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Coordinates : 21°30′00″N 86°30′00″E / 21.5000°N 86.5000°E / 21.5000; 86.5000

Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia

AREA 84,980,532 km2 (32,811,167 sq mi)

POPULATION 6,151,810,000 (2013)

DEMONYM Afro-Eurasian, Afroeurasian, Eurafrasian

COUNTRIES 147

DEPENDENCIES 17

AFRO-EURASIA, AFROEURASIA, or EURAFRASIA, , nicknamed the WORLD ISLAND, is a supercontinent which can be subdivided into Africa
Africa
and Eurasia
Eurasia
(which can be further subdivided into Asia
Asia
and Europe
Europe
). These three continents form the largest contiguous landmass on Earth
Earth
. The term is a portmanteau of the names of its constituent parts.

Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
encompasses 84,980,532 square kilometres (32,811,167 sq mi), a little over half the world's land area, and has a population of approximately 6 billion people, roughly 86% of the world population .

CONTENTS

* 1 Related terms * 2 Geology

* 3 Divisions

* 3.1 Geographical areas

* 4 Extreme points * 5 See also * 6 References

RELATED TERMS

The following terms are used for similar concepts:

* The ECUMENE : a term from classical antiquity for the world as was known to ancient Greek scholars, which was limited to Europe
Europe
and parts of Asia
Asia
and Africa. * The OLD WORLD : a term from the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
which, for European explorers, contrasted the previously known world from the New World of the Americas
Americas
. * The WORLD ISLAND: a term coined by H.J. Mackinder and used in geopolitical contexts. Mackinder defines the World Island as the large contiguous landmass, technically excluding islands such as Great Britain . "Afro-Eurasia" generally includes those islands usually considered part of Africa
Africa
, Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
.

GEOLOGY

Main articles: Eurasian Plate
Eurasian Plate
, African Plate
African Plate
, Indo-Australian Plate , and Arabian Plate
Arabian Plate

Although Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
is typically considered to comprise two or three separate continents , it is not a proper supercontinent . Instead, it is the largest present part of the supercontinent cycle .

The oldest part of Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
is probably the Kaapvaal Craton
Kaapvaal Craton
, which together with Madagascar
Madagascar
and parts of India
India
and western Australia
Australia
formed part of the first supercontinent Vaalbara
Vaalbara
or Ur around 3 billion years ago . It has made up parts of every supercontinent since . At the breakup of Pangaea
Pangaea
around 200 million years ago , the North American and Eurasian Plates together formed Laurasia
Laurasia
while the African Plate
African Plate
remained in Gondwana
Gondwana
, from which the Indian Plate
Indian Plate
split off. This impacted southern Asia
Asia
around 50 million years ago and began the formation of the Himalayas
Himalayas
. (Around the same time, it also fused with the Australian Plate
Australian Plate
.) The Arabian Plate broke off of Africa
Africa
around 30 million years ago and impacted the Iranian Plate
Iranian Plate
between 19 and 12 million years ago , ultimately forming the Alborz and Zagros chains of Iranian Plate
Iranian Plate
. After this initial connection of Afro-Eurasia, the Betic corridor along the Gibraltar Arc closed a little less than 6 million years ago , fusing Northwest Africa
Africa
and Iberia together. This led to the nearly complete desiccation of the Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
, the Messinian salinity crisis . Eurasia
Eurasia
and Africa
Africa
were then again separated: the Zanclean Flood around 5.33 million years ago refilled the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
through the Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar
and the Red Sea and Gulf of Suez Rifts further divided Africa
Africa
from the Arabian Plate.

Today, Africa
Africa
is now joined to Asia
Asia
only by a narrow land bridge (which has been split by the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
at the Isthmus of Suez ) and remains separated from Europe
Europe
by the Straits of Gibraltar and Sicily . Paleogeologist Ronald Blakey has described the next 15 to 100 million years of tectonic development as fairly settled and predictable. In that time, Africa
Africa
is expected to continue drifting northward. It will close the Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar
around 600,000 years from now, closing and quickly evaporating the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
. No supercontinent will form within the settled time frame, however, and the geologic record is full of unexpected shifts in tectonic activity that make further projections "very, very speculative". Three possibilities are known as Novopangaea
Novopangaea
, Amasia , and Pangaea
Pangaea
Ultima . In the first two, the Pacific closes and Africa
Africa
remains fused to Eurasia, but Eurasia
Eurasia
itself splits as Africa
Africa
and Europe
Europe
spin towards the west; in the last, the trio spin eastward together as the Atlantic closes.

DIVISIONS

Another projection of the Old World
Old World

Normally Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
is divided at the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
into Africa
Africa
and Eurasia
Eurasia
, the latter of which can be subdivided into Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
. It has also been divided into Eurasia
Eurasia
-North Africa
Africa
and Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
for cultural and historical reasons.

GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS

Africa
Africa

* North Africa
Africa

* Maghreb
Maghreb
* Sahara
Sahara
* Sahel
Sahel

* Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa

* Central Africa
Africa

* Congo Basin
Congo Basin

* East Africa
Africa

* Horn of Africa
Africa

* Southern Africa
Africa

* West Africa
Africa

* Sudan (region)
Sudan (region)

Eurasia
Eurasia

* Asia
Asia

* Far East
Far East

* East Asia
Asia
* Southeast Asia
Asia

* Greater Middle East
Greater Middle East

* Central Asia
Asia

* Middle East
Middle East

* Near East
Near East

* Western Asia
Asia

* Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
* Hilly Flanks

* North Asia
Asia

* Siberia
Siberia

* South Asia
Asia

* Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent

* Europe
Europe

* Central Europe
Europe
* Eastern Europe
Europe
* Northern Europe
Europe
* Southern Europe
Europe
* Western Europe
Europe

EXTREME POINTS

This is a list of the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location on Afro-Eurasia.

AFRO-EURASIA (INCLUDING ISLANDS)

* Northernmost Point — Cape Fligeli , Rudolf Island
Rudolf Island
, Franz Josef Land , Russia
Russia
* Southernmost Point — Cape Agulhas
Cape Agulhas
, South Africa
Africa
* Westernmost Point — Santo Antão , Cape Verde Islands
Cape Verde Islands
¹ * Easternmost Point — Big Diomede
Big Diomede
, Russia
Russia
²

AFRO-EURASIA (MAINLAND)

* Northernmost Point — Cape Chelyuskin , Russia
Russia
* Southernmost Point — Cape Agulhas
Cape Agulhas
, South Africa
Africa
* Westernmost Point — Cap Vert
Cap Vert
, Senegal
Senegal
* Easternmost Point — Cape Dezhnev
Cape Dezhnev
, Russia
Russia
²

¹ If the Azores
Azores
are included as part of Afro-Eurasia, Flores is the westernmost part of the continent.

² According to the International Date Line
International Date Line
.

SEE ALSO

* Geography portal * Africa
Africa
portal * Asia
Asia
portal * Europe
Europe
portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to AFRO-EURASIA .

* Old World
Old World
* Geography of Africa
Africa
* Geography of Asia
Asia
* Geography of Europe
Europe
* Intermediate Region * Extreme points of Earth
Earth
* Extreme points of Africa
Africa
* Extreme points of Eurasia
Eurasia
* Extreme points of Asia
Asia
* Extreme points of Europe
Europe

REFERENCES

* ^ Frank, Andre G. (1998), ReORIENT: Global Economy in the Asian Age, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-21474-3 * ^ Field, Henry . "The University of California African Expedition: I, Egypt", American Anthropologist, New Series Vol. 50, No. 3, Part 1 (Jul. - Sep., 1948), pp. 479-493. * ^ A B R. W. McColl, ed. (2005). \'continents\' - Encyclopedia of World Geography, Volume 1. Golson Books, Ltd. p. 215. ISBN 9780816072293 . Retrieved 2012-06-26. And since Africa
Africa
and Asia
Asia
are connected at the Suez Peninsula, Europe, Africa, and Asia
Asia
are sometimes combined as Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
or Eurafrasia. * ^ Based upon population estimates for 2007 cited in a UN report, World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision (Highlights). * ^ Mackinder, Halford John. The Geographical Pivot of History . * ^ See Francis P. Sempa, Mackinder\'s World * ^ A B Manaugh, Geoff & al. "What Did the Continents Look Like Millions of Years Ago?" in The Atlantic online. 23 Sept 2013. Accessed 22 July 2014. * ^ Africa
Africa
will collide with Europe
Europe
and Asia, 50 Million years from now * ^ "Only the inflow of Atlantic water maintains the present Mediterranean level. When that was shut off sometime between 6.5 to 6 MYBP, net evaporative loss set in at the rate of around 3,300 cubic kilometers yearly. At that rate, the 3.7 million cubic kilometres of water in the basin would dry up in scarcely more than a thousand years, leaving an extensive layer of salt some tens of meters thick and raising global sea level about 12 meters." Cloud, P. (1988). Oasis in space. Earth
Earth
history from the beginning, New York: W.W. Norton Ted Nield (20 October 2007). "Pangaea, the comeback". NewScientist. Archived from the original on 13 April 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ Diamond, Jared (1997), Guns, Germs, and Steel
Guns, Germs, and Steel
: The Fates of Human Societies, Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-03891-2

* v * t * e

Continents of the world

Africa
Africa

Antarctica
Antarctica

Asia
Asia

Australia
Australia

Europe
Europe

North America
North America

South America
South America

Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia

Americas
Americas

Eurasia
Eurasia

Oceania
Oceania

* FORMER SUPERCONTINENTS Gondwana
Gondwana
* Laurasia
Laurasia
* Pangaea
Pangaea
* Pannotia
Pannotia
* Rodinia
Rodinia
* Columbia * Kenorland * Nena * Sclavia * Ur * Vaalbara
Vaalbara

* HISTORICAL CONTINENTS Amazonia * Arctica
Arctica
* Asiamerica * Atlantica
Atlantica
* Avalonia
Avalonia
* Baltica
Baltica
* Cimmeria * Congo craton
Congo craton
* Euramerica
Euramerica
* Kalaharia * Kazakhstania * Laurentia
Laurentia
* North China * Siberia
Siberia
* South China * East Antarctica
Antarctica
* India
India

* SUBMERGED CONTINENTS Kerguelen Plateau
Kerguelen Plateau
* Zealandia
Zealandia

* POSSIBLE FUTURE SUPERCONTINENTS Pangaea
Pangaea
Ultima * Amasia * Novopangaea
Novopangaea

* MYTHICAL AND HYPOTHESISED CONTINENTS Atlantis
Atlantis
* Kumari Kandam
Kumari Kandam
* Lemuria * Meropis * Mu * Hyperborea
Hyperborea
*