The Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA) is a plurilateral agreement under the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO) that entered into force in 1981. It was then renegotiated in parallel with the Uruguay Round in 1994, and entered into force on 1 January 1996. The agreement was subsequently revised on 30 March 2012. The revised GPA came into effect on 6 July 2014. It regulates the government procurement of goods and services by the public authorities of the parties to the agreement, based on the principles of openness, transparency and non-discrimination.


The following WTO Members are parties to the agreement:[1]

Parties Accession date
Canada 1 January 1996
The European Union with respect to Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom 1 January 1996
Israel 1 January 1996
Japan 1 January 1996
Norway 1 January 1996
Switzerland 1 January 1996
United States 1 January 1996
The Netherlands with respect to Aruba 25 October 1996
South Korea 1 January 1997
Hong Kong SAR 19 June 1997
Liechtenstein 18 September 1997
Singapore 20 October 1997
Iceland 28 April 2001
The European Union with respect to Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia 1 May 2004
The European Union with respect to Bulgaria and Romania 1 January 2007
Taiwan 15 July 2009
Armenia 15 September 2011
The European Union with respect to Croatia 1 July 2013
Montenegro 15 July 2015
New Zealand 12 August 2015
Ukraine 18 May 2016
Moldova 14 June 2016

The following WTO Members have obtained observer status with respect to the GPA, with those marked with an asterisk (*) negotiating accession: Albania*, Argentina, Australia*, Bahrain, Cameroon, Chile, China*, Colombia, Costa Rica, Georgia*, India, Indonesia, Jordan*, Kyrgyz Republic*, Macedonia, Malaysia, Mongolia, Oman*, Pakistan, Panama, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan*, Thailand, Turkey and Vietnam.[1]

Several commentators have suggested that following the United Kingdom's departure from the European Union, the UK would wish to become a party to the GPA in its own right.[2]


  1. ^ a b "Parties and observers to the GPA". WTO. Retrieved 9 June 2016. 
  2. ^ e.g. Cameron, A., Brexit: What does it mean for public procurement?, 8 July 2016, accessed 11 September 2016

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