Agriculture in Albania is still a significant sector of the economy
, which contributes to 22.5% of the country's GDP
. The country spans of which 24% is agricultural land
, 36% forest land
, 15% pasture
and 25% urban area
s including lakes, waterways, unused rocky and mountain land. It can be separated into three main zones such as the lowland zone alongside the coastline of the country, the hill zone in the lowland and the mountain zone.
The country encompasses coastal plains in the west to the Albanian Alps
in the north, the Sharr Mountains
in the northeast, Skanderbeg Mountains
in the center, Korab Mountains
in the east, Pindus Mountains
in the southeast and Ceraunian Mountains
in the southwest along the Albanian Riviera
. The Mediterranean Sea
, which includes the Adriatic
, makes up the entire west border of Albania.
The country experiences mostly mediterranean
climate with continental
That means that the climate is characterised by mild winters and hot, dry summers. The warmest areas of the country are along the west, where climate is profoundly impacted by the sea. The coldest parts of the country are at the north and east, where snowy forested climate is prevalent.
In 1990, domestic farm products accounted for 63% of household expenditures and 25% of exports. As part of the pre-accession process of Albania
to the European Union
, farmers are being aided through IPA funds to improve the Albanian agriculture standards.
As of the Ministry of Agriculture
the exports of vegetables and fruits have doubled over the first months of 2017. However, the exports of fish, seafood and marine products have also increased by 35 percent.
One of the earliest farming sites in Europe
has been found in Southeastern Albania.
Both the Adriatic
and Ionian Sea
inside the Mediterranean Sea
are a source of salt water
fishing, while fresh water
fishing occurs on Lake Butrint
, Lake Shkodër
, Lake Ohrid
, Lake Prespa
as well as in Karavasta Lagoon
, Narta Lagoon
and Patos Lagoon
. The country's coast is estimated to be long. The country's great availability of water gives the underdeveloped fishing industry
great potential to become a major part of the local economy. Although the fishing industry is still in a transition process despite significant development and processing capacities inherited from the past.
Extensive marine fish cultivation has been practiced in the country in the 1950s. The marine finfish industry is an inshore and offshore sea cage-farming sector. Trout
s are developed mainly in the southeast, southwest and north, while carp
s are primary found in the center and north. Marine finfish culture is dominated by species including rainbow trout
, european bass
, gilt-head bream
, common carp
, silver carp
, bighead carp
, grass carp
and ohrid trout
s are widespread throughout the south of the country and particularly cultivated in Lake Butrint
along the proximity to the Ionian Sea.
In 1980, almost 80 mussel cultivation facilities were constructed with an average production of about 2,000 tonnes per year, while in 1989 it increased to 5,000 tonnes per year.
Although in Shëngjin
operates as well a smaller facility of about 100 hectares. Following the end of communism
and outbreak of cholera
in 1990, the production declined sharply and opened again in 2000.
The cultivation of shrimp
s began around the end of communism in Albania.
The country's only extensive shrimp cultivation facility is located in Narta Lagoon
, whence the Vjosa River
drains into the Adriatic Sea. Within the Karaburun-Sazan Marine Park
, there has been 50 species of crustacean
s recorded which indicates that the region is a potential location for cultivation.
is the 42nd largest producer
in the world. The country has one of Europe
`s longest history of viticulture
and belongs chronologically to the old world of wine
The most important wine regions of the country are located in the center but also the mountainous areas in the north, east and south. Following the end of communism
in the 20th century, the development and fortunes of the Albanian wine industry were deeply influenced by the economic influences of the country.
In 1912, gained widespread popularity among the local population but was almost destroyed in 1933 by phylloxera
. A significant upturn began only after the Second World War
, at the end of which wine was still cultivated on only . The most producing region of wine was Durrës County
, where grapes was grown on communist state enterprises. In that time the nationwide acreage corresponded approximately to that of tobacco
, but was significantly lower than that of olive
trees. The exported wine was consumed primarily in Western Europe
such as in Germany
Moreover, the exports of wine decreased continuously from 61,000 hectoliters in 1971 to 22,000 hectoliters in 1985. The reasons are to be found mainly in outdated production conditions and insufficient technical material that made it difficult to transport and lowered the quality. On the other hand, the export of easily transportable graisins was continuously in increase (up to 3500 tons per year), while the export of fresh grapes was marginal.
The main agricultural products in the country are tobacco
s, sugar beet
, dairy product
s, and traditional medicine
and aromatic plants.
Agriculture accounts for 18.9% of the GDP and a large portion of the exports. However, it is limited primarily to small family operations and subsistence farming because of lack of modern equipment, unclear property rights, and the prevalence of small, inefficient plots of land. The post-1990 land fragmentation, uncertain land ownership, lack of state registries and bank crediting, and high VAT are all obstacles to a modern agricultural industry. There is also a concern that agricultural products originating from Albania are being stamped as 'Product of Turkey' for the international market.
The agricultural scene is gradually changing with the introduction of cooperatives, foreign investment, farmer formalization, and the construction of collection and distribution centers.
Albania has soils and a climate favorable to an extensive lumber industry. Many of the historic forests of Albania were destroyed with inefficient wood industry and expanse of agricultural land in the 1990s. Today, forests cover about one third of Albania's land area and, due to an agreement with Italy
and the World Bank
, there is a large amount of reforestation
Albania is the 11th largest producer of olive oil
Albania produced in 2018:
* 391 thousand tons of maize
* 288 thousand tons of tomato
* 254 thousand tons of potato
* 240 thousand tons of wheat
* 239 thousand tons of watermelon
* 184 thousand tons of grape
* 120 thousand tons of cucumber
* 117 thousand tons of olive
* 108 thousand tons of apple
* 100 thousand tons of onion
* 81 thousand tons of bell pepper
In addition to smaller productions of other agricultural products, like melon
(41 tousand tons), plum
(41 thounsand tons), oat
(34 thousand tons), sugar beet
(27 thousand tons), fig
(24 thousand tons), peach
(19 thousand tons) and pear
(13 thousand tons).
Albania produces a wide variety of fruit
s and vegetable
s, while its production is constantly growing.
* Economy of Albania
* Geography of Albania
* Cuisine of Albania
*Agricultural University of Tirana
Agro, public broadcaster channel dedicated to Albania’s agriculture scene
Further reading Bernet, Thomas & Kazazi, Iris S. Organic Agriculture in Albania: Sector Study 2011. Swiss Coordination Office in Albania (SCO-A), Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) & Ministry of Agriculture of Albania, Tirana, Albania, 2012Diku, Abdulla. OPTIONS FOR GHG MITIGATION IN THE AGRICULTURE SECTOR IN ALBANIA, March 2012Dashi E., Guri F. "Food, Rural, Agricultural and Fisheries Policies in Albania". In : Allaya M. (ed.) ''Les agricultures méditerranéennes : analyses par pays''. Montpellier : CIHEAM, 2008. p. 241-264 (Options Méditerranéennes : Série B. Etudes et Recherches; n. 61)Jojic Etleva; Bujar Huqi, Fatbardh Sallaku, Odeta Tota, and Shkelqim Fortuzi. "Land Fragmentation and Utilization of Agricultural Machinery in Albanian Conditions", ''Research Journal of Agricultural Science'', 41 (2), 2009
*Miluka, Juna; Gero Carletto, Benjamin Davis, and Alberto Zezza. "The Vanishing Farms? The Impact of International Migration on Albanian Family Farming", ''Journal of Development Studies'' 46, no.1 (2010): 1140 - 1161
*Muller, Daniel and Thomas Sikor. "Effects of Post-Socialist Reforms on Land Cover and Land Use in South-Eastern Albania." ''Applied Geography'' 26, no. 3-4 (2006):175-191.
Country studiesCIA World FactbookEncyclopædia Britannica
Agroweb Albanian Agriculture PortalAgr.al Albanian Agricultural Products Virtual MarketAlbanian Agribusiness Council Official WebsiteOrganic Agriculture Association of Albania Official WebsiteAlbanian Women in Business Official Website Well Food Hub Adriatic ProjectSlow Food Foundation Arch of TasteAgency for Agricultural and Rural Development Official WebsiteMinistry of Agriculture, Rural Development, and Water Administration of Albania Official Website
Category:Agriculture by country