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The Info List - Agaricaceae



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(i) (i)

85; See text

SYNONYMS

* Battarraceae Corda (1842) * Lepiotaceae Roze (1876) * Lycoperdaceae Chevall. (1826) * Mycenastraceae Zeller (1948) * Tulostomataceae E.Fisch. (1900)

The AGARICACEAE are a family of basidiomycete fungi and include the genus Agaricus, as well as basidiomycetes previously classified in the families Tulostomataceae , Lepiotaceae, and Lycoperdaceae .

CONTENTS

* 1 Taxonomy * 2 Description * 3 Genera * 4 Ecology * 5 Economic significance * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links

TAXONOMY

The family Agaricaceae
Agaricaceae
was published by French botanist François Fulgis Chevallier in 1826. It is named after the type genus Agaricus , originally circumscribed by Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
in his 1753 work Species Plantarum . In his authoritative 1986 classification of the Agaricales , Rolf Singer divided the Agaricaceae
Agaricaceae
into four tribes distinguished largely by spore color: Leucocoprineae, Agariceae, Lepioteae, and Cystodermateae. Genera once classified in the families Tulostomataceae, Battarreaceae, Lycoperdaceae, and Mycenastraceae have since been moved to the Agaricaceae
Agaricaceae
based on molecular phylogenetics studies. According to a standard reference text, the Agaricaceae contains 85 genera and 1340 species.

DESCRIPTION

Agaricaceae
Agaricaceae
species use a wide variety of fruit body morphology . Although the pileate form (i.e., with a cap and stipe ) is predominant, gasteroid and secotioid forms are known. In pileate species, the gills are typically thin, and free from attachment to the stipe. Caps are scurfy to smooth, and range from roughly flat to umbonate . They typically have a centrally attached stipe and a membrane-like partial veil . The species from classified in the family Lycoperdaceae are also known as the "true puffballs ". Their fruiting bodies are round and are composed of a tough skin surrounding a mass of spores. When they mature, the skin splits open and they release their spores.

The spore print color of Agaricaceae
Agaricaceae
species is highly variable, ranging from white to greenish to ochraceous to pink or sepia; rusty-brown or cinnamon brown colours are absent. Microscopically, the spore surface ranges from smooth to ornamented, and the presence of a germ pore is variable. Amyloidity (i.e. sensitivity to staining in Melzer\'s reagent ) is also variable. The basidia (spore-bearing cells) are usually small, four-spored, and may have interspersed cystidia .

GENERA

Main article: List of Agaricaceae genera

The extinct genus Coprinites is one of four known Agaricaceae
Agaricaceae
genera in the fossil record. Others include Aureofungus , Protomycena
Protomycena
, and Archaeomarasmius
Archaeomarasmius
. Archaeomarasmius
Archaeomarasmius
leggeti, from Atlantic Coastal Plain amber, is 90–94 Ma ); the other fossil genera are from Dominican amber and date to 15–20 Ma.

The family currently includes the following genera:

* Agaricus
Agaricus
* Allopsalliota * Attamyces * Barcheria * Bovista * Calbovista previously in family Lycoperdaceae . * Calvatia * Chamaemyces * Chlorophyllum * Clarkeinda * Coniolepiota * † Coprinites * Coprinus * Cystoagaricus * Cystolepiota * Disciseda * Endoptychum * Eriocybe * Gyrophragmium * Handkea * Heinemannomyces * Hymenagaricus * Lepiota * Leucoagaricus * Leucocoprinus * Lycoperdon * Macrolepiota * Melanophyllum * Micropsalliota * Montagnea * Podaxis * Ripartitella * Rugosospora * Sericeomyces * Smithiomyces * Tulostoma * Verrucospora

ECOLOGY

The Agaricaceae
Agaricaceae
are widely distributed. Most species are saprobic and prefer grassland and woodland habitats. Genera Leucoagaricus and Leucocoprinus are known to be cultivated by fungus-growing ants in ant-fungus mutualism .

ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE

The genus Agaricus
Agaricus
includes some species that are cultivated commercially throughout the world. The common "button mushroom", Agaricus
Agaricus
bisporus , is the most widely cultivated edible mushroom. Agaricus
Agaricus
blazei is a well-known medicinal mushroom used for a number of therapeutic and medicinal purposes. Several species are poisonous , such as some Lepiota and Chlorophyllum species.

SEE ALSO

* List of Agaricales families * List of Basidiomycota families

REFERENCES

* ^ Poinar G, Singer R (1990). "Upper Eocene gilled mushroom from the Dominican Republic". Science. 248 (4959): 1099–101. PMID 17733372 . doi :10.1126/science.248.4959.1099 . * ^ Linnaeus C. (1753). Species Plantarum. Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii. p. 1171. * ^ A B " Agaricaceae
Agaricaceae
Chevall., Flore Générale des Environs de Paris 1: 121 (1826)". MycoBank . International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2013-12-03. * ^ "Lepiotaceae Roze, Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 23: 111 (1876)". MycoBank . International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2015-10-30. * ^ Chevallier FF. (1826). Flore générale des environs de Paris, selon la méthode naturelle: Description de toutes les plantes agames, cryptogames et phanérogames qui y croissent spontanément; leurs propriétés, leur usage dans la médecine, les arts, et l'économie domestique; avec une classification naturelle des agames et des cryptogames, basée sur l'organisation de ces végétaux (in French). 1. Paris, France: Ferra Jeune. p. 121. * ^ Singer R. (1986). The Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy (4th ed.). Königstein im Taunus, Germany: Koeltz Scientific Books. pp. 465–7. ISBN 3-87429-254-1 . * ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi
Fungi
(10th ed.). Wallingford: CAB International. p. 11. ISBN 0-85199-826-7 . * ^ A B C D Cannon PF, Kirk PM (2007). Fungal Families of the World. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-0-85199-827-5 . * ^ Hibbett DS, Binder M, Wang Z (2003). "Another fossil agaric from Dominican Amber". Mycologia. 95 (4): 685–7. JSTOR
JSTOR
3761943 . PMID 21148976 . doi :10.2307/3761943 . * ^ Hölldobler B, Wilson EO (2009). The Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance, and Strangeness of Insect Societies. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. * ^ Lima CU, Cordova CO, Nóbrega Ode T, Funghetto SS, Karnikowski MG (2011). "Does the Agaricus
Agaricus
blazei Murrill mushroom have properties that affect the immune system? An integrative review". Journal of Medicinal Food. 14 (1–2): 1–8. PMID 21128829 . doi :10.1089/jmf.2010.0017 . * ^ Wang H, Fu Z, Han C (2013). "The medicinal values of culinary-medicinal royal sun mushroom ( Agaricus
Agaricus
blazei Murrill)" . Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternativ