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Agroecomyrmecinae
Agroecomyrmecinae
is a subfamily of ants containing two extant and two fossil genera.[1] The subfamily was originally classified in 1930 by Carpenter as Agroecomyrmecini, a Myrmicinae
Myrmicinae
tribe.[2] Bolton raised the tribe to subfamily status in 2003, suggesting that Agroecomyrmecinae
Agroecomyrmecinae
might be the sister taxon to Myrmicinae. It has since been discovered to be one of the earliest lineages of ants, a clade from the basal polytomy for all ants.[3][4] In 2014, the subfamily was expanded to two tribes. The tribe Ankylomyrmini
Ankylomyrmini
was moved from the subfamily Myrmicinae
Myrmicinae
to Agroemyrmecinae.[5]

Contents

1 Tribes and genera 2 Taxonomy

2.1 Distribution

3 Notes 4 References 5 External links

Tribes and genera[edit]

Agroecomyrmecinae
Agroecomyrmecinae
Carpenter, 1930

Agroecomyrmecini
Agroecomyrmecini
Carpenter, 1930

Agroecomyrmex
Agroecomyrmex
Wheeler, 1910

Agroecomyrmex
Agroecomyrmex
duisburgi Wheeler, 1910

Eulithomyrmex
Eulithomyrmex
Carpenter, 1935

Eulithomyrmex
Eulithomyrmex
rugosus Carpenter, 1930 † Eulithomyrmex
Eulithomyrmex
striatus Carpenter, 1930

Tatuidris
Tatuidris
Brown & Kempf, 1968

Tatuidris tatusia
Tatuidris tatusia
Brown & Kempf, 1968 (=T. kapasi Lacau & Groc, 2012)[6]

Ankylomyrmini

Ankylomyrma
Ankylomyrma
Bolton, 1973

Taxonomy[edit] Since the original description, the systematic status of the Agroecomyrmecini
Agroecomyrmecini
tribe has been the focus of intense debate. Bolton (2003) was the first to suggest the taxonomic instability of Tatuidris within Myrmicinae
Myrmicinae
and raised the genus to the level of a new subfamily, the Agroecomyrmecinae, suggesting the Agroecomyrmecinae might be the sister taxon to Myrmicinae. This assessment was based on these diagnostic characters:[7][8]

large mandibles with mandibular masticatory margins that oppose at full closure but do not overlap eyes at extreme posterior apex of deep antennal scrobes clypeus very broadly triangular, broadly inserted between the frontal lobes antennal sockets and frontal lobes strongly migrated laterally, far apart and close to lateral margins of the head mesotibia and metatibia with pectinate spurs short and compact mesosoma a sessile petiole, in posterior view the tergite and sternite not equally convex an abdominal segment III (postpetiole) without tergosternal fusion, segment large and very broadly articulated to segment IV, a helcium in frontal view with the sternite bulging ventrally and overlapped by the tergite an abdominal segment IV with a complete tergosternal fusion,[note 1] abdominal segment IV with a stridulitrum on the pretergite the sternite of abdominal segment IV is reduced, the tergite is much larger than the sternite and strongly vaulted

The subfamily rank of the armadillo ants was reassessed by Baroni Urbani & de Andrade (2007) in their last systematic assessment of the dacetines. They analyzed a morphological dataset that included former dacetines, basicerotines, phalacromyrmecines, and Tatuidris, as well as other non- Myrmicinae
Myrmicinae
taxa such as the Australian genus Myrmecia and the Neotropical
Neotropical
genus Pseudomyrmex. This work was the first attempt to include Tatuidris
Tatuidris
as a terminal taxon in a morphological cladistic analysis. In their study, Baroni Urbani & de Andrade (2007) identified six morphological synapomorphies shared between Tatuidris
Tatuidris
and the dacetines, justifying the inclusion of the genus within Myrmicinae. These characters included:[9][10]

mandibles at rest opposing at least in part, instead of crossing a mandibular-torular index < 130 reduction of maxillary palps from double-jointed to single-jointed reduced male mandibles presence of a two-segmented antennal club reduced number of antennal joints

In addition, two autapomorphies (a differently shaped petiolar tergum and sternum, and the eyes at or close to the apex of the antennal scrobe) separated Tatuidris
Tatuidris
from all other extant ant genera included in their study.[9][11] Unlike phylogenetic studies based on morphological traits, molecular analyses of the internal phylogeny of the ants have given strong evidence that the armadillo ants are neither closely related to nor nested within the Myrmicinae. Brady et al. (2006), Moreau et al. (2006) and Rabeling et al. (2008) reconstructed phylogenetic trees with the agroecomyrmecines inside the 'poneroid' group of subfamilies, close to the Paraponerinae, and gave support for the exclusion of the genus from the Myrmicinae, a subfamily located inside the 'formicoid' clade.[12] Given the early appearance of the Agroecomyrmecinae
Agroecomyrmecinae
in the geologic record, the similarities of armadillo ants to Myrmicinae
Myrmicinae
were hypothesized to represent convergence and/or retention of plesiomorphic forms.[13][14] Recently, Keller (2011) challenged the phylogenetic relationships of the poneromorph subfamilies (including Tatuidris).[14][15] Distribution[edit] According to Brown & Kempf (1968), agroecomyrmecines were probably widespread in both hemispheres during the early Tertiary.[16] Agroecomyrmex
Agroecomyrmex
is known from Early Eocene, Lutetian, Baltic amber dating to 44 million years (Myr) ago, and Eulithomyrmex
Eulithomyrmex
from late Eocene, Priabonian, Florissant shale (34.1 Myr
Myr
ago) in present-day Colorado, United States. Tatuidris, rare but broadly distributed,[14] inhabits the leaf litter of Neotropical
Neotropical
forests in Central and South America, from Mexico
Mexico
to French Guiana,[17] central Brazil,[18] and Amazonian Peru.[6] Ankylomyrma
Ankylomyrma
is known only from Western Africa.[19] Notes[edit]

^ This character was described incorrectly by Bolton (l.c.); in Tatuidris
Tatuidris
the tergosternal suture of the abdominal segment IV is strong but not fused.[9]

References[edit]

^ "Subfamily: Agroecomyrmecinae". antweb.org. AntWeb. Retrieved 3 January 2015.  ^ Carpenter, F. M. 1930. The fossil ants of North America. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 70:1-66. [1930-01] PDF 123533 ^ Ward, P. S. (2007). "Phylogeny, classification, and species-level taxonomy of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Zootaxa. 1668: 549–563.  ^ "Genus: Tatuidris". antweb.org. AntWeb. Retrieved 29 August 2013.  ^ Ward, Philip S.; Brady, Sean G.; Fisher, Brian L.; Schultz, Ted R. (July 2014). "The evolution of myrmicine ants: phylogeny and biogeography of a hyperdiverse ant clade (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Systematic Entomology. 40 (1): 61–81. doi:10.1111/syen.12090. ISSN 1365-3113.  ^ a b Donoso 2012, p. 61 ^ Bolton 2003, p. 51 ^ Donoso 2012, pp. 61–62 ^ a b c Donoso 2012, p. 62 ^ Baroni Urbani & de Andrade 2007, p. 78 ^ Baroni Urbani & de Andrade 2007, pp. 80–81 ^ Ward 2007, pp. 555–557 ^ Ward 2011, p. 23 ^ a b c Donoso 2012, p. 63 ^ Keller 2011, p. 73 ^ Brown & Kempf 1968, p. 186 ^ Lacau et al. 2012, p. 4 ^ Vasconcelos & Vilhena 2002, p. 278 ^ Bolton, B. (1981). "A revision of six minor genera of Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Ethiopian zoogeographical region". Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology. 43 (4): 245–307. 

Baroni Urbani, C.; de Andrade, M.L. (2007), "The ant tribe Dacetini: Limits and constituent genera, with descriptions of new species", Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", 99: 1–191  Bolton, B. (2003), Synopsis and classification of Formicidae, Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 71, The American Entomological Institute, pp. 1–370  Brady, S.G.; Schultz, T.R.; Fisher, B.L.; Ward, P.S. (2006), "Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103: 18172–18177, doi:10.1073/pnas.0605858103, PMC 1838725 , PMID 17079492  Brown, W. L., Jr.; Kempf, W. W. (1967), "Tatuidris, a remarkable new genus of Formicidae (Hymenoptera)" (PDF), Psyche, 74: 183–190, doi:10.5281/zenodo.27017  Donoso, D.A. (2012), "Additions to the taxonomy of the armadillo ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Tatuidris)" (PDF), Zootaxa, 3503: 61–81  Keller, R.A. (2011), "A phylogenetic analysis of ant morphology (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with special reference to the poneromorph subfamilies", Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 355: 1–90, doi:10.1206/355.1  Lacau, Sébastien; Groc, Sarah; Dejean, Alain; Oliveira, Muriel L. de; Delabie, Jacques H. C. (2012), " Tatuidris
Tatuidris
kapasi sp. nov.: a new armadillo ant from French Guiana
French Guiana
(Formicidae: Agroecomyrmecinae)", Psyche, 2012: 1–6, doi:10.1155/2012/926089  Moreau, C.S.; Bell, C.D.; Vila, R.; Archibald, S.B.; Pierce, N.E (2006), "Phylogeny of the ants: diversification in the age of angiosperms", Science, 312: 101–104, doi:10.1126/science.1124891, PMID 16601190  Rabeling, C.; Brown, J.M.; Verhaagh, M. (2008), "Newly discovered sister lineage sheds light on early ant evolution", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States
United States
of America, 105: 14913–14917, doi:10.1073/pnas.0806187105, PMC 2567467 , PMID 18794530  Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Vilhena, José M.S. (2002), "First record of the ant genus Tatuidris
Tatuidris
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Brazil" (PDF), Revista de Biología Tropical, 51 (1): 278  Ward, P.S (2007), "Phylogeny, classification, and species-level taxonomy of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)", Zootaxa, 1668: 549–563  Ward, P.S (2011), "Integrating molecular phylogenetic results into ant taxonomy (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)", Myrmecological News, 15: 21–29 

This article incorporates text from a scholarly publication published under a copyright license that allows anyone to reuse, revise, remix and redistribute the materials in any form for any purpose: Donoso, D.A. (2012), "Additions to the taxonomy of the armadillo ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Tatuidris)." (PDF), Zootaxa, 3503: 61–81  Please check the source for the exact licensing terms.

External links[edit]

Media related to Agroecomyrmecinae
Agroecomyrmecinae
at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Agroecomyrmecinae
Agroecomyrmecinae
at Wikispecies

v t e

Ant
Ant
taxonomy

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda Class Insecta Order Hymenoptera Family Formicidae

Subfamilies

Extant

Agroecomyrmecinae Amblyoponinae Aneuretinae Apomyrminae Dolichoderinae Dorylinae Ectatomminae Formicinae Heteroponerinae Leptanillinae Martialinae Myrmeciinae Myrmicinae Paraponerinae Ponerinae Proceratiinae Pseudomyrmecinae

Fossil

†Armaniinae †Brownimeciinae †Formiciinae †Sphecomyrminae

Genera

List of ant genera

incertae sedis

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q4033595 EoL: 12069826 Fossilworks: 2

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