa
Ahimsa
was already part of the "Fourfold Restraint" (Caujjama), the vows taken by Parshva's followers.[100] In the times of Mahavira
Mahavira
and in the following centuries, Jains were at odds with both Buddhists and followers of the Vedic religion or Hindus, whom they accused of negligence and inconsistency in the implementation of Ahimsa.[101] According to the Jain tradition either lacto vegetarianism or veganism is mandatory.[102] The Jain concept of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is characterised by several aspects. It does not make any exception for ritual sacrificers and professional warrior-hunters. Killing of animals for food is absolutely ruled out.[103] Jains also make considerable efforts not to injure plants in everyday life as far as possible. Though they admit that plants must be destroyed for the sake of food, they accept such violence only inasmuch as it is indispensable for human survival, and there are special instructions for preventing unnecessary violence against plants.[104] Jains go out of their way so as not to hurt even small insects and other minuscule animals.[105] For example, Jains often do not go out at night, when they are more likely to step upon an insect. In their view, injury caused by carelessness is like injury caused by deliberate action.[106] Eating honey is strictly outlawed, as it would amount to violence against the bees.[107] Some Jains abstain from farming because it inevitably entails unintentional killing or injuring of many small animals, such as worms and insects,[108] but agriculture is not forbidden in general and there are Jain farmers.[109] Theoretically, all life forms are said to deserve full protection from all kinds of injury, but Jains recognise a hierarchy of life. Mobile beings are given higher protection than immobile ones. For the mobile beings, they distinguish between one-sensed, two-sensed, three-sensed, four-sensed and five-sensed ones; a one-sensed animal has touch as its only sensory modality. The more senses a being has, the more they care about non-injuring it. Among the five-sensed beings, the precept of non-injury and non-violence to the rational ones (humans) is strongest in Jain Ahimsa.[110] In Jain theology, it does not matter how correct or defensible the violence may be, one must not kill any being, and "non-violence is one's highest religious duty".[111][112] Buddhism[edit] Further information: Noble Eightfold Path; Buddhist ethics § Killing, causing others to kill; Buddhism
Buddhism
and violence; and Engaged Buddhism In Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
Ahimsa
Ahimsa
(or its Pāli
Pāli
cognate avihiṃsā) is part of the Five Precepts (Pañcasīla), the first of which has been to abstain from killing. This precept of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
is applicable to both the Buddhist layperson and the monk community.[113][114][115] The Ahimsa
Ahimsa
precept is not a commandment and transgressions did not invite religious sanctions for layperson, but their power has been in the Buddhist belief in karmic consequences and their impact in afterlife during rebirth.[116] Killing, in Buddhist belief, could lead to rebirth in the hellish realm, and for a longer time in more severe conditions if the murder victim was a monk.[116] Saving animals from slaughter for meat, is believed to be a way to acquire merit for better rebirth. These moral precepts have been voluntarily self-enforced in lay Buddhist culture through the associated belief in karma and rebirth.[117] The Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
not only recommended Ahimsa, but suggest avoiding trading goods that contribute to or are a result of violence:

These five trades, O monks, should not be taken up by a lay follower: trading with weapons, trading in living beings, trading in meat, trading in intoxicants, trading in poison. — Anguttara Nikaya V.177, Translated by Martine Batchelor[118]

Unlike lay Buddhists, transgressions by monks do invite sanctions.[119] Full expulsion of a monk from sangha follows instances of killing, just like any other serious offense against the monastic nikaya code of conduct.[119] War[edit] Violent ways of punishing criminals and prisoners of war was not explicitly condemned in Buddhism,[120] but peaceful ways of conflict resolution and punishment with the least amount of injury were encouraged.[121][122] The early texts condemn the mental states that lead to violent behavior.[123] Nonviolence
Nonviolence
is an overriding theme within the Pali
Pali
Canon.[124] While the early texts condemn killing in the strongest terms, and portray the ideal king as a pacifist, such a king is nonetheless flanked by an army.[125] It seems that the Buddha's teaching on nonviolence was not interpreted or put into practice in an uncompromisingly pacifist or anti-military-service way by early Buddhists.[125] The early texts assume war to be a fact of life, and well-skilled warriors are viewed as necessary for defensive warfare.[126] In Pali
Pali
texts, injunctions to abstain from violence and involvement with military affairs are directed at members of the sangha; later Mahayana texts, which often generalise monastic norms to laity, require this of lay people as well.[127] The early texts do not contain just-war ideology as such.[128] Some argue that a sutta in the Gamani Samyuttam rules out all military service. In this passage, a soldier asks the Buddha
Buddha
if it is true that, as he has been told, soldiers slain in battle are reborn in a heavenly realm. The Buddha
Buddha
reluctantly replies that if he is killed in battle while his mind is seized with the intention to kill, he will undergo an unpleasant rebirth.[129] In the early texts, a person's mental state at the time of death is generally viewed as having a great impact on the next birth.[130] Some Buddhists point to other early texts as justifying defensive war.[131] One example is the Kosala Samyutta, in which King Pasenadi, a righteous king favored by the Buddha, learns of an impending attack on his kingdom. He arms himself in defence, and leads his army into battle to protect his kingdom from attack. He lost this battle but won the war. King Pasenadi
Pasenadi
eventually defeated King Ajatasattu
Ajatasattu
and captured him alive. He thought that, although this King of Magadha
Magadha
has transgressed against his kingdom, he had not transgressed against him personally, and Ajatasattu
Ajatasattu
was still his nephew. He released Ajatasattu
Ajatasattu
and did not harm him.[132] Upon his return, the Buddha
Buddha
said (among other things) that Pasenadi
Pasenadi
"is a friend of virtue, acquainted with virtue, intimate with virtue", while the opposite is said of the aggressor, King Ajatasattu.[133] According to Theravada commentaries, there are five requisite factors that must all be fulfilled for an act to be both an act of killing and to be karmically negative. These are: (1) the presence of a living being, human or animal; (2) the knowledge that the being is a living being; (3) the intent to kill; (4) the act of killing by some means; and (5) the resulting death.[134] Some Buddhists have argued on this basis that the act of killing is complicated, and its ethicization is predicated upon intent.[135] Some have argued that in defensive postures, for example, the primary intention of a soldier is not to kill, but to defend against aggression, and the act of killing in that situation would have minimal negative karmic repercussions.[136] According to Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, there is circumstantial evidence encouraging Ahimsa, from the Buddha's doctrine, "Love all, so that you may not wish to kill any." Gautama Buddha
Buddha
distinguished between a principle and a rule. He did not make Ahimsa
Ahimsa
a matter of rule, but suggested it as a matter of principle. This gives Buddhists freedom to act.[137] Laws[edit] The emperors of Sui dynasty, Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
and early Song dynasty banned killing in Lunar calendar 1st, 5th, and 9th month.[138][139] Empress Wu Tse-Tien banned killing for more than half a year in 692.[140] Some also banned fishing for some time each year.[141] There were bans after death of emperors,[142] Buddhist and Taoist prayers,[143] and natural disasters such as after a drought in 1926 summer Shanghai and an 8 days ban from August 12, 1959, after the August 7 flood (八七水災), the last big flood before the 88 Taiwan Flood.[144] People avoid killing during some festivals, like the Taoist Ghost Festival,[145] the Nine Emperor Gods Festival, the Vegetarian Festival and many others.[146][147]

See also[edit]

Anekantavada Consistent life ethic Ethics Nonkilling Nonviolence Nonresistance Non-Aggression Principle Pacifism Yamas Karuṇā Civil resistance Gandhism Satyagraha Veganism Vegetarianism
Vegetarianism
and religion History of vegetarianism

References[edit]

^ Rune E. A. Johansson (6 December 2012). Pali
Pali
Buddhist Texts: An Introductory Reader and Grammar. Routledge. p. 143. ISBN 978-1-136-11106-8.  ^ a b c Sanskrit dictionary reference ^ a b c Stephen H. Phillips & other authors (2008), in Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, & Conflict (Second Edition), ISBN 978-0-12-373985-8, Elsevier Science, Pages 1347–1356, 701–849, 1867 ^ a b Dundas, Paul: The Jains, second edition, London 2002, p. 160; Wiley, Kristi L.: Ahimsa
Ahimsa
and Compassion in Jainism, in: Studies in Jaina History and Culture, ed. Peter Flügel, London 2006, p. 438; Laidlaw pp. 153–154. ^ Mayton, D. M., & Burrows, C. A. (2012), Psychology of Nonviolence, The Encyclopedia of Peace
Peace
Psychology, Vol. 1, pages 713–716 and 720–723, Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 978-1-4051-9644-4 ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, see Ahimsa ^ Bajpai, Shiva (2011). The History of India - From Ancient to Modern Times, Himalayan Academy Publications (Hawaii, USA), ISBN 978-1-934145-38-8; see pages 8, 98 ^ a b c John Arapura in K. R. Sundararajan and Bithika Mukerji Ed. (1997), Hindu spirituality: Postclassical and modern, ISBN 978-81-208-1937-5; see Chapter 20, pages 392–417 ^ a b c Chapple, C. (1990). Nonviolence
Nonviolence
to animals, earth and self in Asian Traditions (see Chapter 1). State University of New York Press (1993) ^ Gandhi, M. (2002). The essential Gandhi: an anthology of his writings on his life, work, and ideas. Random House Digital, Inc. ^ Kirkwood, W. G. (1989). Truthfulness as a standard for speech in ancient India. Southern Communication Journal, 54(3), 213–234. ^ a b c Kaneda, T. (2008). Shanti, peacefulness of mind. C. Eppert & H. Wang (Eds.), Cross cultural studies in curriculum: Eastern thought, educational insights, pages 171–192, ISBN 978-0-8058-5673-6, Taylor & Francis ^ Struckmeyer, F. R. (1971). The" Just War" and the Right of Self-defense. Ethics, 82(1), 48–55. ^ a b c d Balkaran, R., & Dorn, A. W. (2012). Violence in the Vālmı̄ki Rāmāyaṇa: Just War Criteria in an Ancient Indian Epic, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 80(3), 659–690. ^ Standing, E. M. (1924). THE SUPER‐VEGETARIANS. New Blackfriars, 5(50), pages 103–108 ^ A Hindu Primer Archived 8 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine., by Shukavak N. Dasa ^ a b Henk Bodewitz (in Jan E. M. Houben, Karel Rijk van Kooij, Eds.), Violence Denied: Violence, Non-Violence and the Rationalization of Violence in South Asian Cultural History, ISBN 978-90-04-11344-2, Brill Academic Pub (June 1999), see Chapter 2 ^ a b Walli pp. XXII-XLVII; Borman, William: Gandhi and Non-Violence, Albany 1986, p. 11–12. ^ Baudhayana
Baudhayana
Dharmasutra 2.6 ^ Walli, Koshelya: The Conception of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
in Indian Thought, Varanasi 1974, p. 113–145. ^ Sanskrit: अस्मे ता त इन्द्र सन्तु सत्याहिंसन्तीरुपस्पृशः । विद्याम यासां भुजो धेनूनां न वज्रिवः ॥१३॥ Rigveda 10.22 Wikisource; English: Unto Tähtinen (1964), Non-violence
Non-violence
as an Ethical Principle, Turun Yliopisto, Finland, PhD Thesis, pages 23–25; OCLC 4288274; For other occurrence of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
in Rigveda, see Rigveda 5.64.3, Rigveda 1.141.5; ^ To do no harm Project Gutenberg, see translation for Yajurveda
Yajurveda
36.18 VE; For other occurrences of Ahimsa
Ahimsa
in Vedic literature, see A Vedic Concordance Maurice Bloomfield, Harvard University Press, page 151 ^ Tähtinen p. 2. ^ Shatapatha Brahmana
Shatapatha Brahmana
2.3.4.30; 2.5.1.14; 6.3.1.26; 6.3.1.39. ^ Henk M. Bodewitz in Jan E. M. Houben, K. R. van Kooij, ed., Violence denied: violence, non-violence and the rationalisation of violence in "South Asian" cultural history. BRILL, 1999 page 30. ^ Tähtinen pp. 2–3. ^ John Bowker, Problems of suffering in religions of the world. Cambridge University Press, 1975, page 233. ^ Izawa, A. (2008). Empathy for Pain in Vedic Ritual. Journal of the International College for Advanced Buddhist Studies, 12, 78 ^ Tähtinen pp. 2–5; English translation: Schmidt p. 631. ^ M.K Sridhar and Puruṣottama Bilimoria (2007), Indian Ethics: Classical traditions and contemporary challenges, Editors: Puruṣottama Bilimoria, Joseph Prabhu, Renuka M. Sharma, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7546-3301-3, page 315 ^ Jeffery D. Long (2009). Jainism: An Introduction. I. B. Tauris. pp. 31–33. ISBN 978-1-84511-625-5.  ^ Paul Dundas (2002). The Jains. Routledge. pp. 22–24, 73–83. ISBN 978-0415266055.  ^ Ravindra Kumar (2008), Non-violence
Non-violence
and Its Philosophy, ISBN 978-81-7933-159-0, see page 11–14 ^ Swami, P. (2000). Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Upaniṣads: SZ (Vol. 3). Sarup & Sons; see pages 630–631 ^ Ballantyne, J. R., & Yogīndra, S. (1850). A Lecture on the Vedánta: Embracing the Text of the Vedánta-sára. Presbyterian mission press. ^ Mahabharata
Mahabharata
13.117.37–38 ^ Chapple, C. (1990). Ecological Nonviolence
Nonviolence
and the Hindu Tradition. In Perspectives on Nonviolence
Nonviolence
(pp. 168–177). Springer New York. ^ Ahimsa: To do no harm Subramuniyaswami, What is Hinduism?, Chapter 45, Pages 359–361 ^ a b Fischer, Louis: Gandhi: His Life and Message to the World Mentor, New York 1954, pp. 15–16 ^ a b c Klaus K. Klostermaier (1996), in Harvey Leonard Dyck and Peter Brock (Ed), The Pacifist Impulse in Historical Perspective, see Chapter on Himsa and Ahimsa
Ahimsa
Traditions in Hinduism, ISBN 978-0-8020-0777-3, University of Toronto Press, pages 230–234 ^ a b c d Paul F. Robinson (2003), Just War in Comparative Perspective, ISBN 0-7546-3587-2, Ashgate Publishing, see pages 114–125 ^ Coates, B. E. (2008). Modern India's Strategic Advantage to the United States: Her Twin Strengths in Himsa and Ahimsa. Comparative Strategy, 27(2), pages 133–147 ^ Subedi, S. P. (2003). The Concept in Hinduism
Hinduism
of 'Just War'. Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 8(2), pages 339–361 ^ Tähtinen pp. 96, 98–101. ^ Mahabharata
Mahabharata
12.15.55; Manu Smriti 8.349–350; Matsya Purana 226.116. ^ Tähtinen pp. 91–93. ^ The Role of Teachers in Martial Arts Nebojša Vasic, University of Zenica (2011); Sport SPA Vol. 8, Issue 2: 47–51; see page 46, 2nd column ^ SOCIAL CONFLICT, AGGRESSION, AND THE BODY IN EURO-AMERICAN AND ASIAN SOCIAL THOUGHT Donald Levine, University of Chicago (2004) ^ Ueshiba, Kisshōmaru (2004), The Art of Aikido: Principles and Essential Techniques, Kodansha International, ISBN 4-7700-2945-4 ^ Tähtinen pp. 96, 98–99. ^ Gandhi, Mohandas K., The Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
According to Gandhi Berkeley Hills Books, Berkeley 2000 ^ a b Christopher Chapple (1993), Nonviolence
Nonviolence
to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-1498-1, pages 16–17 ^ W Norman Brown (February 1964), The sanctity of the cow in Hinduism, The Economic Weekly, pages 245–255 ^ D.N. Jha (2002), The Myth of the Holy Cow, ISBN 1-85984-676-9, Verso ^ Steven Rosen (2004), Holy Cow: The Hare Krishna Contribution to Vegetarianism
Vegetarianism
and Animal Rights, ISBN 1-59056-066-3, pages 19–39 ^ Baudhayana
Baudhayana
Dharmasutra 2.4.7; 2.6.2; 2.11.15; 2.12.8; 3.1.13; 3.3.6; Apastamba
Apastamba
Dharmasutra 1.17.15; 1.17.19; 2.17.26–2.18.3; Vasistha Dharmasutra 14.12. ^ Manu Smriti 5.30, 5.32, 5.39 and 5.44; Mahabharata
Mahabharata
3.199 (3.207), 3.199.5 (3.207.5), 3.199.19–29 (3.207.19), 3.199.23–24 (3.207.23–24), 13.116.15–18, 14.28; Ramayana
Ramayana
1-2-8:19 ^ Alsdorf pp. 592–593. ^ Mahabharata
Mahabharata
13.115.59–60; 13.116.15–18. ^ Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna (1907), An English Translation of the Sushruta Samhita, Volume I, Part 2; see Chapter starting on page 469; for discussion on meats and fishes, see page 480 and onwards ^ Sutrasthana 46.89; Sharirasthana 3.25. ^ Sutrasthana 27.87. ^ Mahabharata
Mahabharata
3.199.11–12 (3.199 is 3.207 elsewhere); 13.115; 13.116.26; 13.148.17; Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
(11.5.13–14), and the Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
(8.15.1). ^ Alsdorf pp. 572–577 (for the Manusmṛti) and pp. 585–597 (for the Mahabharata); Tähtinen pp. 34–36. ^ The Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and the Manusmṛti (5.27–55) contain lengthy discussions about the legitimacy of ritual slaughter. ^ Mahabharata
Mahabharata
12.260 (12.260 is 12.268 according to another count); 13.115–116; 14.28. ^ Mahabharata
Mahabharata
3.199 (3.199 is 3.207 according to another count). ^ Tähtinen pp. 39–43. ^ Alsdorf p. 589–590; Schmidt pp. 634–635, 640–643; Tähtinen pp. 41–42. ^ Schmidt pp. 637–639; Manusmriti 10.63, 11.145 ^ Rod Preece, Animals and Nature: Cultural Myths, Cultural Realities, ISBN 978-0-7748-0725-8, University of British Columbia Press, pages 212–217 ^ Chapple, C. (1990). Ecological Nonviolence
Nonviolence
and the Hindu Tradition. In Perspectives on Nonviolence
Nonviolence
(pages 168–177). Springer New York ^ Van Horn, G. (2006). Hindu Traditions and Nature: Survey Article. Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology, 10(1), 5–39 ^ Tirukkuṛaḷ
Tirukkuṛaḷ
Translated by Rev G.U. Pope, Rev W.H. Drew, Rev John Lazarus, and Mr F W Ellis (1886), WH Allen & Company; see pages 40–41, verses 311–330 ^ Tirukkuṛaḷ
Tirukkuṛaḷ
Archived 16 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine. see Chapter 32 and 33, Book 1 ^ Tirukkuṛaḷ
Tirukkuṛaḷ
Translated by V.V.R. Aiyar, Tirupparaithurai : Sri Ramakrishna Tapovanam (1998) ^ Religious Vegetarianism, ed. Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess, Albany 2001, p. 50–52. ^ Ramana Maharishi: ''Be as you are'' Archived 19 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Beasyouare.info. Retrieved on 2011-06-15. ^ Swami Sivananda: ''Bliss Divine'', p. 3–8. Dlshq.org (2005-12-11). Retrieved on 2011-06-15. ^ Religious Vegetarianism
Vegetarianism
p. 56–60. ^ Tähtinen pp. 116–124. ^ Jackson pp. 39–54. Religion East & West. 2008. ^ Tähtinen pp. 115–116. ^ a b c Prabhu and Rao (1966), The Mind of Mahatma Gandhi, Encyclopedia of Gandhi's Thoughts, p. 120–121 ^ Gandhi, Mahatma. 1962. All Religions are True. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 128.; Banshlal Ramnauth, Dev. 1989. Mahatma Gandhi: Insight and Impact. Indira Gandhi Centre for Indian Culture & Mahatma Gandhi Institute. p. 48 ^ Schweitzer, Albert: Indian Thought and its Development, London 1956, pages 82–83 ^

Sanskrit Original with Translation 1: The Yoga
Yoga
Philosophy TR Tatya (Translator), with Bhojaraja commentary; Harvard University Archives; Translation 2: The Yoga-darsana: The sutras of Patanjali
Patanjali
with the Bhasya of Vyasa
Vyasa
GN Jha (Translator), with notes; Harvard University Archives; Translation 3: The Yogasutras of Patanjali
Patanjali
Charles Johnston (Translator)

^ James Lochtefeld, "Yama (2)", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N–Z, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8, page 777 ^ Sanskrit: अथ यम-नियमाः अहिंसा सत्यमस्तेयं बरह्मछर्यं कष्हमा धॄतिः दयार्जवं मिताहारः शौछं छैव यमा दश १७ English Translation: 1.1.17, CHAPTER 1. On Âsanas THE HAṬHA YOGA PRADIPIKA ^ Laidlaw, pp. 154–160; Jindal, pp. 74–90; Tähtinen p. 110. ^ Jain 2012, p. 34. ^ Jain 2012, p. 33. ^ Dundas pp. 158–159, 189–192; Laidlaw pp. 173–175, 179; Religious Vegetarianism, ed. Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess, Albany 2001, p. 43–46 (translation of the First Great Vow). ^ Laidlaw pp. 26–30, 191–195. ^ Dundas p. 24 suggests the 5th century; the traditional dating of Mahavira's death is 527 BCE. ^ Goyal, S.R.: A History of Indian Buddhism, Meerut 1987, p. 83–85. ^ Dundas pp. 19, 30; Tähtinen p. 132. ^ Dundas p. 30 suggests the 8th or 7th century; the traditional chronology places him in the late 9th or early 8th century. ^ Acaranga Sutra
Acaranga Sutra
2.15. ^ Sthananga Sutra
Sthananga Sutra
266; Tähtinen p. 132; Goyal p. 83–84, 103. ^ Dundas pp. 160, 234, 241; Wiley p. 448; Granoff, Phyllis: The Violence of Non-Violence: A Study of Some Jain Responses to Non-Jain Religious Practices, in: Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 15 (1992) pp. 1–43; Tähtinen pp. 8–9. ^ Laidlaw p. 169. ^ Laidlaw pp. 166–167; Tähtinen p. 37. ^ Lodha, R.M.: Conservation of Vegetation and Jain Philosophy, in: Medieval Jainism: Culture and Environment, New Delhi 1990, p. 137–141; Tähtinen p. 105. ^ Jindal p. 89; Laidlaw pp. 54, 154–155, 180. ^ Sutrakrtangasutram 1.8.3; Uttaradhyayanasutra 10; Tattvarthasutra 7.8; Dundas pp. 161–162. ^ Hemacandra: Yogashastra 3.37; Laidlaw pp. 166–167. ^ Laidlaw p. 180. ^ Sangave, Vilas Adinath: Jaina Community. A Social Survey, second edition, Bombay 1980, p. 259; Dundas p. 191. ^ Jindal pp. 89, 125–133 (detailed exposition of the classification system); Tähtinen pp. 17, 113. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 160. ^ Markham & Lohr 2009, p. 71. ^ Paul Williams (2005). Buddhism: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies. Routledge. p. 398. ISBN 978-0-415-33226-2.  ^ Bodhi Bhikkhu (1997). Great Disciples of the Buddha: Their Lives, Their Works, Their Legacy. Wisdom Publications. pp. 387 with footnote 12. ISBN 978-0-86171-128-4. ; Sarao, p. 49; Goyal p. 143; Tähtinen p. 37. ^ Lamotte, pp. 54–55. ^ a b McFarlane 2001, p. 187. ^ McFarlane 2001, pp. 187–191. ^ Martine Batchelor (2014). The Spirit of the Buddha. Yale University Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-300-17500-4.  ^ a b McFarlane 2001, p. 192. ^ Sarao p. 53; Tähtinen pp. 95, 102. ^ Tähtinen pp. 95, 102–103. ^ Kurt A. Raaflaub, War and Peace
Peace
in the Ancient World. Blackwell Publishing, 2007, p. 61. ^ Bartholomeusz, p. 52. ^ Bartholomeusz, p. 111. ^ a b Bartholomeusz, p. 41. ^ Bartholomeusz, p. 50. ^ Stewart McFarlane in Peter Harvey, ed., Buddhism. Continuum, 2001, pages 195–196. ^ Bartholomeusz, p. 40. ^ Bartholomeusz, pp. 125–126. Full texts of the sutta:[1]. ^ Rune E.A. Johansson, The Dynamic Psychology of Early Buddhism. Curzon Press 1979, page 33. ^ Bartholomeusz, pp. 40–53. Some examples are the Cakkavati Sihanada Sutta, the Kosala Samyutta, the Ratthapala Sutta, and the Sinha Sutta. See also page 125. See also Trevor Ling, Buddhism, Imperialism, and War. George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1979, pages 136–137. ^ Bodhi, Bhikkhu (trans.) (2000). The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-331-1. ^ Bartholomeusz, pp. 49, 52–53. ^ Hammalawa Saddhatissa, Buddhist Ethics. Wisdom Publications, 1997, pages 60, 159, see also Bartholomeusz page 121. ^ Bartholomeusz, p. 121. ^ Bartholomeusz, pp. 44, 121–122, 124. ^ The Buddha
Buddha
and His Dhamma. Columbia.edu. Retrieved on 2011-06-15. ^ 卷糺 佛教的慈悲觀. Bya.org.hk. Retrieved on 2011-06-15. ^ 試探《護生畫集》的護生觀 高明芳 ^ 「護生」精神的實踐舉隅. Ccbs.ntu.edu.tw. Retrieved on 2011-06-15. ^ 答妙贞十问. Cclw.net. Retrieved on 2011-06-15. ^ 第一二八期 佛法自由談. Bya.org.hk. Retrieved on 2011-06-15. ^ 虛雲和尚法彙—書問. Bfnn.org. Retrieved on 2011-06-15. ^ 道安長老年譜. Plela.org. Retrieved on 2011-06-15. ^ 农历中元节. Sx.chinanews.com.cn. Retrieved on 2011-06-15. ^ 明溪县“禁屠日”习俗的由来 ^ 建构的节日:政策过程视角下的唐玄宗诞节. Chinesefolklore.org.cn (2008-02-16). Retrieved on 2011-06-15.

Bibliography[edit]

Alsdorf, Ludwig (1962). Beiträge zur Geschichte von Vegetarismus und Rinderverehrung in Indien. Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur; in Kommission bei F. Steiner Wiesbaden. OCLC 4388049.  Bartholomeusz, Tessa In Defense of Dharma. RoutledgeCurzon 2002 ISBN 0-7007-1681-5 Jindal, K.B.: An epitome of Jainism, New Delhi 1988 ISBN 81-215-0058-3 Laidlaw, James: Riches and Renunciation. Religion, economy, and society among the Jains, Oxford 1995 ISBN 0-19-828031-9 Lamotte, Etienne: History of Indian Buddhism
Buddhism
from the Origins to the Śaka Era, Louvain-la-Neuve 1988 ISBN 90-6831-100-X McFarlane, Stewart (2001). Peter Harvey, ed. Buddhism. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4411-4726-4.  Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi: Manas: History and Politics, 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) Sarao, K.T.S.: The Origin and Nature of Ancient Indian Buddhism, Delhi 1989 Schmidt, Hanns Peter: The Origin of Ahimsa, in: Mélanges d'Indianisme à la mémoire de Louis Renou, Paris 1968 Tähtinen, Unto: Ahimsa. Non-Violence in Indian Tradition, London 1976 ISBN 0-09-123340-2 Jain, Vijay K. (2012), Acharya Amritchandra's Purushartha Siddhyupaya: Realization of the Pure Self, With Hindi and English Translation, Vikalp, ISBN 978-81-903639-4-5, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. 

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Salt March Dharasana Satyagraha Vaikom Satyagraha Aundh Experiment Gandhi–Irwin Pact

Second Round Table Conference

Padayatra Poona Pact Natal Indian Congress Quit India

speech

Gujarat Vidyapith
Gujarat Vidyapith
University Harijan
Harijan
Sevak Sangh Ashrams (Kochrab Tolstoy Farm Sabarmati Sevagram) List of fasts Assassination

Philosophy

Gandhism Economics

trusteeship

Education Sarvodaya Satyagraha Swadeshi Swaraj Gandhi cap

Publications

Harijan Hind Swaraj
Swaraj
(Indian Home Rule) Indian Opinion The Story of My Experiments with Truth Young India Seven Social Sins (Gandhi Heritage Portal)

Influences

A Letter to a Hindu Ahimsa

nonviolence

Bhagavad Gita Henry David Thoreau Civil Disobedience (essay) Civil disobedience Fasting Harishchandra Hinduism Khadi John Ruskin Parsee Rustomjee Leo Tolstoy The Kingdom of God Is Within You The Masque of Anarchy Muhammad Narmad Pacifism Sermon on the Mount Shravan Shrimad Rajchandra Henry Stephens Salt Tirukkuṛaḷ Unto This Last

Gandhi's translation

"Raghupati Raghav Raja Ram" "Ekla Chalo Re" "Hari Tuma Haro" "Vaishnava Jana To" Vegetarianism

Associates

Swami Anand C. F. Andrews Jamnalal Bajaj Shankarlal Banker Sarla Behn Vinoba Bhave Brij Krishna Chandiwala Sudhakar Chaturvedi Jugatram Dave Mahadev Desai Dada Dharmadhikari Kanu Gandhi Shiv Prasad Gupta Umar Hajee Ahmed Jhaveri J. C. Kumarappa Hermann Kallenbach Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan Acharya Kripalani Mirabehn Mohanlal Pandya Vallabhbhai Patel Narhari Parikh Mithuben Petit Chakravarti Rajagopalachari Bibi Amtus Salam Sonja Schlesin Anugrah Narayan Sinha Shri Krishna Singh Rettamalai Srinivasan V. A. Sundaram Abbas Tyabji Ravishankar Vyas

Legacy

Artistic depictions Gandhigiri Gandhi Peace
Peace
Award Gandhi Peace
Peace
Prize Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Kashi Vidyapith Indian currency

Family

Karamchand Gandhi (father) Kasturba (wife) Harilal (son) Manilal (son) Ramdas (son) Devdas (son) Maganlal (cousin) Samaldas (nephew) Arun (grandson) Ela (granddaughter) Rajmohan (grandson) Gopalkrishna (grandson) Ramchandra (grandson) Kanu (grandson) Kanu (grandnephew) Tushar (great-grandson) Leela (great-granddaughter)

Influenced

James Bevel Steve Biko 14th Dalai Lama Gopaldas Ambaidas Desai Morarji Desai Eknath Easwaran Maria Lacerda de Moura James Lawson Martin Luther King Jr. Nelson Mandela Brajkishore Prasad Rajendra Prasad Ramjee Singh Aung San Suu Kyi Lanza del Vasto Abhay Bang Sane Guruji

Memorials

Statues

Houston Johannesburg London (Parliament Square) New York Patna Pietermaritzburg Washington

Observances

Gandhi Jayanti International Day of Non-Violence Martyrs' Day Season for Nonviolence

Other

Aga Khan Palace Gandhi Bhawan Gandhi Mandapam Gandhi Market Bookstores Gandhi Promenade Gandhi Smriti Gandhi Memorial Gandhi Memorial Museum, Madurai Kaba Gandhi No Delo Kirti Mandir Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
College Mohandas Gandhi High School National Gandhi Museum Raj Ghat Sabarmati Ashram Satyagraha
Satyagraha
House Gandhi Teerth Roads named after Gandhi Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Memorial Centre, Matale

v t e

Veganism
Veganism
and vegetarianism

Perspectives

Veganism

Animal-free agriculture Fruitarianism History Juice fasting Low-carbon diet Raw veganism Nutrition Vegan organic gardening

Vegetarianism

Economic vegetarianism Environmental vegetarianism History Lacto vegetarianism Ovo vegetarianism Ovo-lacto vegetarianism Cuisine Vegetarian Diet Pyramid Ecofeminism Nutrition By country

Lists

Vegans Vegetarians Vegetarian festivals Vegetarian organizations Vegetarian restaurants

Ethics

Secular

Animal rights Animal welfare Carnism Deep ecology Environmental vegetarianism Ethics
Ethics
of eating meat Meat paradox Nonviolence Speciesism Tirukkural

Religious

Buddhism Christianity Hinduism

Sattvic Ahimsa

Jainism Judaism Pythagoreanism Rastafari Sikhism

Food, drink

Agar Agave nectar Meat analogue

List of meat substitutes

Miso Mochi Mock duck Nutritional yeast Plant cream Plant milk Quinoa Quorn Seitan Soy yogurt Tempeh Tofu Tofurkey Cheese Hot dog Vegetarian mark Sausage Beer Wine Veggie burger

Groups, events, companies

Vegan

American Vegan Society Beauty Without Cruelty Food Empowerment Project Go Vegan Movement for Compassionate Living Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine Plamil Foods Vegan Awareness Foundation Vegan flag Vegan Ireland Vegan Outreach Vegan Prisoners Support Group The Vegan Society Veganz World Vegan Day

Vegetarian

American Vegetarian Party Boston Vegetarian Society Christian Vegetarian Association European Vegetarian Union Hare Krishna Food for Life International Vegetarian Union Jewish Veg Linda McCartney Foods Meat-free days

Meatless Monday

Swissveg Toronto Vegetarian Association Vegetarian Society Vegetarian Society
Vegetarian Society
(Singapore) Veggie Pride Viva! Health World Esperantist Vegetarian Association World Vegetarian Day

Books, reports

Thirty-nine Reasons Why I Am a Vegetarian
Thirty-nine Reasons Why I Am a Vegetarian
(1903) The Benefits of Vegetarianism
Vegetarianism
(1927) Diet for a Small Planet
Diet for a Small Planet
(1971) Moosewood Cookbook
Moosewood Cookbook
(1977) Fit for Life
Fit for Life
(1985) Diet for a New America (1987) The China Study
The China Study
(2004) Raw Food Made Easy for 1 or 2 People
Raw Food Made Easy for 1 or 2 People
(2005) Skinny Bitch
Skinny Bitch
(2005) Livestock's Long Shadow
Livestock's Long Shadow
(2006) Eating Animals
Eating Animals
(2009) The Kind Diet
The Kind Diet
(2009) Why We Love Dogs, Eat Pigs, and Wear Cows
Why We Love Dogs, Eat Pigs, and Wear Cows
(2009) Eat & Run (2012) Meat Atlas
Meat Atlas
(annual)

Films

Meet Your Meat
Meet Your Meat
(2002) Peaceable Kingdom (2004) Earthlings (2005) A Sacred Duty
A Sacred Duty
(2007) Fat, Sick and Nearly Dead (2010) Planeat (2010) Forks Over Knives
Forks Over Knives
(2011) Vegucated (2011) Live and Let Live (2013) Cowspiracy
Cowspiracy
(2014) What the Health
What the Health
(2017) Carnage (2017)

Magazines

Naked Food Vegetarian Times VegNews

Physicians, academics

Neal D. Barnard Rynn Berry T. Colin Campbell Caldwell Esselstyn Gary L. Francione Joel Fuhrman Michael Greger Melanie Joy Michael Klaper John A. McDougall Reed Mangels Jack Norris Dean Ornish Richard H. Schwartz

Related

Semi-vegetarianism

Macrobiotic d

.