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Agastya
Agastya
was a revered Vedic sage of Hinduism.[3][4] In the Indian traditions, he is a noted recluse and an influential scholar in diverse languages of the Indian subcontinent. He and his wife Lopamudra
Lopamudra
are the celebrated authors of hymns 1.165 to 1.191 in the Sanskrit text Rigveda
Rigveda
and other Vedic literature.[4][5][6] Agastya
Agastya
appears in numerous itihasas and puranas (roughly, mythologies and regional epics) including the major Ramayana
Ramayana
and Mahabharata.[6][7] He is one of the seven or eight most revered rishis in the Vedic texts,[8] as well as a subject of reverence for being one of the Tamil Siddhar
Siddhar
in the Shaivism
Shaivism
tradition. He is also revered in the Puranic literature of Shaktism
Shaktism
and Vaishnavism.[9] He is one of the Indian sages found in ancient sculpture and reliefs in Hindu temples of South Asia, and Southeast Asia such as in the early medieval era Shaiva temples on Java
Java
Indonesia. He is the principal figure and Guru
Guru
in the ancient Javanese language
Javanese language
text Agastyaparva, whose 11th century version survives.[10][11] Agastya
Agastya
is traditionally attributed to be the author of many Sanskrit texts such as the Agastya
Agastya
Gita found in Varaha Purana, Agastya
Agastya
Samhita found embedded in Skanda Purana, and the Dvaidha-Nirnaya Tantra text.[6] He is also referred to as Mana, Kalasaja, Kumbhaja, Kumbhayoni and Maitravaruni after his mythical origins.[10][12][13]

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Contents

1 Etymology and nomenclature 2 Biography

2.1 Agastya
Agastya
ashram

3 Textual sources

3.1 Vedas 3.2 Ramayana 3.3 Mahabharata 3.4 Puranas 3.5 Tamil texts

3.5.1 Siddhar

3.6 Buddhist texts 3.7 Javanese and southeast Asian texts 3.8 Agastya
Agastya
Samhita 3.9 Agastimata 3.10 Others

4 Legacy

4.1 Temples 4.2 Literature 4.3 Martial arts

5 See also 6 References

6.1 Bibliography

7 Further reading 8 External links

Etymology and nomenclature[edit]

seated divine sage Agastya

The etymological origin of Agastya
Agastya
is unclear and there are several theories. One states that it is derived from a flowering tree called Agati gandiflora, which is endemic to the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and is called Akatti in Tamil. This theory suggests that Agati evolved into Agastih, and favors Dravidian origins of the Vedic sage.[14] Another theory states that the root is Aj or Anj, which connotes "brighten, effulgent one" and links Agastya
Agastya
to "one who brightens" in darkness, and Agastya
Agastya
is traditionally the Indian name for Canopus, the second most brilliantly shining star found in South Asian skies, next to Sirius.[15] A third theory links it to Indo-European origins, through the Iranian word gasta which means "sin, foul", and a-gasta would mean "not sin, not foul".[16] The fourth theory, based on folk etymology in verse 2.11 of the Ramayana
Ramayana
states that Agastya
Agastya
is from aga (unmoving or mountain) and gam (move), and together these roots connote "one who is mover-of-mountains", or "mover-of-the-unmoving".[17] The word is also written as Agasti and Agathiyar (Tamil: அகத்தியர் Agathiyar;[18] Telugu: అగస్త్య; Kannada: ಅಗಸ್ತ್ಯ; Malayalam: അഗസ്ത്യന് or അഗസ്ത്യമുനി Malay: Anggasta; Thai: Akkhot).[18] Biography[edit]

Maharishi Agastya
Agastya
and Lopāmudrā

Agastya
Agastya
is the named author of several hymns of the Rigveda
Rigveda
(1500-1200 BCE). These hymns do not provide his biography.[4][19] The origins of Agastya
Agastya
are mythical. Unlike most Vedic sages, he has neither a human mother nor a father in its legends. His miraculous birth follows a yajna being done by gods Varuna
Varuna
and Mitra, where the celestial apsara Urvashi appears.[20] They are overwhelmed by her extraordinary sexuality, and ejaculate. Their semen falls into a mud pitcher, which is the womb in which the fetus of Agastya
Agastya
grows. He is born from this jar, along with his twin sage Vashistha
Vashistha
in some mythologies.[21] This mythology gives him the name kumbhayoni, which literally means "he whose womb was a mud pot".[20][22] Agastya
Agastya
leads an ascetic life, educates himself, becoming a celebrated sage. He is not born to Brahmin
Brahmin
parents, but is called a Brahmin
Brahmin
in many Indian texts because of his learning. His unknown origins have led to speculative proposals that the Vedic era Agastya
Agastya
may have been a migrant Aryan whose ideas influenced the south, and alternatively a native non-Aryan Dravidian whose ideas influenced the north.[23][24][25] According to inconsistent legends in the Puranic and the epics, the ascetic sage Agastya
Agastya
proposed to Lopamudra, a princess born in the kingdom of Vidharbha. Her parents were unwilling to bless the engagement, concerned that she would be unable to live the austere lifestyle of Agastya
Agastya
in the forest. However, the legends state that Lopamudra
Lopamudra
accepted him as her husband, saying that Agastya
Agastya
has the wealth of ascetic living, her own youth will fade with seasons, and it is his virtue that makes him the right person. Therewith, Lopamudra becomes the wife of Agastya.[26] In other versions, Lopamudra
Lopamudra
marries Agastya, but after the wedding, she demands that Agastya
Agastya
provide her with basic comforts before she will consummate the marriage, a demand that ends up forcing Agastya
Agastya
to return to society and earn wealth.[27] Agastya
Agastya
and Lopamudra
Lopamudra
have a son named Drdhasyu, sometimes called Idhmavaha. He is described in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
as a boy who learns the Vedas
Vedas
listening to his parents while he is in the womb, and is born into the world reciting the hymns.[1] Agastya
Agastya
ashram[edit] Agastya
Agastya
had a hermitage (ashram), but the ancient and medieval era Indian texts provide inconsistent stories and location for this ashram. Two legends place it in Northwest Maharashtra, on the banks of river Godavari, near Nashik
Nashik
in small towns named Agastyapuri and Akole. Other putative sites mentioned in Northern and Eastern Indian sources is near Kolhapur
Kolhapur
(Western ghats at Maharashtra, Karnataka border), or near Kannauj
Kannauj
(Utar Pradesh), or in Agastyamuni village near Rudraprayag
Rudraprayag
(Utarakhand), or Satpura Range
Satpura Range
(Madhya Pradesh). In Southern sources and the North Indian Devi-Bhagavata Purana, his ashram is based in Tamil Nadu, variously placed in Tirunelveli, Potiyal hills, or Thanjavur.[28] Textual sources[edit] Vedas[edit] Agastya
Agastya
is mentioned in all the four Vedas
Vedas
of Hinduism, and is a character in the Brahmanas, Aranyakas, Upanishads, epics, and many Puranas. [13] He is the author of hymns 1.165 to 1.191 of the Rigveda (~1200 BCE).[4][19] He ran a Vedic school (gurukul), as evidenced by hymn 1.179 of the Rigveda
Rigveda
which credits its author to be his wife Lopamudra
Lopamudra
and his students. [13] He was a respected sage in the Vedic era, as many other hymns of the Rigveda
Rigveda
composed by other sages refer to Agastya. The hymns composed by Agastya
Agastya
are known for verbal play and similes, puzzles and puns, and striking imagery embedded within his spiritual message.[29]

Agastya
Agastya
vedic verses

With thee, O Indra, are most bounteous riches that further every one who lives uprightly. Now may these Maruts show us loving-kindness, Gods who of old were ever prompt to help us.     —1.169.5,     Transl: Ralph T.H. Griffith[30]

May we know refreshment, and a community having lively waters.     —1.165.15, 1.166.15, 1.167.11, etc.     Transl: Stephanie Jamison, Joel Brereton[29]; Sanskrit original: एषा यासीष्ट तन्वे वयां विद्यामेषं वृजनं जीरदानुम् ॥१५॥</ref>

—Rigveda

His Vedic poetry is particularly notable for two themes.[29] In one set of hymns, Agastya
Agastya
describes a conflict between two armies led by gods Indra
Indra
and Maruts, which scholars such as G. S. Ghurye have interpreted as an allegory of a conflict between Arya (Indra) and Dasa (Rudra).[24][31] Agastya
Agastya
successfully reconciles their conflict, makes an offering wherein he prays for understanding and loving-kindness between the two. Twenty one out of the twenty seven hymns he composed in Mandala 1 of the Rigveda
Rigveda
have his signature ending, wherein he appeals, "may each community know refreshment (food) and lively waters".[29] These ideas have led him to be considered as a protector of both the Arya and the Dasa.[32] However, some scholars interpret the same hymns to be an allegory for any two conflicting ideologies or lifestyles, because Agastya
Agastya
never uses the words Arya or Dasa, and only uses the phrase ubhau varnav (literally, "both colors").[24][33][34] The theme and idea of "mutual understanding" as a means for lasting reconciliation, along with Agastya's name, reappears in section 1.2.2 of the Aitareya Aranyaka
Aranyaka
of Hinduism.[35] The second theme, famous in the Hinduism
Hinduism
literature, is a discussion between his wife Lopamudra
Lopamudra
and him about the human tension between the monastic solitary pursuit of spirituality, versus the responsibility of a householder's life and raising a family. Agastya
Agastya
argues that there are many ways to happiness and liberation, while Lopamudra presents her arguments about the nature of life, time and the possibility of both. She successfully seduces Agastya, in the simile filled Rigvedic hymn 1.179.[29][36]

Agastya
Agastya
is mentioned in both the oldest and the youngest layers of the Rigveda
Rigveda
(c. 1500–1200 BCE), such as in hymn 33 of mandala 7, which is older than mandala 1.[37] He is also mentioned in other three Vedas and the Vedanga
Vedanga
literature such as in verses 5.13–14 of the Nirukta. [13][37] Agastya
Agastya
and his ideas are cited in numerous other Vedic texts, such as section 7.5.5 of Taittiriya Samhita, 10.11 of Kathaka Samhita, 2.1 of Maitrayani Samhita, 5.16 of Aitareya Brahmana, 2.7.11 of Taittiriya Brahmana, and 21.14 of Pancavimsati Brahmana.[17] Ramayana[edit]

12th century statue of Agastya
Agastya
from Bihar.

Sage Agastya
Agastya
is mentioned in the Hindu
Hindu
epic Ramayana
Ramayana
in several chapters with his hermitage described to be on the banks of river Godavari.[38] In the Ramayana, Agastya
Agastya
and Lopamudra
Lopamudra
are described as living in Dandaka forest, on the southern slopes of Vindhya mountains. Rama praises Agastya
Agastya
as the one who can do what gods find impossible. He is described by Rama
Rama
as the sage who asked Vindhya mountains to lower themselves so that Sun, Moon and living beings could easily pass over it. He is also described as the sage who used his Dharma
Dharma
powers to kill demons Vatapi and Ilwala after they had jointly misled and destroyed 9,000 men.[7] Agastya, according to the Ramayana, is a unique sage, who is short and heavy in build, but by living in the south he balances the powers of Shiva
Shiva
and the weight of Kailasha and Mount Meru.[39] Agastya
Agastya
and his wife meet Rama, Sita
Sita
and Lakshmana. He gives them a divine bow and arrow, describes the evil nature of Ravana
Ravana
and, according to William Buck, B. A. van Nooten and Shirley Triest, bids them goodbye with the advice, "Rama, demons do not love men, therefore men must love each other".[17][40] Mahabharata[edit] The story of Agastya
Agastya
is mirrored in the second major Hindu
Hindu
epic Mahabharata. However, instead of Rama, the story is told as a conversation between Vaisampayana and Lomasa in section 33 of Book 3, the Vana Parva
Vana Parva
(the Book of Forest).[41]

Maharishi Agastya
Agastya
drinking the whole sea

He is described in the epic as a sage with enormous powers of ingestion and digestion.[20] Agastya, once again, stops the Vindhya mountains from growing and lowers them and he kills the demons Vatapi and Ilvala much the same mythical way as in the Ramayana. The Vana Parva also describes the story of Lopamudra
Lopamudra
and Agastya
Agastya
getting engaged and married. It also contains the mythical story of a war between Indra
Indra
and Vritra, where all the demons hide in the sea, gods requesting Agastya
Agastya
for help, who then goes and drinks up the ocean thereby revealing all the demons to the gods.[41] Puranas[edit] The Puranic literature of Hinduism
Hinduism
has numerous stories about Agastya, more elaborate, more fantastical and inconsistent than the mythologies found in Vedic and Epics literature of India.[6] For example, chapter 61 of the Matsya Purana, chapter 22 of Padma Purana, and seven other Maha Puranas
Puranas
tell the entire biography of Agastya.[17][37] Some list him as one of the Saptarishi
Saptarishi
(seven great rishi), while in others he is one of the eight or twelve extraordinary sages of the Hindu traditions.[42] The names and details are not consistent across the different Puranas, nor in different manuscript versions of the same Purana. He is variously listed along with Angiras, Atri, Bhrigu, Bhargava, Bharadvaja, Visvamitra, Vasistha, Kashyapa, Gautama, Jamadagni
Jamadagni
and others.[43] Agastya
Agastya
is reverentially mentioned in the Puranas
Puranas
of all major Hindu traditions: Shaivism, Shaktism
Shaktism
and Vaishnavism. Many of the Puranas include lengthy and detailed accounts of the descendants of Agastya and other saptarishis.[17][43] Tamil texts[edit] In Tamil traditions, Agastya
Agastya
is considered as the father of the Tamil language and the compiler of the first Tamil grammar, called Agattiyam or Akattiyam.[44][45][24] Agastya
Agastya
has been a culture hero in Tamil traditions and appears in numerous Tamil texts.[46] There are similarities and differences between the Northern and Southern (Tamil) traditions about Agastya. According to Iravatham Mahadevan,[24] both traditions state that Agastya
Agastya
migrated from north to south. The Tamil text Purananuru, dated to about the start of the common era, or possibly about 2nd century CE, in verse 201 mentions Agastya
Agastya
along with many people migrating south.[24][47] In the northern legends, Agastya's role in spreading Vedic tradition and Sanskrit is emphasized,[48] while in southern traditions his role in spreading irrigation, agriculture and augmenting the Tamil language is emphasized.[24] In the north, his ancestry is unknown with mythical legends limiting themselves to saying that Agastya
Agastya
was born from a mud pitcher. In southern traditions, his descent from a pitcher is a common reference, but two alternate southern legends place him as the Caṅkam (Sangam) polity and is said to have led the migration of eighteen Velir tribes from Dvārakā
Dvārakā
to the south[49][50].

Reverence at an Agastya
Agastya
shrine with garlands of fruits and flowers.

The northern traditional stories, states Mahadevan, are "nothing more than a collection of incredible fables and myths", while the southern versions "ring much truer and appear to be a down to earth account of a historical event".[24] Others disagree. According to K.N. Sivaraja Pillai, for example, there is nothing in the early Sangam literature or any Tamil texts prior to about the mid 1st millennium CE that mentions Agastya.[51][52] The earliest mention of the role of Agastya in Tamil language, according to Richard Weiss, can be traced to the Iraiyanar Akapporul by 8th century Nakkirar. However, in medieval era stories of the Tamil tradition, Agastya
Agastya
pioneered the first sangam period that lasted 4,440 years, and took part in the second sangam period that lasted another 3,700 years.[53] The Tirumantiram describes Agastya
Agastya
as an ascetic sage, who came from the north and settled in the southern Pothigai
Pothigai
mountains because Shiva asked him to. He is described as the one who perfected and loved both Sanskrit and Tamil languages, amassing knowledge in both, thus becoming a symbol of integration, harmony and learning, instead of being opposed to either.[54] Siddhar[edit] Agastya, in Tamil Hindu
Hindu
traditions, is considered as the first and foremost Siddhar
Siddhar
(Tamil: cittar, Sanskrit: siddha). A siddhar is derived from the Sanskrit verbal root sidh which means "to accomplish or succeed". As the first Siddhar, Agastya
Agastya
is deemed as the first master, accomplished, the sage who perfected his knowledge of the natural and spiritual worlds. This Tamil concept has parallels to Tibetan mahasiddhas, Sri Lankan Buddhist, and Nath
Nath
Hindu
Hindu
yogi traditions of north India.[55] Agastya, along with Tirumular, is considered a siddhar in both philosophical and practical domains, unlike most other siddhar who are revered for their special domain of knowledge. Agastya
Agastya
is also unique for the reverence he has received in historic texts all over the Indian subcontinent.[55] According to Venkatraman, the Siddhar-related literature about Agastya is late medieval to early modern era. In particular, all medicine and health-related Tamil text, that include Agastya
Agastya
as the Siddhar, have been composed in and after the 15th-century. According to Hartmut Scharfe, the oldest medicine siddhar Tamil text mentioning Agastya were composed no earlier than the 16th century.[5] His named is spelled as Agathiyar or Agasthiyar in some Tamil texts,[56] and some consider the writer of the medical texts to be a different person.[57] According to Kamil Zvelebil, the sage Agastya, Akattiyan the Siddha, and Akatthiyar, the author of Akattiyam, were three or possibly four different persons of different eras, who over time became fused into one single person in the Tamil tradition.[58] Buddhist texts[edit] Several Buddhist texts mention Agastya. Just like early Buddhist texts such as Kalapa, Katantra and Candra-vyakarana adapting Panini, and Asvaghosa adopting the more ancient Sanskrit poetic methodology as he praises the Buddha, Agastya
Agastya
appears in 1st millennium CE Buddhist texts. In Tamil texts, for example, Akattiyan is described as the sage who learnt Tamil and Sanskrit grammar and poetics from Avalokitan (another name for Buddha-to-be Avalokiteśvara).[59][60]

The left Indonesian statue shows Agastya
Agastya
with Shiva's trident, as a divine sage of Shaivism. Agastya
Agastya
iconography is common in southeast Asian temples.[61][62]

According to Anne E. Monius, the Manimekalai and Viracoliyam are two of many South Indian texts that co-opt Agastya
Agastya
and make him a student of the Buddha-to-be.[59] Agastya
Agastya
elsewhere appears in other historic Buddhist mythologies, such as the Jataka tales. For example, the Buddhist text Jataka-mala by Aryasura, about the Buddha's previous lives, includes Agastya
Agastya
as the seventh chapter.[63] The Agastya-Jataka story is carved as a relief in the Borobudur, the world's largest early medieval era Mahayana Buddhist temple.[64] Javanese and southeast Asian texts[edit] Agastya
Agastya
is one of the most important figures in a number of medieval era Southeast Asian inscriptions, temple reliefs and arts. He was particularly popular in Java
Java
Indonesia, till Islamic wars of conquest overwhelmed the islands of Indonesia. He is also found in Cambodia, Vietnam and other regions. The earliest mentions of Agastya
Agastya
is traceable to about the mid 1st millennium CE, but the 11th-century Javanese language
Javanese language
text Agastya-parva is a remarkable combination of philosophy, mythology and genealogy attributed to sage Agastya.[10][65] The Agastya-parva includes Sanskrit verse (shlokas) embedded within the Javanese language. The text is structured as a conversation between a Guru
Guru
(teacher, Agastya) and a Sisya (student, Agastya's son Drdhasyu).[66] The style is a mixture of didactic, philosophical and theological treatise, covering diverse range of topics much like Hindu Puranas. The chapters of the Javanese text include the Indian theory of cyclic existence, rebirth and samsara, creation of the world by the churning of the ocean (samudra manthan), theories of the Samkhya
Samkhya
and the Vedanta
Vedanta
school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy, major sections on god Shiva and Shaivism, some discussion of Tantra, a manual like summary of ceremonies associated with the rites of passage and others.[66] While the similarities between the Agastya-parva text and classical Indian ideas are obvious, according to Jan Gonda, the Indian counterpart of this text in Sanskrit or Tamil languages have not been found in Indonesia or in India.[67] Similarly other Agastya-related Indonesian texts, dated to be from the 10th to 12th centuries, discuss ideas from multiple sub-schools of Shaivism
Shaivism
such as theistic Shaivasiddhanta and monistic Agamic Pashupata, and these texts declare these theologies to be of equal merit and value.[67]

Agastya
Agastya
on south side of the 9th-century Javanese Sambisari
Sambisari
temple unearthed from volcanic mud.

Agastya
Agastya
is common in medieval era Shiva
Shiva
temples of southeast Asia, such as the stone temples in Java
Java
(candi). Along with the iconography of Shiva, Uma, Nandi and Ganesha
Ganesha
who face particular cardinal directions, these temples include sculpture, image or relief of Agastya
Agastya
carved into the southern face.[68] The Shiva
Shiva
shrine in the largest Hindu
Hindu
temple complex in southeast Asia, Prambanan, features four cellae in its interior. This central shrine within Prambanan group of temples dedicates its southern cella to Agastya.[69] The Dinoyo inscription, dated to 760 CE, is primarily dedicated to Agastya. The inscription states that his older wooden image was remade in stone, thereby suggesting that the reverence for Agastya iconography in southeast Asia was prevalent in an older period.[70][71] In Cambodia, the 9th-century king Indravarman, who is remembered for sponsoring and the building of a large number of historic temples and related artworks, is declared in the texts of this period to be a descendant of sage Agastya.[72][73] Agastya
Agastya
Samhita[edit] The Agastya
Agastya
Samhita, sometimes called the Sankara Samhita is a section embedded in Skanda Purana.[6] It was probably composed in late medieval era, but before the 12th-century.[74] It exists in many versions, and is structured as a dialogue between Skanda and Agastya. Scholars such as Moriz Winternitz state that the authenticity of the surviving version of this document is doubtful because Shaiva celebrities such as Skanda and Agastya
Agastya
teach Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
ideas and the bhakti (devotional worship) of Rama, mixed in with a tourist guide about Shiva
Shiva
temples in Varanasi
Varanasi
and other parts of India.[75][76] Agastimata[edit] Agastya
Agastya
is attributed to be the author of Agastimata, a pre-10th century treatise about gems and diamonds, with chapters on the origins, qualities, testing and making jewelry from them.[74][77][78] Several other Sanskrit texts on gems and lapidary are also credited to Agastya
Agastya
in the Indian traditions.[79] Others[edit] Other mentions of Agastya
Agastya
include:

Bṛhaddevatā in section 5.134.[17] The Lalita sahasranama
Lalita sahasranama
of Shaktism
Shaktism
tradition of Hinduism, which describes the 1000 names of the goddess Lalita is a part of the Brahmanda Purana. It is presented as a teaching from Hayagriya (an avatar of Viṣṇu) to Agastya.[80] Agastya
Agastya
is credited as the creator of the Āditya Hṛdayam (literally, "heart of the sun"), a hymn to Sūrya he told Rama
Rama
to recite, so that he may win against Ravana. Scholars such as John Nuir questioned this hymn since the need for a such a hymn by Rama
Rama
implies doubts about his divine nature.[81] Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Stotram and Saraswati
Saraswati
Stotram.[82] The Tamil text Pattuppattu states Agastya
Agastya
to be master of icai (music, song).[83] Kalidasa, in his Raghuvaṃśa
Raghuvaṃśa
(6.61) states that Agastya
Agastya
officiated the horse sacrifice of a Pandya king of Madurai.[84]

Legacy[edit] Temples[edit] Agastya
Agastya
statues or reliefs feature in numerous early medieval temples of north India, south India and southeast Asia. The Dasavatara temple in Deogarh (Uttar Pradesh, near Madhya Pradesh border) features a 6th-century Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
era Agastya
Agastya
carving.[85] In Karnataka similarly, he is reverentially shown in several 7th-century temples such as the Mallikarjuna temple in Mahakuta and the Parvati
Parvati
temple in Sandur. He is a part of many Chalukya era Shaivism
Shaivism
temples in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
peninsula.[85][86][87] The artistic iconography of South Asian and Southeast Asian temples show common themes such as he holding a pitcher, but also differences. For example, Agastya
Agastya
is featured inside or outside of the temple walls and sometimes as guardian at the entrance (dvarapala), with or without a potbelly, with or without a receding hairline, with or without a dagger and sword.[85] Rock cut temples and caves, such as the 8th century Pandya rock temples group, show Agastya.[85] Literature[edit] The shrine to Agastya
Agastya
at the Pothigai
Pothigai
hill source of the river is mentioned in both Ilango Adigal's Silappatikaram
Silappatikaram
and Chithalai Chathanar's Manimekhalai
Manimekhalai
epics.[88] Similarly, the Sanskrit plays Anargharāghava and Rajasekhara's Bālarāmāyaṇa of the ninth century refer to a shrine of Agastya
Agastya
on or near Adam's Peak
Adam's Peak
(Sri Pada), the tallest mountain in Sri Lanka (ancient Tamraparni), from whence the river Gona Nadi/Kala Oya flows into the Gulf of Mannar's Puttalam Lagoon.[89] Martial arts[edit] Maharishi Agastya
Agastya
is regarded as the founder and patron saint of silambam and varmam -an ancient science of healing using varmam points for varied diseases and southern kalaripayat.[90] Shiva's son Murugan is said to have taught the art to Sage Agastya
Agastya
who then wrote treatises on it and passed it on to other siddhar.[91][92] See also[edit]

India portal Hinduism
Hinduism
portal Hindu
Hindu
mythology portal

Siddhars Thirumoolar Bogar Avaiyar Abithana Chintamani - Encyclopedia of Tamil Literature

References[edit]

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Agastya
(likely a Dravidian root" ^ a b c d Wendy Doniger (1981). The Rig Veda: An Anthology : One Hundred and Eight Hymns, Selected, Translated and Annotated. Penguin Books. pp. 167–168. ISBN 978-0-14-044402-5.  ^ a b Richard S Weiss 2009, p. 49–51. ^ a b c d e Roshen Dalal 2010, pp. 7–8. ^ a b William Buck 2000, p. 138–139. ^ Alf Hiltebeitel 2011, p. 285–286. ^ Ludo Rocher 1986, pp. 166–167, 212–213, 233. ^ a b c Jan Gonda 1975, pp. 12–14. ^ Ludo Rocher 1986, p. 78. ^ Michael Witzel (1992). J. C. Heesterman; et al., eds. Ritual, State, and History in South Asia: Essays in Honour of J.C. Heesterman. BRILL Academic. pp. 822 footnote 105. ISBN 90-04-09467-9. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ a b c d Roshen Dalal 2014, p. 187,376. ^ Alf Hiltebeitel 2011, pp. 400, 404–406 with footnote 74. ^ Alf Hiltebeitel 2011, pp. 407. ^ Edwin Bryant and Laurie Patton (2005), The Indo-Aryan Controversy, Routledge, ISBN 0-700-71462-6, pages 252–253 ^ a b c d e f Alain Daniélou
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1991, p. 322–323 with footnotes 5 and 6. ^ a b Indian History, Tata McGraw-Hill, p. 240  ^ a b Stephanie W. Jamison & Joel P. Brereton 2014, pp. 1674–1675. ^ a b c J. A. B. van Buitenen 1981, p. 187–188. ^ Hananya Goodman (2012). Between Jerusalem and Benares: Comparative Studies in Judaism and Hinduism. State University of New York Press. pp. 218–219. ISBN 978-1-4384-0437-0.  ^ David Shulman 2014, p. 65. ^ K. R. Rajagopalan (1957), " Agastya
Agastya
– his non-Aryan Origin", Tamil Culture, Volume VI, Number 4 (Oct. 1957), pages 286-293 ^ a b c d e f g h Iravatham Mahadevan (1986) Agastya
Agastya
Legend and the Indus Civilization by கட்டுரையாளர் : ஐராவதம் மகாதேவன் கட்டுரையாளர் பணி : Retired I.A.S, his studies pertaining to the Indus Civilization கட்டுரைப் பிரிவு : Indus Valley Signs - சிந்துவெளி குறியீடுகள் ஆய்விதழ் எண் : 030 - December 1986 பக்கங்கள் pages 29 (see 24-37 for context), Journal of Tamil studies ^ Arvind Sharma (2011). Hinduism
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as a Missionary Religion. State University of New York Press. pp. 76–77. ISBN 978-1-4384-3211-3.  ^ Lopamudra
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The Mahabharata, translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1883 -1896), Book 3: Vana Parva: Tirtha-yatra Parva: Section XCVII. ^ Arti Dhand (2009). Woman as Fire, Woman as Sage: Sexual Ideology in the Mahabharata. State University of New York Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-7914-7140-1.  ^ Roshen Dalal 2010, p. 294. ^ a b c d e Stephanie W. Jamison & Joel P. Brereton 2014, pp. 359–360. ^ Ralph T.H. Griffith, Rigveda, Mandala 1, Hymn 169, Wikisource; Sanskrit original: त्वे राय इन्द्र तोशतमाः प्रणेतारः कस्य चिदृतायोः । ते षु णो मरुतो मृळयन्तु ये स्मा पुरा गातूयन्तीव देवाः ॥५॥ ^ Govind Sadashiv Ghurye (1977). Indian Acculturation: Agastya
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and Skanda. Popular Prakashan. pp. 19–20.  ^ Arvind Sharma (2000). Classical Hindu
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Thought: An Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-19-564441-8.  ^ G.C. Pande (1990). Foundations of Indian Culture, Volume 2. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 184–186. ISBN 978-81-208-0712-9.  ^ Kamil Zvelebil
Kamil Zvelebil
1992, p. 239. ^ Max Muller, Aitareya Aranyaka, The Upanishads: Part I, Oxford University Press, page 170 ^ Laurie Patton 2014, p. 27–30. ^ a b c Laurie Patton 1996, p. 413. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 62.  ^ William Buck 2000, p. 139–140. ^ William Buck 2000, p. 140–142. ^ a b J. A. B. van Buitenen 1981, p. 409–411. ^ Alain Daniélou
Alain Daniélou
1991, p. 3317–323. ^ a b Laurie Patton 1996, p. 408–414. ^ Richard S Weiss 2009, p. 50–51, 81–82. ^ Klaus Klostermaier (2003), A Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Oxford: Oneworld Publications, ISBN 1-85168-175-2, page 17 ^ David Shulman 2016, p. 30–31, 38–40. ^ Alf Hiltebeitel (2009). Rethinking India's Oral and Classical Epics. University of Chicago Press. pp. 463–464. ISBN 978-0-226-34055-5.  ^ Alf Hiltebeitel 2011, p. 294. ^ Journal of Tamil Studies, Issues 29-32. International Institute of Tamil Studies. 1986.  ^ Romila Thapar (1978). Ancient Indian Social History: Some Interpretations. Orient Blackswan. p. 224.  ^ K.N. Sivaraja Pillai, Agastya
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in the Tamil Land, University of Madras, pages 15-16 ^ David Shulman 2016, p. 26–27. ^ Richard S Weiss 2009, p. 81–82. ^ Richard S Weiss 2009, p. 82. ^ a b Richard S Weiss 2009, p. 47–48. ^ Vē. Irā Mātavan̲ (1984). Siddha
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medical manuscripts in Tamil. International Institute of Tamil Studies. p. 28.  ^ P Karthigayan (2016). History of Medical and Spiritual Sciences of Siddhas of Tamil Nadu. Notion Press. p. 438. ISBN 978-93-5206-552-3.  ^ Kamil Zvelebil
Kamil Zvelebil
1992, p. 237-238 with note 2. ^ a b Anne E. Monius 2001, pp. 133–135. ^ John Clifford Holt (1991). Buddha
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in the Crown: Avalokitesvara in the Buddhist Traditions of Sri Lanka. Oxford University Press. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-0-19-536246-6.  ^ Ann R. Kinney; Marijke J. Klokke; Lydia Kieven (2003). Worshiping Siva and Buddha: The Temple Art of East Java. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 21–25. ISBN 978-0-8248-2779-3.  ^ Peter Sharrock; Ian C. Glover; Elizabeth A. Bacus (2008). Interpreting Southeast Asia's Past: Monument, Image and Text. National University of Singapore Press. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-9971-69-405-0.  ^ Āryaśūra; Peter Khoroche (Translator) (2006). Once the Buddha
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Was a Monkey: Arya Sura's "Jatakamala". University of Chicago Press. pp. 39–46. ISBN 978-0-226-78215-7.  ^ Helena A. van Bemmel (1994). Dvarapalas in Indonesia: Temple Guardians and Acculturation. CRC Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-90-5410-155-0.  ^ Anne E. Monius 2001, pp. 113–114, 207–208. ^ a b Jan Gonda 1975, p. 14. ^ a b Jan Gonda 1975, p. 15. ^ Peter Sharrock; Ian C. Glover; Elizabeth A. Bacus (2008). Interpreting Southeast Asia's Past: Monument, Image and Text. National University of Singapore Press. pp. 104–109. ISBN 978-9971-69-405-0.  ^ Keat Gin Ooi (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. pp. 1101–1102. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2.  ^ Nicholas Tarling (1992). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: Volume 1, From Early Times to c. 1800. Cambridge University Press. p. 313. ISBN 978-0-521-35505-6.  ^ Veronique Degroot; Marijke J. Klokke (2013). Materializing Southeast Asia's Past: Selected Papers from the 12th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists. National University of Singapore Press. pp. 116 note 1. ISBN 978-9971-69-655-9.  ^ Jean Ph. Vogel (1947). India antiqua. Brill Archive. pp. 45–46.  ^ Lesya Poerbatjaraka (1926). Agastya
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in den archipel. Universiteit te Leiden (Republished by BRILL). pp. 1–5. OCLC 5841432.  ^ a b Sures Chandra Banerji (1989). A Companion to Sanskrit Literature. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 121. ISBN 978-81-208-0063-2.  ^ Moriz Winternitz; V. Srinivasa Sarma (1996). A History of Indian Literature. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 545–546. ISBN 978-81-208-0264-3.  ^ Ludo Rocher 1986, pp. 234–237, 228–229. ^ Mohsen Manutchehr-Danai (2009). Dictionary of Gems and Gemology. Berlin: Springer. p. 10. ISBN 978-3-540-72795-8.  ^ Louis Finot (1896). Les lapidaires indiens (in Sanskrit and French). Champion. pp. 77–139. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ Louis Finot (1896). Les lapidaires indiens (in Sanskrit and French). Champion. pp. xiv–xv with footnotes. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ Roshen Dalal 2010, p. 221. ^ John Muir (1873). Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India. Trübner. p. 473.  ^ Theodor Aufrecht (1892). Florentine Sanskrit Manuscripts. G. Kreysing. p. 152.  ^ Kamil Zvelebil
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1992, p. 245. ^ David Shulman 2016, p. 26. ^ a b c d Helena A. van Bemmel (1994). Dvarapalas in Indonesia: Temple Guardians and Acculturation. CRC Press. pp. 35–37, 41–44, 60. ISBN 978-90-5410-155-0.  ^ Douglas E. Barrett (1976). The dancing Siva in early south Indian art. Oxford University Press. p. 15. ISBN 0856721328.  ^ James C. Harle (1995). Temple Gateways in South India: The Architecture and Iconography of the Cidambaram Gopuras. Munshiram Manoharlal. p. 135. ISBN 978-81-215-0666-3.  ^ Ameresh Datta. Sahitya Akademi, 1987 - Indic literature. Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: A-Devo. pp 115 ^ Mendis, G.C. (2006). "The ancient period". Early History of Ceylon (Reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. 386. ISBN 81-206-0209-9.  ^ Zarrilli, Phillip B. (1998). When the Body Becomes All Eyes: Paradigms, Discourses and Practices of Power in Kalarippayattu, a South Indian Martial Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  ^ Luijendijk, D.H. (2005) Kalarippayat: India's Ancient Martial Art, Paladin Press ^ Zarrilli 1992

Bibliography[edit]

Alf Hiltebeitel (2011). Reading the Fifth Veda: Studies on the Mahābhārata - Essays by Alf Hiltebeitel. Brill Academic. ISBN 90-04-18566-6.  Alain Daniélou
Alain Daniélou
(1991). The Myths and Gods of India: The Classic Work on Hindu
Hindu
Polytheism from the Princeton Bollingen Series. Inner Traditions. ISBN 978-0-89281-354-4.  Anne E. Monius (2001). Imagining a Place for Buddhism: Literary Culture and Religious Community in Tamil-Speaking South India. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-803206-9.  David Shulman (2014). Tamil Temple Myths: Sacrifice and Divine Marriage in the South Indian Saiva Tradition. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-5692-3.  David Shulman (2016). Tamil. Harvard University Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-674-05992-4.  J. A. B. van Buitenen (1981). The Mahabharata, Volume 2: Book 2: The Book of Assembly; Book 3: The Book of the Forest. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-84664-4.  Jan Gonda (1975). Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 3 Southeast Asia, Religions, Religionen. Brill Academic. ISBN 90-04-04330-6.  Kamil Zvelebil
Kamil Zvelebil
(1992). Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature. BRILL Academic. ISBN 90-04-09365-6.  Laurie Patton (2014). Julia Leslie, ed. Myth and Mythmaking: Continuous Evolution in Indian Tradition. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-136-77888-9.  Laurie Patton (1996). Myth as Argument: The Br̥haddevatā as Canonical Commentary. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-013805-4.  Ludo Rocher (1986). The Purāṇas. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-02522-5.  Richard S Weiss (2009). Recipes for Immortality: Healing, Religion, and Community in South India. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-971500-8.  Roshen Dalal (2010). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-341421-6.  Roshen Dalal (2014). The Vedas: An Introduction to Hinduism's Sacred Texts. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-81-8475-763-7.  Stephanie W. Jamison; Joel P. Brereton (2014). The Rigveda. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-937018-4.  William Buck (2000). Ramayana. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-22703-3. 

Further reading[edit]

T. Burrow (1958). "Sanskrit and Pre-Aryan Tribes and Languages,"The Bulletin of the Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Mission Institute of Culture (Reprinted in collected papers on Dravidian Linguistics, Annamalai University,1968.) Murray Barnson Emeneau. 1954Linguistic Prehistory of India," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society vol.98 P.282(Reprinted in Collected Papers,Annamalai University,1967.) Murray Barnson Emeneau 1956"India As aLinguistic Area," Language,Vol.32,P. 3(Reprinted in Collected Papers,1967). G. S. Ghurye (1977). Indian Acculturation : Agastya
Agastya
and Skanda, Popular Prakashan, Bombay. A. B. Keith and A. A. MacDonnell (1912). "A Vedic Index of Names and Subjects" (2 Vols.,Reprint 1967) F. E. Pargiter (1922). Ancient India Historical Tradition(Reprint 1962) Raghava Iyengar,M.1913 Velir Varalaru(in Tamil),3rd ed. 1964. R. Raghava Iyengar,R.1941 Tamil Varalaru(in Tamil),Annamalai, University(Reprint 1978 ) Dictionary of Hindu
Hindu
Lore and Legend (ISBN 0-500-51088-1) by Anna Dhallapiccola Sanskrit-English Dictionary (ISBN 0-19-864308-X) by Sir Monier Monier-Williams The Sauptikaparvan of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
A new verse translation by W.J. Johnson The Epic Tale of Mahabharatam Dharma
Dharma
Bharathi, 2007, Karnataka, India – Carried a series of articles on Agastya Samhita and its contents. Agastya, Amar Chitra Katha

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Agastya.

Folklore and Astronomy: Agastya
Agastya
a sage and a star Agasti Ashram
Ashram
Akole, Maharashtra website

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Lakshmana
Lakshmana
rekha Jambavan Janaka Kushadhwaja Jatayu Manthara Ashwapati Maya Sita Sampati Shabari Shravan Vedavati

Places

Ayodhya Mithila Dandakaranya Kishkindha Lanka

Seven Books (Kandas)

Bala Ayodhya Aranya Kishkindha Sundara Yuddha Uttara

Versions, adaptations, and inspired works

Adbhuta Ramayana Adhyathmaramayanam Adhyatma Ramayana Ananda Ramayana Bhaṭṭikāvya Hikayat Seri Rama Kakawin Ramayana Kamba Ramayanam Krittivasi Ramayan Maharadia Lawana Phra Lak Phra Ram Ramlila Ramayan (TV series) Raghunatha Ramayana Ramakien Ramcharitmanas Reamker Saptakanda Ramayana Sri Ramayana
Ramayana
Darshanam Vilanka Ramayana Yama Zatdaw

v t e

Tamil language

History

Old Tamil Middle Tamil Modern Tamil Manipravalam Proto-Dravidian Tamil Sangams

Dialects

Indian

Bangalore Tamil dialects Central Tamil dialect Kongu Tamil Madras Bashai Madurai
Madurai
Tamil Nellai Tamil

Sri Lankan

Negombo Batticaloa Jaffna

Sociolects

Brahmin
Brahmin
Tamil Arwi Malaysian Tamil

Global organizations

World Tamil Conference World Classical Tamil Conference 2010

Literature

Classics

Sangam literature Tamil books of Law The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature The Five Lesser Epics of Tamil Literature Ponniyin Selvan List of Sangam poets

Devotional Literature

Tirumurai Naalayira Divya Prabhandham Tirumurukāṟṟuppaṭai Thembavani Kampa Rāmāyaṉam

Poetry

Kural Venpa Iraichchi Akam Puram Thinai Ullurai Ulā

Grammars and Dictionaries

Agattiyam Tolkāppiyam Tivakāram Nikantu books Caturakarāti Tamil Lexicon dictionary Madurai
Madurai
Tamil Paeragaraadhi

History

Yāzhpāna Vaipava Mālai

Tamil and other languages

English Sinhala Indo-Aryan languages Dravidian languages Malay Korean

Scripts

Megalithic graffiti symbols Tamil-Brahmi Kolezhuthu Vatteluttu Pallava grantha Modern script Tamil Braille Arwi

Lexis and grammar

Tamil grammar Tamil honorifics Tamil numerals

Phonology

Tamil phonology Tamil onomatopoeia Tamil prosody

Transliteration

ISO Mozhi

Events

Standardisation of Tamil script Tanittamil Iyakkam Simplified Tamil script Printing in Tamil language Tamil Sangams

First Sangam Second Sangam Third Sangam

Ancient manuscript digitalisation Formation of CICT Project Madurai

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 45686083 GND: 11884637

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