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Coordinates: 21°30′00″N 86°30′00″E / 21.5000°N 86.5000°E / 21.5000; 86.5000

Afro-Eurasia

Area 84,980,532 km2 (32,811,167 sq mi)

Population 6,151,810,000 (2013)

Demonym Afro-Eurasian,Eurafrasian

Countries 147

Dependencies 17

Afro-Eurasia,[1] Afroeurasia,[2] or Eurafrasia,[3] nicknamed the World Island, is a landmass which can be subdivided into Africa
Africa
and Eurasia (which can be further subdivided into Asia
Asia
and Europe). These three continents form the largest contiguous landmass on Earth. The terms are portmanteaus of the names of its constituent parts.[3] Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
encompasses 84,980,532 square kilometres (32,811,167 sq mi), a little over half the world's land area, and has a population of approximately 6 billion people, roughly 86% of the world population.[4]

Contents

1 Related terms 2 Geology 3 Divisions

3.1 Geographical areas

4 Extreme points 5 See also 6 References

Related terms[edit] The following terms are used for similar concepts:

The Ecumene: a term from classical antiquity for the world as was known to ancient Greek scholars, which was limited to Europe
Europe
and parts of Asia
Asia
and Africa. The Old World: a term from the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
which, for European explorers, contrasted the previously known world from the New World
New World
of the Americas. The World Island: a term coined by H.J. Mackinder and used in geopolitical contexts.[5] Mackinder defines the World Island as the large contiguous landmass, technically excluding islands such as Great Britain.[6] "Afro-Eurasia" generally includes those islands usually considered part of Africa, Europe
Europe
and Asia.

Geology[edit] Main articles: Eurasian Plate, African Plate, Indo-Australian Plate, and Arabian Plate Although Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
is typically considered to comprise two or three separate continents, it is not a proper supercontinent. Instead, it is the largest present part of the supercontinent cycle. The oldest part of Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
is probably the Kaapvaal Craton, which together with Madagascar
Madagascar
and parts of India
India
and western Australia formed part of the first supercontinent Vaalbara
Vaalbara
or Ur around 3 billion years ago. It has made up parts of every supercontinent since. At the breakup of Pangaea
Pangaea
around 200 million years ago, the North American and Eurasian Plates together formed Laurasia
Laurasia
while the African Plate
African Plate
remained in Gondwana, from which the Indian Plate split off. This impacted southern Asia
Asia
around 50 million years ago and began the formation of the Himalayas. (Around the same time, it also fused with the Australian Plate.) The Arabian Plate
Arabian Plate
broke off of Africa
Africa
around 30 million years ago and impacted the Iranian Plate between 19 and 12 million years ago, ultimately forming the Alborz and Zagros chains of Iranian Plate. After this initial connection of Afro-Eurasia, the Betic corridor
Betic corridor
along the Gibraltar Arc closed a little less than 6 million years ago, fusing Northwest Africa
Africa
and Iberia together. This led to the nearly complete desiccation of the Mediterranean Basin, the Messinian
Messinian
salinity crisis. Eurasia
Eurasia
and Africa
Africa
were then again separated: the Zanclean Flood around 5.33 million years ago refilled the Mediterranean Sea through the Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar
and the Red Sea and Gulf of Suez Rifts further divided Africa
Africa
from the Arabian Plate. Today, Africa
Africa
is now joined to Asia
Asia
only by a narrow land bridge (which has been split by the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
at the Isthmus of Suez) and remains separated from Europe
Europe
by the Straits of Gibraltar and Sicily. Paleogeologist Ronald Blakey has described the next 15 to 100 million years of tectonic development as fairly settled and predictable.[7] In that time, Africa
Africa
is expected to continue drifting northward. It will close the Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar
around 600,000 years from now,[8] closing and quickly evaporating the Mediterranean Sea.[9] No supercontinent will form within the settled time frame, however, and the geologic record is full of unexpected shifts in tectonic activity that make further projections "very, very speculative".[7] Three possibilities are known as Novopangaea, Amasia, and Pangaea Ultima.[10] In the first two, the Pacific closes and Africa
Africa
remains fused to Eurasia, but Eurasia
Eurasia
itself splits as Africa
Africa
and Europe
Europe
spin towards the west; in the last, the trio spin eastward together as the Atlantic closes. Divisions[edit]

Another projection of the Old World

Normally Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
is divided at the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
into Africa
Africa
and Eurasia, the latter of which can be subdivided into Europe
Europe
and Asia. It has also been divided into Eurasia-North Africa
Africa
and Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
for cultural and historical reasons.[11] Geographical areas[edit]

Africa

North Africa

Maghreb Sahara Sahel

Sub-Saharan Africa

Central Africa

Congo Basin

East Africa

Horn of Africa

Southern Africa West Africa

Sudan (region)

Eurasia

Asia

Far East

East Asia Southeast Asia

Greater Middle East

Central Asia Middle East

Near East Western Asia

Fertile Crescent Hilly Flanks

North Asia

Siberia

South Asia

Indian subcontinent

Europe

Central Europe Eastern Europe Northern Europe Southern Europe Western Europe

Extreme points[edit] This is a list of the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location on Afro-Eurasia. Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
(including islands)

Northernmost Point — Cape Fligeli, Rudolf Island, Franz Josef Land, Russia Southernmost Point — Cape Agulhas, South Africa Westernmost Point — Santo Antão, Cape Verde
Santo Antão, Cape Verde
Islands ¹ Easternmost Point — Big Diomede, Russia
Russia
²

Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
(mainland)

Northernmost Point — Cape Chelyuskin, Russia Southernmost Point — Cape Agulhas, South Africa Westernmost Point — Cap Vert, Senegal Easternmost Point — Cape Dezhnev, Russia
Russia
²

¹ If the Azores
Azores
are included as part of Afro-Eurasia, Flores is the westernmost part of the continent. ² According to the International Date Line. See also[edit]

Geography portal Africa
Africa
portal Asia
Asia
portal Europe
Europe
portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Afro-Eurasia.

Old World Geography of Africa Geography of Asia Geography of Europe Intermediate Region Extreme points of Earth Extreme points of Africa Extreme points of Eurasia Extreme points of Asia Extreme points of Europe

References[edit]

^ Frank, Andre G. (1998), ReORIENT: Global Economy in the Asian Age, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-21474-3  ^ Field, Henry. "The University of California African Expedition: I, Egypt", American Anthropologist, New Series Vol. 50, No. 3, Part 1 (Jul. - Sep., 1948), pp. 479-493. ^ a b R. W. McColl, ed. (2005). 'continents' - Encyclopedia of World Geography, Volume 1. Golson Books, Ltd. p. 215. ISBN 9780816072293. Retrieved 2012-06-26. And since Africa
Africa
and Asia
Asia
are connected at the Suez Peninsula, Europe, Africa, and Asia
Asia
are sometimes combined as Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
or Eurafrasia.  ^ Based upon population estimates for 2007 cited in a UN report, World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision (Highlights). ^ Mackinder, Halford John. The Geographical Pivot of History. ^ See Francis P. Sempa, Mackinder's World ^ a b Manaugh, Geoff & al. "What Did the Continents Look Like Millions of Years Ago?" in The Atlantic online. 23 Sept 2013. Accessed 22 July 2014. ^ Africa
Africa
will collide with Europe
Europe
and Asia, 50 Million years from now ^ "Only the inflow of Atlantic water maintains the present Mediterranean level. When that was shut off sometime between 6.5 to 6 MYBP, net evaporative loss set in at the rate of around 3,300 cubic kilometers yearly. At that rate, the 3.7 million cubic kilometres of water in the basin would dry up in scarcely more than a thousand years, leaving an extensive layer of salt some tens of meters thick and raising global sea level about 12 meters." Cloud, P. (1988). Oasis in space. Earth
Earth
history from the beginning, New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc., 440. ISBN 0-393-01952-7 ^ Williams, Caroline; Ted Nield (20 October 2007). "Pangaea, the comeback". NewScientist. Archived from the original on 13 April 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2009.  ^ Diamond, Jared (1997), Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-03891-2 

v t e

Continents of the world

   

Africa

Antarctica

Asia

Australia

Europe

North America

South America

   

Afro-Eurasia

America

Eurasia

Oceania

   

Former supercontinents Gondwana Laurasia Pangaea Pannotia Rodinia Columbia Kenorland Nena Sclavia Ur Vaalbara

Historical continents Amazonia Arctica Asiamerica Atlantica Avalonia Baltica Cimmeria Congo craton Euramerica Kalaharia Kazakhstania Laurentia North China Siberia South China East Antarctica India

   

Submerged continents Kerguelen Plateau Zealandia

Possible future supercontinents Pangaea
Pangaea
Ultima Amasia Novopangaea

Mythical and hypothesised continents Atlantis Kumari Kandam Lemuria Meropis Mu Hyperborea Terra Australis

See also Regions of the world Continental fragment

.