HOME
The Info List - Agnolo Bronzino


--- Advertisement ---



Agnolo di Cosimo (Italian: [ˈaɲɲolo di ˈkɔːzimo]; November 17, 1503 – November 23, 1572), usually known as Bronzino
Bronzino
("Il Bronzino" [il bronˈdziːno] in Italian), or Agnolo Bronzino,[1] was a Florentine Mannerist painter. His sobriquet, Bronzino, in all probability refers to his relatively dark skin.[2] He lived all his life in Florence, and from his late 30s was kept busy as the court painter of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. He was mainly a portraitist but also painted many religious subjects, and a few allegorical subjects, which include what is probably his best known work, Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time, c. 1544–45, now in London. Many portraits of the Medicis exist in several versions with varying degrees of participation by Bronzino
Bronzino
himself, as Cosimo was a pioneer of the copied portrait sent as a diplomatic gift. He trained with Pontormo, the leading Florentine painter of the first generation of Mannerism, and his style was greatly influenced by him, but his elegant and somewhat elongated figures always appear calm and somewhat reserved, lacking the agitation and emotion of those by his teacher. They have often been found cold and artificial, and his reputation suffered from the general critical disfavour attached to Mannerism
Mannerism
in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Recent decades have been more appreciative of his art.

Contents

1 Life 2 Work

2.1 Portraits 2.2 Religious and allegorical subjects

3 Selected works 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External links

Life[edit]

Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time, c. 1544–45, London, National Gallery

Bronzino
Bronzino
was born in Florence, the son of a butcher. According to his contemporary Vasari, Bronzino
Bronzino
was a pupil first of Raffaellino del Garbo, and then of Pontormo, to whom he was apprenticed at 14. Pontormo
Pontormo
is thought to have introduced a portrait of Bronzino
Bronzino
as a child (seated on a step) into one of his series on Joseph in Egypt now in the National Gallery, London.[3] Pontormo
Pontormo
exercised a dominant influence on Bronzino's developing style, and the two were to remain collaborators for most of the former's life. An early example of Bronzino's hand has often been detected in the Capponi Chapel
Capponi Chapel
in the church of Santa Felicita
Santa Felicita
by the Ponte Vecchio
Ponte Vecchio
in Florence. Pontormo designed the interior and executed the altarpiece, the masterly Deposition from the Cross and the sidewall fresco Annunciation. Bronzino
Bronzino
apparently was assigned the frescoes on the dome, which have not survived. Of the four empanelled tondi or roundels depicting each of the evangelists, two were said by Vasari
Vasari
to have been painted by Bronzino. His style is so similar to his master's that scholars still debate the specific attributions.[4] Towards the end of his life, Bronzino
Bronzino
took a prominent part in the activities of the Florentine Accademia delle Arti del Disegno, of which he was a founding member in 1563. The painter Alessandro Allori
Alessandro Allori
was his favourite pupil, and Bronzino was living in the Allori family house at the time of his death in Florence
Florence
in 1572 (Alessandro was also the father of Cristofano Allori).[5] Bronzino
Bronzino
spent the majority of his career in Florence.

Eleonora di Toledo
Eleonora di Toledo
col figlio Giovanni, 1544–45, oil on wood, Uffizi Gallery, Florence

Work[edit] Portraits[edit]

Portrait
Portrait
of a Young Man, c. 1550–55, London, National Gallery

Bronzino
Bronzino
first received Medici patronage in 1539, when he was one of the many artists chosen to execute the elaborate decorations for the wedding of Cosimo I de' Medici to Eleonora di Toledo, daughter of the Viceroy of Naples. It was not long before he became, and remained for most of his career, the official court painter of the Duke and his court. His portrait figures—often read as static, elegant, and stylish exemplars of unemotional haughtiness and assurance—influenced the course of European court portraiture for a century. These well known paintings exist in many workshop versions and copies. In addition to images of the Florentine elite, Bronzino also painted idealized portraits of the poets Dante
Dante
(c. 1530, now in Washington, DC) and Petrarch. Bronzino's best known works comprise the aforementioned series of the duke and duchess, Cosimo and Eleonora, and figures of their court such as Bartolomeo Panciatichi and his wife Lucrezia. These paintings, especially those of the duchess, are known for their minute attention to the detail of her costume, which almost takes on a personality of its own in the image at right. Here the Duchess
Duchess
is pictured with her second son Giovanni, who died of malaria in 1562, along with his mother; however it is the sumptuous fabric of the dress that takes up more space on the canvas than either of the sitters. Indeed, the dress itself has been the object of some scholarly debate. The elaborate gown has been rumored to be so beloved by the duchess that she was ultimately buried in it; when this myth was debunked, others suggested that perhaps the garment never existed at all and Bronzino
Bronzino
invented the entire thing, perhaps working only from a fabric swatch. In any case, this picture was reproduced over and over by Bronzino
Bronzino
and his shop, becoming one of the most iconic images of the duchess. The version pictured here is in the Uffizi
Uffizi
Gallery, and is one of the finest surviving examples.[6] Bronzino's so-called "allegorical portraits", such as that of a Genoese admiral, Portrait
Portrait
of Andrea Doria as Neptune, are less typical but possibly even more fascinating due to the peculiarity of placing a publicly recognized personality in the nude as a mythical figure.[7] Finally, in addition to being a painter, Bronzino
Bronzino
was also a poet, and his most personal portraits are perhaps those of other literary figures such as that of his friend the poet Laura Battiferri.[8] Religious and allegorical subjects[edit]

The Holy Family with the Infant Saint John the Baptist (Madonna Stroganoff)

In 1540/41, Bronzino
Bronzino
began work on the fresco decoration of the Chapel of Eleanora di Toledo in the Palazzo Vecchio
Palazzo Vecchio
and an oil on panel Deposition of Christ to be an altarpiece for the chapel. Before this commission, his style in the religious genre was less Mannerist, and was based in balanced compositions of the High Renaissance. Yet he became elegant and classicizing (cf. Smyth) in this fresco cycle, and his religious works are examples of the mid-16th-century aesthetics of the Florentine court—traditionally interpreted as highly stylized and non-personal or emotive. Crossing the Red Sea is typical of Bronzino's approach at this time, though it should not be claimed that Bronzino
Bronzino
or the court was lacking in religious fervor on the basis of the preferred court fashion. Indeed, the duchess Eleanora was a generous patron to the recently founded Jesuit
Jesuit
order.[9] Bronzino's work tends to include sophisticated references to earlier painters, as in one of his last grand frescoes called The Martyrdom of St. Lawrence (San Lorenzo, 1569), in which almost every one of the extraordinarily contorted poses can be traced back to Raphael
Raphael
or to Michelangelo, whom Bronzino
Bronzino
idolized (cf. Brock). Bronzino's skill with the nude was even more enigmatically deployed in the celebrated Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time, which conveys strong feelings of eroticism under the pretext of a moralizing allegory. His other major works include the design of a series of tapestries on The Story of Joseph, for the Palazzo Vecchio. Many of Bronzino's works are still in Florence
Florence
but other examples can be found in the National Gallery, London, and elsewhere. Selected works[edit]

Lodovico Capponi

St. Mark (c. 1525) - Oil on Wood, Capponi Chapel, Santa Felicita, Florence St. Matthew (c. 1525) - Oil on Wood, Capponi Chapel, Santa Felicita, Florence St. Sebastian (1525–28) - Oil on panel, 87 x 77 cm, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid Portrait
Portrait
of Lorenzo Lenzi (1527–28) - Oil on panel, castello Sforzesco, Milan Pietà (c. 1530) - Oil on panel, 105 x 100 cm, Uffizi, Florence Portrait
Portrait
of Dante
Dante
(1530) - Oil on panel, Milan Portrait
Portrait
of a Lady in Green (1530–32) - Oil on panel, 76,7 x 65,4 cm, Royal Collection, Windsor Holy Family (1534–40) - Oil on wood, 124.5 x 99.5 cm, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna Adoration of the Shepherds (1535–1540) - Oil on wood, 65,3 x 46,7 cm, Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest Portrait
Portrait
of Ugolino Martelli (before 1537) - Oil on panel, 102 x 85 cm, Staatliche Museum, Berlin Portrait
Portrait
of Bartolomeo Panciatichi (c. 1540) - Tempera on wood, 104 x 84 cm, Uffizi, Florence Holy Family (c. 1540) - Oil on wood, 117 x 93 cm, Uffizi, Florence Portrait
Portrait
of a Young Man with a Book (c. 1540) - Oil on wood, 96 x 75 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time
Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time
(Allegory; 1540–45) - Oil on panel, 146 x 116 cm, National Gallery, London Adoration of the Bronze Snake (1540–45) - Fresco, 320 x 385 cm, Palazzo Vecchio, Florence Deposition of Christ (1540–45) - Oil on panel, 268 x 173 cm, Musée des Beaux- Arts, Besançon Crossing of the Red Sea (1541–42) - Fresco, 320 x 490 cm, Palazzo Vecchio, Florence Portrait
Portrait
of a Young Girl (1541–45) - Oil on wood, 58 x 46,5 cm, Uffizi, Florence Portrait
Portrait
of Bia de' Medici (c. 1542) - Tempera on panel, 63 x 48 cm, Uffizi, Florence Portrait
Portrait
of Cosimo I de' Medici (1545) - Oil on panel, 74 x 58 cm, Uffizi, Florence Portrait
Portrait
of Giovanni de' Medici as a Child (c. 1545) - Oil on wood, 58 x 46 cm, Uffizi, Florence Portrait
Portrait
of Eleonora of Toledo (c. 1545) - Oil on panel, 115 x 96 cm, Uffizi, Florence Portrait
Portrait
of Lucrezia Panciatichi (c. 1545) - Oil on panel, 101 x 82.8 cm, Uffizi, Florence Christ on the Cross (c. 1545) - Oil on panel, 145 x 115 cm, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Nice Portrait
Portrait
of Stefano Colonna (1546) - Oil on panel, 125 x 95 cm, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome Portrait
Portrait
of Don Garcia de' Medici (1550) - Oil on panel, Museo del Prado, Madrid Portrait
Portrait
of a Lady (c. 1550) - Oil on wood, 109 x 85 cm, Galleria Sabauda, Turin Venus, Cupid and Jealousy (or Envy) (c. 1550) - Oil on wood, 192 x 142 cm, Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest Portrait
Portrait
of Andrea Doria as Neptune
Andrea Doria as Neptune
(1550–1555) - Oil on canvas, 115 x 53 cm, Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan St. John the Baptist (1550–1555) - Oil on wood, 120 x 92 cm, Galleria Borghese, Rome Portrait
Portrait
of Pierantonio Bandini (c.1550–1555) - Oil on wood, 106,7 x 82,5 cm, National Gallery
National Gallery
of Canada Portrait
Portrait
of Francesco I de' Medici (1551) - Tempera on wood, 58.5 x 41.5 cm, Uffizi, Florence Portrait
Portrait
of Maria de' Medici (1551) - Tempera on wood, 52.5 x 38 cm, Uffizi, Florence Portrait
Portrait
of Ludovico Capponi (1551) - Oil on wood, 117 x 86 cm, Frick Collection, New York Christ in Limbo, 1552, Florence, Museo dell'Opera di Santa Croce Holy Family (1555–1560) - Tempera on wood, 117 x 99 cm, Pushkin Museum, Moscow Portrait
Portrait
of Laura Battiferri
Laura Battiferri
(1555–1560) - Oil on canvas, 83 x 60 cm, Palazzo Vecchio, Florence Noli me tangere (1561) - Oil on canvas, 291 x 195 cm, Musée du Louvre, Paris Allegory
Allegory
of Happiness (1564) - Oil on copper, 40 x 30 cm, Uffizi, Florence Deposition of Christ (1565) - Oil on wood, 350 x 235 cm, Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence Martyrdom of St. Lawrence (1569) - Fresco, San Lorenzo, Florence

Works

Pietà, 1530

Saint Sebastian, 1533

Andrea Doria as Neptune, 1550–55, Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan

Portrait
Portrait
of Eleonora of Toledo, c. 1539

A portrait of an unknown woman and boy, c. 1540. Art historian Maike Vogt-Lüerssen believes the woman is Maria de' Medici, depicted with her younger brother Antonio.

Portrait
Portrait
of Laura Battiferri, 1555–60

Holy Family with St. Anne and the Infant St. John, 1545

Portrait
Portrait
of Bia de' Medici, 1545

Portrait
Portrait
of a Man Holding a Statuette, 1545

Sacra famiglia Panciatichi or Madonna Panciatichi, 1545

Portrait
Portrait
of Stefano Colonna, 1546

Portrait
Portrait
Cosimo I de' Medici in armour, c. 1545

Ugolino Martelli, c. 1537

Portrait
Portrait
of Cosimo I de' Medici as Orpheus, c. 1537–39

Venus, Cupid and Envy, c. 1548–50

John the Baptist, 1553

References[edit]

External video

Bronzino
Bronzino
and The Mannerist Portrait, Smarthistory[10]

Bronzino's Portrait
Portrait
of Eleonora di Toledo
Eleonora di Toledo
with her son Giovanni, Smarthistory[11]

^ Mistaken attempts also have been made in the past to assert his name was Agnolo Tori and even Angelo (Agnolo) Allori ^ Chilvers, Ian (2008). Dizionario dell'arte. Dalai Editore. p. 179. ISBN 88-6073-115-1.  ^ Elizabeth Pilliod, Pontormo, Bronzino, and Allori: A Genealogy of Florentine Art (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001). ^ Web Gallery of Art, image collection, virtual museum, searchable database of European fine arts (1100–1850) ^ Cecil Gould, The Sixteenth Century Italian Schools, National Gallery Catalogues, ( London
London
1975), ISBN 0-947645-22-5 ^ Janet Cox-Rearick, Splendors of the Renaissance: reconstructions of historic costumes from King Studio, Italy
Italy
by Fausto Fornasori, Catalog of an exhibition held at Art Gallery of the Graduate Center, City University of New York, Mar. 10–Apr. 24, 2004, (King Studio, 2004) ^ Maurice Brock, Bronzino
Bronzino
(Paris: Flammarion; London: Thames & Hudson, 2002). ^ Deborah, Parker, Bronzino: Renaissance Painter as Poet
Poet
(Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000). ^ Janet Cox-Rearick, Bronzino's Chapel of Eleonora in the Palazzo Vecchio (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993). ^ " Bronzino
Bronzino
and The Mannerist Portrait". Smarthistory
Smarthistory
at Khan Academy. Retrieved January 6, 2013.  ^ "Bronzino's Portrait
Portrait
of Eleonora di Toledo
Eleonora di Toledo
with her son Giovanni". Smarthistory
Smarthistory
at Khan Academy. Retrieved January 6, 2013. 

Bibliography[edit]

Maurice Brock, Bronzino, Edition du Régard, Paris 2002. ISBN 2-84105-140-4 The Drawings of Bronzino, exh. cat. ed. by Carmen C. Bambach, contr. by Elizabeth Pilliod, Marzia Faietti, Janet Cox-Rearick, Philippe Costamagna, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York ISBN 978-1-58839-354-8, 978-0-300-15512-9 Bronzino: pittore e poeta alla corte dei Medici, exh. cat. ed. by Antonio Natali e Carlo Falciani, Palazzo Strozzi, Florence
Florence
2010-11. ISBN 978-88-7461-153-9.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Agnolo Bronzino.

Bronzino: artist and poet. InToscana. Agnolo Bronzino's Biography, Style and Artworks The National Gallery: Agnolo Bronzino Biography Angolo Bronzino
Bronzino
at Encyclopaedia Britannica Great Works of Western Art: Agnolo Bronzino, Portrait
Portrait
of Lodovico Capponi Palazzo Strozzi, Florence/Bruce Adolphe's "Of Art and Onions: Homage to Bronzino" Italian Paintings: Florentine School, a collection catalog containing information about the artist and his works (see pages: 200-204).

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 59354048 LCCN: n80116993 ISNI: 0000 0003 7116 0514 GND: 119168774 SELIBR: 179322 SUDOC: 031948235 BNF: cb14957640w (data) ULAN: 500004362 NLA: 36552745 NKC: jn20011018098 BNE: XX1212681 KulturNav: d0862487-ab4e-4422-9c57-1be5d35631c0 RKD: 12

.