Senegal lies within the drought-prone
Sahel region, with
irregular rainfall and generally poor soils. With only about 5 percent
of the land irrigated,
Senegal continues to rely on rain-fed
agriculture, which occupies about 75 percent of the workforce. Despite
a relatively wide variety of agricultural production, the majority of
farmers produce for subsistence needs. Production is subject to
drought and threats of pests such as locusts, birds, fruit flies, and
white flies. Millet, rice, corn, and sorghum are the primary food
crops grown in Senegal.
Senegal is a net food importer, particularly for rice, which
represents almost 75 percent of cereal imports. Peanuts, sugarcane,
and cotton are important cash crops, and a wide variety of fruits and
vegetables are grown for local and export markets. In 2006 gum arabic
exports soared to $280 million, making it by far the leading
agricultural export. Green beans, industrial tomato, cherry tomato,
melon, and mango are Senegal's main vegetable cash crops. The
Casamance region, isolated from the rest of
Senegal by Gambia, is an
important agriculture producing area, but without the infrastructure
or transportation links to improve its capacity.
Despite the lack of modernization of artisanal fishing, the fishing
sector remains Senegal's main economic resource and major foreign
exchange earner. The livestock and poultry sectors are relatively
underdeveloped and have potential for modernization, development and
Senegal imports most of its milk and dairy products. The
sector is inhibited due to low output and limited investments. The
potential production of fauna and forest products is high and
diversified and could, if well organized, benefit poor farmers in
rural areas. Although the agricultural sector was impacted by a locust
invasion in 2004, it has recovered and gross agricultural production
is expected to increase by 6 percent in 2006 and 5 percent in 2007.
1 Situation and outlook of the agricultural sector
2 Agricultural commodities
2.3 Food grains
2.4 Horticultural products
2.7 Dairy products
2.10 Forest products
3 Production resources and inputs
4 Agricultural policies and institutional framework
4.1 Agricultural policies
4.2 Government ministries
4.3 Major international donors
5 See also
7 External links
Situation and outlook of the agricultural sector
Senegal lies within the drought-prone
Sahel region, with
irregular rainfall and generally poor soils. With only about 5% of the
Senegal continues to rely on rain-fed agriculture,
which occupies about 75% of its workforce. The sector is inhibited due
to low output and limited investments. Although this sector was
impacted by a locust invasion in 2004, it has recovered and gross
agricultural production was expected to increase by 6.1% in 2006 and
5.1% in 2007. Reforms of the agricultural sector have suppressed
direct government support and engaged the privatization of state
holdings. The main agricultural crops are peanuts and cotton—both
being important sources of foreign exchange income—as well as
millet, rice, corn, sugarcane, and livestock.
Peanuts are the engine of the rural economy and their production
accounts for around 40 percent of cultivated land, taking up two
million hectares. The peanut sector provides employment for as many as
one million people. The industry has been suffering from the effects
of the privatization of the agricultural sector and the elimination of
the import ban on peanut and other edible oils. The peanut sector is
still dominated by SONACOS, which has been renamed SUNEOR starting
January 1, 2007, thus marking the end of the privatization process
which started in 2004 when the government decided to sell its shares
to Advens, a private consortium including a Lebanese-French
businessman, the Belgian peanut machinery manufacturer Desmet,
SODEFITEX (the cotton ginning company), and
In recent years, the reported average annual peanut production lies
around 828,000 tons (95% for oil).
Cotton accounts for about 3% of
total exports and the third source of export earnings for Senegal
(some 28 million US dollars over the period 1995-2000).
grown in nearly every region and covers almost one third of cultivated
acreage. The cotton industry is managed through the former parastatal
SODEFITEX, which was privatized in November 2003 with producers
holding 30% of the company's shares.
Production of food crops does not meet Senegal's needs. The production
of major staple food crops covers barely 30% of consumption needs.
Only in years of favorable rainfall does the country approach
self-sufficiency in millet and sorghum, the basic staples with rice.
The livestock population includes approximately 3.1 million cattle and
8.7 million sheep and goats.
Cattle are reared extensively and on a
Poultry production has increased and has great
potential for growth. Despite a significant livestock population,
Senegal remains a net importer of meat, especially sheep (live) during
major holidays and religious events.
Peanut seller in Joal-Fadiouth, Senegal.
Peanut production accounts for around 40 percent of cultivated land,
taking up two million hectares, and provides employment for as many as
one million people. Although the peanut sector's contribution to
foreign exchange earnings has dropped below those of fishing and
mining, peanuts continue to play an important role in the overall
economy as the main cash crop for many rural Senegalese farmers.
Peanuts are processed locally, and prices of processed peanut oil and
other peanut products are set a government controlled commission.
Production of unshelled peanuts varies widely because of periodic
drought, and production is frequently underreported because of
unauthorized sales to processors in neighboring countries. Total
production was estimated at 850,000 tons in 2005. Exports of peanut
products reached about CFA 15 billion ($30 million) in 2005. They
account for some 60 percent of total agricultural exports, 75 percent
of which is made up of peanut oil. SUNEOR's (former SONACOS) exports
of peanut oil account for 45 to 50 percent of the world market trade
in peanut oil.
SUNEOR produces approximately 150,000 tons of crude peanut oil per
year. The European market, which is its main market, can currently
absorb only 90,000 tons. The newly privatized company plans to explore
and develop new markets to fully utilize its capacity. In this
perspective, exports of peanuts oil to the U.S. have resumed in 2006
and were estimated at about $7 million. Other major peanut oil
producers include NOVASEN and the Complex of Touba.
All these three companies produce mainly non-refined peanut oil and
non-grilled peanuts for export.
Peanut meal/cake is predominantly sold
in the local market as animal feed. The local industry also refines
imported edible oils for domestic consumption. In 2005 Senegal
imported approximately 90,000 tons of crude soybean oil, primarily
Cotton is the second largest agricultural export, accounting for
around 16 percent of total agricultural exports. It is grown in nearly
every region and covers almost one third of cultivated acreage.
However, production is concentrated in the South-Eastern part of the
country (South of the Kahone–
Tambacounda belt, as well as in the
SODEFITEX, the main cotton company, forecasts production at 40,000
tons in 2006.
Cotton accounts for approximately 3% of total exports
and the third source of export earnings for
Senegal (some $23 million
in 2005). Most cotton lint produced in
Senegal is exported, but since
the liberalization of the sector in 1984, producers have preferred
selling in parallel markets, where they benefited from better prices.
SODEFITEX, which manages most of Senegal's cotton production, was
privatized in November 2003. Producers acquired 30% of the company's
shares (they had no equity interest prior to privatization). Despite
stronger incentives (credit to producers and guaranteed producer
prices), the company is still striving to fully use its ginning
The government of
Senegal is committed to participating in the U.S.
government funded West Africa
Cotton Improvement Program (WACIP) in
support of activities that focus on crop diversification and
A rice paddy near
Carabane after the harvest.
Threshing millet in Malem-Hodar.
Rice, millet and sorghum are the main subsistence food crops for
Senegal's rural population. Corn and fonio are also important cereal
crops. Production of cereal food crops, such as rice, millet, corn and
sorghum - which is often grown in rotation with peanuts - does not
meet Senegal's needs. Only in years of good rainfall does the country
approach self-sufficiency in millet, corn, sorghum and fonio, the main
staples in rural areas. Local production increased significantly in
the early 2000s following the government's decision to subsidise
fertilizer  and encourage corn production, and thus reduce reliance
In 2005/06, total production of cereals (including milled rice) is
estimated at 1,177,782 MT, which will cover some 60% of the
consumption needs. However, given the segmentation of the rice market
(see GAIN SG6002), this production will less likely affect imports.
However, in years of poor rainfall and other natural disasters, the
shortfall in coarse grains, especially millet, could be more difficult
to cover because of low availability and trade of this grain in the
region. Such constraints have been overcome with an increase in rice
imports, with a shift from millet to rice consumption in households
who can afford it.
Senegal is the second largest rice importer in Africa, ahead of Côte
d'Ivoire and behind Nigeria. Senegal's imports reached 1,113,000 MT in
2005, with net imports estimated at 854,000 MT. Consumers’
preference is for 100 percent broken rice originating from Asia,
Thailand and India, and recently[when?] from Brazil, Uruguay
and Argentina. Per capita rice consumption continues to grow and is
estimated at 70 to 75 kilograms and total annual consumption is
estimated at 700,000 MT. Local rice production meets about 20 percent
of the country's needs and 30 percent of this production is used for
subsistence. In 2005/06, local production of rice paddy was estimated
at 265,000 MT.
The wheat sector has been controlled for years by two flourmills,
Grands Moulins de
Dakar and Sentenac, which buy about 90 percent of
their wheat from France. (See SG7002) In 2001, NMA became the
country's third flour and feed mill. The demand for wheat flour is
increasing, as the demand for bread increases along with population
growth and changes in consumption habits.
Senegal has imported 326,287
MT of wheat in 2005 and more than half of this quantity in the first
half of 2006 (180,514 MT).
Senegal imported United States wheat most recently in 2004 and again
in 2006, making the U.S. the third largest supplier after France and
Argentina. U.S. wheat is used for blending because of its high protein
content compared to French soft wheat. Despite significant increases
in the price of wheat in the international markets, the government
froze flour and bread prices in November 2006, following strong
pressure from consumers’ unions. The millers’ price of flour is
currently CFA 264,000 per MT and the price of a baguette remains at
CFA 150 instead of CFA 175 proposed by bakers’ associations. ($1 =
CFA 507 on January 10, 2007.)
Vegetables and fruit sold at M'bour.
Onion fields in Ndiawar, Senegal.
Senegal's total horticultural production was estimated at 584,000 MT
in 2004. Exports of fruits and vegetables are growing steady although
they remain low, and it is estimated that they will reach
approximately 50,000 tons in 2007. Europe is still the main export
market for Senegal's fresh fruits and vegetables. About 70% of the
European market is dominated by four products including green beans,
cherry tomato, mango and melon. With the increase in size and value of
the European market, pre-packed produce such as green beans have
promising prospects in the European market and with the possibility to
introduce first-stage processing, these produce will likely reach
other markets. Under AGOA and its related projects, Senegal's
horticultural sector is making efforts to enter the U.S and North
However, in order for
Senegal to benefit from these opportunities,
Senegal needs to address phytosanitary concerns, improve existing
value chains (improved ocean transportation of green beans, extension
of the market of cherry tomato, increase the competitiveness of melon
and expand the seasonality of mango). The fruit and vegetable industry
involves about twenty active companies grouped in two federations
(ONAPES and SEPAS). Three companies are involved through the whole
chain (production, packaging, trade) export more than 50% of the
produce alone. About ten medium-size companies export 200 to 500 tons
and the other are small enterprises usually serve as suppliers to
major exporters. A warehouse for fresh produce is built at Dakar's
airport, and other infrastructure is being built to improve storage
and transportation to Europe and thereby maintain quality and increase
The potential for the production of industrial tomato is high,
Senegal River valley. However, the current level of
production of double concentrate tomato paste does not meet Senegal's
needs estimated at 18,000 tons. In 2003, total production of fresh
tomato was estimated at 53,000 tons, which yielded about 8,000 tons of
paste representing only about 45% of the domestic needs. SOCAS, the
main processing company with the capacity of 15,000 tons, has been
importing triple concentrate to cover the deficit (5,000 tons in 2004
and 2,000 in 2005).
At the same time the imports of double concentrate are regularly
increasing from 2,900 tons in 2003 to 5,500 tons in 2004. Agroline,
the other major company has been operating since 2003 with a capacity
of 3,300 tons of double concentrate, representing 7% of the tomato
paste market. Agroline has been using imported or local triple
concentrate which it processes and packages into double concentrate.
This company is considering extending its market share through the
establishment of a new agro-industrial plant in Taredji, northern
Senegal which will produce triple concentrate from fresh tomatoes.
This project will start in 2007.
Farm gate industrial tomato prices
and incentives will have to improve for
Senegal to produce more of its
paste from local tomatoes. The processors face stiff competition from
imports of final products such as tomato sauces, juice and ketchup.
The overall potential of the horticultural sector is limited by the
presence of various pests (including fruit and white flies), and
therefore needs technical assistance to develop in-country SPS
capacity for meeting international standards, and infrastructure to
increase the efficiency of surveillance and compliance.
also to work with its regional partners to harmonize phytosanitary
standards and procedures, strengthen pest surveillance and detection
capabilities, including border inspection operations, develop risk
assessment capability, and overcome other bottlenecks related to
regulatory issues and the trade.
The Compagnie Sucrière Sénégalaise sugar refinery at Richard-toll.
The production of sugar in
Senegal started back in September 1972,
when the Compagnie Sucrière Sénégalaise, CSS, produced its first
sugar cubes. CSS benefits from a de facto monopoly and subsidies from
the government, which maintain its capacity to plant and process sugar
cane, then refines and commercialize the sugar produced in the forms
of cubes, powder and crystallized sugar. This year, CSS’ production
is estimated at 800,000 tons of sugar cane, from which nearly 90,500
tons of sugar is produced. With an average yield of 120 tons/hectare,
CSS cultivates 7,500 hectares of commercial cane on the
valley in northern Senegal. The company employs 3,000 permanent
workers and 2,000 seasonal workers.
During the period 2002–2005 CSS faced serious competition from
illegal imports of cheaper sugar, mainly from
Mauritania which grows
cane and processes sugar in the same river valley on the other side of
the border. These imports were estimated at 30,000 to 40,000 tons.
These imports have decreased significantly in 2006 according to CSS
authorities with the support of
Customs services. CSS’ ambition is
to increase its production meet the national consumption level of
150,000 tons of sugar. This will require a production of 923,000 to 1
million tons of cane. CSS is reported to have the processing capacity
to reach this level of production but it will have to increase its
cultivated area by 500 hectares. Currently CSS imports 33,000 tons of
sugar to compensate the deficit. In 2006, these imports costed about
$875 thousand to the company.
The livestock population includes 3.1 million cattle and 8.7 million
sheep and goats. Most cattle systems using feed lots. Despite a
significant livestock population,
Senegal remains a net importer of
meat, especially live sheep during periods of peak consumption (major
religious holidays and events). The total production of meat was about
100,000 tons in 2003, which is equivalent to a per capita consumption
of 11.5 kg below the government's objective of 14 kg.
In Senegal, the milk industry is primarily based on the use of
imported milk powder. Senegal's milk production is far below the
domestic needs. Despite relatively high tariffs on milk powder
(26.78%), about 20,000 tons of milk powder is imported each year,
primarily from Europe. In fluid milk equivalent, imports represent
twice the level of local milk production. Imports of other dairy
products are estimated at about $100 million in 2006. Importers of
powder milk form a strong political lobby and dominate the dairy
industry. Local producers are not well organized except the few modern
producers in the major cities.
Part of the import milk powder is processed and marketed through
informal channels on which little information is reported. The main
products available in the market are sweet concentrate milk,
unsweetened concentrated milk, milk powder (in bulk or packaged in
bottle or small bags). A few companies produce yogurt.
The local milk production system relies on climatic conditions with
higher production during the rainy season and a slow down and even
stoppage during the 7-month-long dry season. Non governmental
organizations and donors assist small rural milk producers to improve
the distribution systems and increase their capacity to access urban
markets. In this perspective, PAPEL, the government's main livestock
and dairy development project has rehabilitated the rural milk
collection network set up by Nestlé-
Senegal in 1991 in the
This project is helping develop small-scale milk processing units with
simple equipment and techniques. Most of these units are found in the
Northern and Southern parts of the country, particularly in and around
Saint-Louis, Dahra, Tambacounda,
Velingara and Kolda. In the Niayes
zone around Dakar, other well structured milk processing units benefit
from this support and were able to commercialize up to 300,000 liters
of milk in
Dakar in 2005. The most important of these milk farms are
the Wayembam farm and the farms of the Regional Association of Women
Cattle Breeders, Dirtel. Other major players in the milk market
include Nestlé-Senegal, SATREC, CCMB, Saprolait, and Les Mamelles
The poultry industry has been increasing its overall production since
the announcement in 2005 of the ban of imports of chicken meat and
despite the shock created in early 2006 by avian influenza. The sector
represents 17% of the animal industry's contribution to
employs about 10,000 people.
In 2003, there were 3.2 millions chicken producing 5,982 tons of meat.
Because of massive imports of low quality and cheap chicken parts from
Europe and Brazil the sector decreased its production by 24% from 2001
to 2003. This has prompted the creation of poultry farmers' unions who
claimed the loss of 3,000 to 5,000 jobs, and the government decision
to ban imports of frozen chicken in October 2005. This ban is still
underway and applies to all countries. As the result of this ban,
local production increased by 21%. However, because the ban was only
effective in January 2006, import orders prior to the ban were
authorized and in 2004, 13,700 tons of chicken meat were imported.
Local production is estimated at 7 million chickens in 2005, which
represents a 33% increase compared to 2004. Chicken meat production
represents about 75% of this production, and total industrial
production of chicken meat has increased to 9,200 tons in 2005,
representing a 26% increase compared to 2004. Traditional production
(home production) is difficult to evaluate but could be estimated at
8,000 tons of meat. Preliminary government reports suggest that these
trends will continue in 2006 with significant increase in local
production of chicken meat. However, these trends also suggest that
the production of eggs will decrease significantly as the result of
the competing chicken meat, and professionals fear that the sector
might not be able to meet Senegal's needs in chicken eggs, which may
prompt a partial lift of the ban.
Most of the inputs of chicken feed are imported. In 2005, about 85,000
MT of chicken feed were produced. Corn accounts for 60% of
ingredients. Producers prefer soy and corn products to peanut cakes
because of their better quality and lower costs.
Fish meal is another
available and important source of protein for the industry. In 2005
the cost of feeding accounted for 59% of poultry farms’ total
expenditures, which make the sector less competitive vis-à-vis
imported poultry products.
Senegal exports chicken meat to
Guinea Bissau (194 Mt in 2005) and
day-old chickens to The Gambia, Mauritania, Mali,
Burkina Faso and
Guinea Bissau (238,250 in 2005).
Fishermen in Senegal.
The fishing sector benefits from a long coastline (approximately 448
miles) and a productive continental shelf area of approximately 9,653
square miles. Industrial fishing consists of sardine, tuna and trawler
harvesting (shrimp, mullet, sole, cuttlefish, etc.). "Artisanal"
catches are mainly for the local market with a large proportion
purchased by local factories for processing. Senegal's fishing sector
has historically been one of the country's largest sources of foreign
In 2005, seafood products represented 22 percent of Senegal's total
exports and generated more than $366 million in national income from
an annual catch of approximately 40,000 tons, against approximately
$374 million for a catch of approximately 430,000 tons in 2004. The
fishing industry is also a key sector for employment. At the local
level, thousands of families depend on fish as a nutritional staple.
The Government estimates that the sector employs more than 200,000
people and generates significant temporary employment in the informal
sector, in particular through the artisanal fishing, using lines,
traps, and nets with small-scale traditional fishing canoes.
The European Union is the largest market for Senegal's seafood
Senegal signed seventeen agreements with EU allowing EU
fishing craft access to Senegalese water while setting export quotas
and limits, and requiring that part of the catch, especially tuna, is
supplied to local processing industries. The 2002–2006 Senegal/EU
agreement, which provided for an annual compensation of $15 million to
the Government of Senegal, expired in June 2006. Negotiations to renew
it are currently suspended following strong denunciation of previous
agreements by Senegalese fishermen's associations for alleged
overexploitation of high-value fish, declining incomes, and limiting
the availability of high value fish in the local markets. The
Senegal and local environmental organizations have also
expressed concerns about the possible permanent ecological damage
caused by the more sophisticated and efficient EU fleets.
Several large Senegalese fish processing companies have ceased
operations because of Senegal's small and unproductive fishing fleet,
high costs of production, over-exploitation and scarcity of high value
fish, and lack of investment resources. This crisis is reported to be
one of the main causes of clandestine emigration from Senegal's major
fishing communities to Europe over the last two years with the death
of hundreds of young people, mostly fishermen.
In Senegal, the contribution of forest and other natural resources to
the economy is not visible although it is real and important. The
potential production of fauna and forest products is high and
diversified but this sector is not fully accounted for in the
macroeconomic indicators. Officially, the sector represents less than
1% of GDP. However the production of forest resources, mainly charcoal
and wildlife, is estimated at $50 million yearly.
Data collected in 2006 by UICN from producers, brokers and consumers
of wild plant and animal products indicate that most of non-wood
plants, wild animals, and continental fish are commercialized and only
a small proportion is used for consumption. The economic importance of
forest products varies by region but they account for up to 50% of the
revenues of poor rural households. The value of these products, which
usually are not included in the national statistics, is estimated at
least $19 to $35 million.
Gum arabic exports, which are not included
in the about figures, soared to over $280 million in 2006.
Production resources and inputs
The construction of the Diama and Manantali Dams in 1986 created an
additional 240,000 hectares of land which can be irrigated on the
Senegalese side of the
Senegal River in northern Senegal. This gave
the country the potential to diversify its crop base and increase food
production. However, operation of the upstream dam has also reduced
annual floods along the floodplain, where an ancient and productive
form of recessional irrigation has been practiced for hundreds of
years. Recessional irrigation is still practiced along these flood
plains for an estimated 50,000 hectares.
The best agricultural land along the
Senegal River is in the alluvial
valley between Bakel and Dagana, and this area is the most densely
populated part of the valley. As the floods retreat each year, a
variety of crops (including millet, sorghum, rice, and vegetables) are
sown, and they grow and mature quickly. These areas also provide
pasture for livestock. But because rainfall has been lower in Guinea
in 2006, the water table of the
Senegal River and its effluents was at
a critical level and comparable to a dry year as of early 2007. This
situation was expected to limit recession and dry season
In addition, pests such as insects and locusts have been reported on
peanuts, cowpeas, and sorghum. In northern Senegal, rice production
will likely be seriously affected this year by the extensive invasion
of grain eating birds - the red-billed quelea (Quelea quelea).
During this growing season the Government has subsidized the
agricultural sector at a level of about $40 million. This investment
included the purchase of 40,000 tons of peanut seeds, payments to
peanut producers of up to $10 million, the purchase of seeds of
special crops such as sesame, cassava, corn, and hisbiscus sabdarifa
(bissap), and for the subsidy of fertilizers. The government has also
contributed $10 million for the purchase of farming equipment.
Agricultural policies and institutional framework
Senegal's agricultural policies are historically characterized by the
following key features: The government agricultural support system is
mainly based on cash crops that have reliable markets. Agricultural
research has significantly contributed in maintaining productivity
despite irregular rainfall and poor soils. Liberalization of the
market of agricultural produce in early 1990 has improved the
efficiency of the cereal market.
The impact of the liberalization has been limited because peanuts
still dominate the market; integrated extension, input distribution,
credit, and marketing support systems contribute in boosting
productivity, especially cash crops and government promoted new crops;
yet, support to farmers is costly and inefficient, particularly
because the government responds more to political pressure than to
economically motivated schemes; literacy programs are not devoted due
attention in rural areas, and this limits the efficiency of extension
and farm-level adoption of technologies, and therefore farmers
capacity to respond to market dynamics.
In response to increasing rural migration and clandestine emigration,
the government has recently[when?] launched a new plan, called REVA
("Return to Agriculture"). The objective of this program is to develop
agricultural infrastructure (construction of rural roads,
rehabilitation of wells, and connection to electricity) and provide
training and production tools and equipment to young and women
farmers, especially former clandestine emigrants. The pilot phase of
the program started in August 2006 and will end in December 2008, and
during this period the government plans to implement 550 production
sites.[needs update] This plan is gaining increasing support from
The institutional framework of the agricultural sector is organized
through two main ministries. The Ministry of Agriculture, biofuels and
Food Security which includes the Directorate of Agriculture
responsible for the implementation of food grains and agro- industrial
development policies and for overseeing the field based extension
services; the Directorate of Horticulture which coordinates government
support to the horticultural sector; the Directorate of Agricultural
Census; and the Directorate of Plant Protection responsible for
government pest control programs, including regulations, management of
standards, and various field interventions. The second ministry
involved in the agricultural sector is the Ministry of Animal
Husbandry with several services coordinating government support to the
livestock, dairy and poultry sub-sectors.
These services are completed by research and training institutions.
ISRA (Senegalese Agricultural Research Institute) is the leading
agricultural research institution and works on various issues related
to crop and animal production, SPS and veterinary issues, fishing and
forest products and rural socio-economy. Other major research
institutions are ITA (Food Technology Institute), CDH (horticultural
research) and WARDA (The Africa
Senegal has also
agricultural and veterinary colleges which provide most of human
resources used in the sector. The main schools are ENSA (the
Agricultural College), EISMV (The Inter-states Veterinary College),
and CDH (The Horticultural Development Training Center).
Major international donors
Major donors involved in the agricultural sector in
FAO, USAID, USDA, the World Bank, the African Development Bank, the
West African Development Bank, the French government, Peace Corps and
several other local and international NGOs.
Economy of Senegal
Index of Senegal-related articles
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae
af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az Ndiaye,
Senegal agricultural situation country report". U.S. Foreign
Agricultural Service (January 17, 2007). This article incorporates
text from this source, which is in the public domain.
Senegal Projet Croissance Economique - Analyse de la filiere
engrais au senegal et de son evolution sur la periode 2000-2010.
Mamadou Faye, Jean Pierre Ndiaye, Amadou Abdoulaye Fall, and Valerie
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