HOME
The Info List - African Union


--- Advertisement ---



The African Union
African Union
(AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
in Egypt. It was established on 26 May 2001 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and launched on 9 July 2002 in South Africa,[6] with the aim of replacing the Organisation of African Unity
Organisation of African Unity
(OAU) established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, with 32 signatory governments. The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states. The AU's secretariat, the African Union
African Union
Commission, is based in Addis Ababa.

Contents

1 Overview

1.1 Treaties

2 Membership

2.1 Members

3 Organizations 4 Headquarters

4.1 Espionage accusations

5 African Union
African Union
Summits 6 Current issues

6.1 Union Government 6.2 Role of African Union 6.3 Selection of chair 6.4 AIDS in Africa 6.5 Libya

7 Interventions in support of constitutionality

7.1 Togo 7.2 Mauritania 7.3 Mali

8 Regional conflicts and military interventions

8.1 Darfur, Sudan 8.2 Somalia 8.3 Anjouan, Comoros

9 Economy 10 Languages 11 Geography 12 Celebration 13 Foreign relations 14 History 15 Symbols 16 List of chairpersons 17 Indicators 18 See also 19 References 20 Bibliography 21 External links

Overview[edit] The objectives of the AU are:

To achieve greater unity and solidarity between the African countries and Africans. To defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of its Member States. To accelerate the political and social-economic integration of the continent. To promote and defend African common positions on issues of interest to the continent and its peoples. To encourage international cooperation, taking due account of the Charter of the United Nations
Charter of the United Nations
and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. To promote peace, security, and stability on the continent. To promote democratic principles and institutions, popular participation and good governance. To promote and protect human and peoples' rights in accordance with the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and other relevant human rights instruments. To establish the necessary conditions which enable the continent to play its rightful role in the global economy and in international negotiations. To promote sustainable development at the economic, social and cultural levels as well as the integration of African economies. To promote co-operation in all fields of human activity to raise the living standards of African peoples. To coordinate and harmonize the policies between the existing and future Regional Economic Communities for the gradual attainment of the objectives of the Union. To advance the development of the continent by promoting research in all fields, in particular in science and technology. To work with relevant international partners in the eradication of preventable diseases and the promotion of good health on the continent.

The African Union
African Union
is made up of both political and administrative bodies. The highest decision-making organ is the Assembly of the African Union, made up of all the heads of state or government of member states of the AU. The Assembly is chaired by Paul Kagame, President of Rwanda. The AU also has a representative body, the Pan African Parliament, which consists of 265 members elected by the national legislatures of the AU member states. Its president is Roger Nkodo Dang. Other political institutions of the AU include

the Executive Council, made up of foreign ministers, which prepares decisions for the Assembly; the Permanent Representatives Committee, made up of the ambassadors to Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
of AU member states; and the Economic, Social, and Cultural Council (ECOSOCC), a civil society consultative body.

The AU Commission, the secretariat to the political structures, is chaired by Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma
Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma
of South Africa. On 15 July 2012, Ms. Dlamini-Zuma won a tightly contested vote to become the first female head of the African Union
African Union
Commission, replacing Jean Ping
Jean Ping
of Gabon. Other AU structures are hosted by different member states:

the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights is based in Banjul, the Gambia; and the New Partnership for Africa's Development
New Partnership for Africa's Development
(NEPAD) and APRM Secretariats and the Pan-African Parliament
Pan-African Parliament
are in Midrand, South Africa.

The AU covers the entire continent except for several territories held by Spain
Spain
(Canary Islands, Plazas de soberanía), France
France
(Mayotte, Réunion, Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean), Portugal (Madeira, Savage Islands) and the United Kingdom (Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha). The AU's first military intervention in a member state was the May 2003 deployment of a peacekeeping force of soldiers from South Africa, Ethiopia, and Mozambique
Mozambique
to Burundi
Burundi
to oversee the implementation of the various agreements. AU troops were also deployed in Sudan
Sudan
for peacekeeping during Darfur
Darfur
conflict, before the mission was handed over to the United Nations
United Nations
on 1 January 2008 UNAMID. The AU has also sent a peacekeeping mission to Somalia, of which the peacekeeping troops are from Uganda
Uganda
and Burundi. The AU has adopted a number of important new documents establishing norms at continental level, to supplement those already in force when it was created. These include the African Union
African Union
Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption (2003), the African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance (2007), the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) and its associated Declaration on Democracy, Political, Economic and Corporate Governance.[7] Treaties[edit]

Signed In force Document 1961 1962 1963 1965 OAU Charter 1991 N/A Abuja
Abuja
Treaty 1999 2002 Sirte
Sirte
Declaration

       

  Organisation of African Unity
Organisation of African Unity
(OAU) African Economic Community: (AEC)

  Community of Sahel-Saharan States
Community of Sahel-Saharan States
(CEN-SAD)

  Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Africa
(COMESA)

  East African Community
East African Community
(EAC)

  Economic Community of Central African States
Economic Community of Central African States
(ECCAS)

  Economic Community of West African States
Economic Community of West African States
(ECOWAS)

  Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)

  Southern African Development Community
Southern African Development Community
(SADC)

  Arab Maghreb Union
Arab Maghreb Union
(AMU)

Casablanca Group

African Union
African Union
(AU)

Monrovia Group

     

v t e

Membership[edit] See also: Member states of the African Union All UN member states
UN member states
based in Africa
Africa
and African waters are members of the AU, as is the disputed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
(SADR). Morocco, which claims sovereignty over the SADR's territory, withdrew from the Organisation of African Unity, the AU's predecessor, in 1984 due to the admission of the SADR as a member. However, on 30 January 2017 the AU admitted Morocco
Morocco
as a member state.[8] Members[edit]

 Algeria  Angola  Benin  Botswana  Burkina Faso  Burundi  Cabo Verde  Cameroon  Central African Republic  Chad  Comoros  Côte d'Ivoire  Democratic Republic of Congo  Djibouti

 Egypt  Equatorial Guinea  Eritrea  Ethiopia  Gabon  The Gambia  Ghana  Guinea  Guinea-Bissau  Kenya  Lesotho  Liberia  Libya  Madagascar

 Malawi  Mali  Mauritania  Mauritius  Morocco  Mozambique  Namibia  Niger  Nigeria  Republic of Congo  Rwanda  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic  São Tomé and Príncipe  Senegal

 Seychelles  Sierra Leone  Somalia  South Africa  South Sudan  Sudan  Swaziland  Tanzania  Togo  Tunisia  Uganda  Zambia  Zimbabwe

Regions of the African Union  North   Southern   East   West   Central 

Organizations[edit]

African Union

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of the African Union

Institutions

Casablanca Group Union of African States Organisation of African Unity African Economic Community African Unification Front

Executive

Assembly

Chairperson

Commission

Chairperson Conference and Events Peace & Sec. Pol. Affairs Infra. & Energy Soc. Affairs HR, Sci., & Tech. Trade and Industry Rural Econ. & Agri. Economic Legal Counsel

Executive Council

Rep. Committee

Legislature

Pan-African Parliament

President Bureau Secretariat List of members

Permanent Committees

Rural Econ., Agri., Resources, Eviron. Monetary & Financial Trade, Customs, & Immigration Cooperation, IR, & Conflict Transport, Industry, Communications,   Energy, Science, & Tech. Health, Labour, & Social Educ., Culture, Tourism, & HR Gender, Family, Youth, Disabilities Justice & Rights Rules, Privileges, & Discipline

Judiciary

Sirte
Sirte
Declaration Constitutive Act of the AU Law

Charter on Rights Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights

Court of Justice Court on Human and Peoples' Rights

List of judges

Advisory bodies

Peace and Security Council Economic, Social and Cultural Council Specialised Technical Committees

Rural Econ., Agri. Monetary & Financial Trade, Customs, and Immigration Industry, Sci. & Tech., Energy, Natural Resources, & Environment Transport, Comm., Tourism Health, Labor, Social Edu., Culture, & Human Resources

Financial bodies

AEC Pillars ( Abuja
Abuja
Treaty)

CEN-SAD COMESA EAC ECCAS/CEEAC

CEMAC

ECOWAS

UEMOA WAMZ

IGAD SADC

SACU

AMU/UMA

African Central Bank African Monetary Fund African Investment Bank New Partnership for Africa's Development

African Peer Review Mechanism

Decentralised bodies

Agencies of the AU

Related topics

Elections Enlargement Foreign relations

Other countries Atlas

v t e

The African Union
African Union
has a number of official bodies:

Pan-African Parliament
Pan-African Parliament
(PAP) To become the highest legislative body of the African Union. The seat of the PAP is at Midrand, South Africa. The Parliament is composed of 265 elected representatives from all 55 AU states, and intended to provide popular and civil-society participation in the processes of democratic governance. Its president is Roger Nkodo Dang, of Cameroon.

Assembly of the African Union Composed of heads of state and heads of government of AU states, the Assembly is currently the supreme governing body of the African Union. It is gradually devolving some of its decision-making powers to the Pan African Parliament. It meets once a year and makes its decisions by consensus or by a two-thirds majority. The current chair of the AU is Chadian President Idriss Déby.

African Union Commission (or Authority)  The secretariat of the African Union, composed of ten commissioners and supporting staff and headquartered in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In a similar fashion to its European counterpart, the European Commission, it is responsible for the administration and co-ordination of the AU's activities and meetings.

Court of Justice of the African Union The Constitutive Act provides for a Court of Justice to rule on disputes over interpretation of AU treaties. A protocol to set up this Court of Justice was adopted in 2003 and entered into force in 2009. It was, however, superseded by a protocol creating an African Court of Justice and Human Rights, which will incorporate the already established African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights (see below) and have two chambers: one for general legal matters and one for rulings on the human rights treaties.

Executive Council Composed of ministers designated by the governments of member states. It decides on matters such as foreign trade, social security, food, agriculture and communications, is accountable to the Assembly, and prepares material for the Assembly to discuss and approve.It is chaired by Mr Shawn Makuyana of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
(2015–).

Permanent Representatives' Committee Consisting of nominated permanent representatives of member states, the Committee prepares the work for the Executive Council, similar the role of the Committee of Permanent Representatives
Committee of Permanent Representatives
in the European Union.

Peace and Security Council (PSC) Proposed at the Lusaka
Lusaka
Summit in 2001 and established in 2004 under a protocol to the Constitutive Act adopted by the AU Assembly in July 2002. The protocol defines the PSC as a collective security and early warning arrangement to facilitate timely and effective response to conflict and crisis situations in Africa. Other responsibilities conferred to the PSC by the protocol include prevention, management and resolution of conflicts, post-conflict peace building and developing common defence policies. The PSC has fifteen members elected on a regional basis by the Assembly. Similar in intent and operation to the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council.

Economic, Social and Cultural Council An advisory organ composed of professional and civic representatives, similar to the European Economic and Social Committee. The chair of ECOSOCC, elected in 2008, is Cameroonian lawyer Akere Muna of the Pan-African Lawyers Union (PALU).

Specialised Technical Committees Both the Abuja Treaty
Abuja Treaty
and the Constitutive Act provide for Specialised Technical Committees to be established made up of African ministers to advise the Assembly. In practice, they have never been set up. The ten proposed themes are: Rural Economy and Agricultural Matters; Monetary and Financial Affairs; Trade, Customs, and Immigration; Industry, Science and Technology; Energy, Natural Resources, and Environment; Transport, Communications, and Tourism; Health; Labour, and Social Affairs; Education, Culture, and Human Resources.

Financial institutions

African Central Bank – Abuja, Nigeria African Investment Bank – Tripoli, Libya African Monetary Fund – Yaoundé, Cameroon

These institutions have not yet been established, however, the Steering Committees working on their founding have been constituted. Eventually, the AU aims to have a single currency (the Afro).

Human rights The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, in existence since 1986, is established under the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (the African Charter) rather than the Constitutive Act of the African Union. It is the premier African human rights body, with responsibility for monitoring and promoting compliance with the African Charter. The African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights was established in 2006 to supplement the work of the Commission, following the entry into force of a protocol to the African Charter providing for its creation. It is planned that the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights will be merged with the Court of Justice of the African Union
African Union
(see above).

African Energy Commission

Headquarters[edit]

The African Union's headquarters complex in Addis Ababa.

The main administrative capital of the African Union
African Union
is in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, where the African Union Commission is headquartered. A new headquarters complex, the AU Conference Center and Office Complex (AUCC), was inaugurated on 28 January 2012, during the 18th AU summit.[9] The complex was built by China State Construction Engineering Corporation as a gift from the Chinese government, and accommodates, among other facilities, a 2,500-seat plenary hall and a 20-story office tower. The tower is 99.9 meters high to signify the date 9 September 1999, when the Organization of African Unity
Organization of African Unity
voted to become the African Union.[10] The building cost US$ 200 million to construct.[11] Espionage accusations[edit] On 26 January 2018, five years after the building's completion, the French Newspaper Le Monde[12] published an article stating that the Chinese government had heavily bugged the building.[11] Installing listening devices in the walls and furniture and setting up the computer system to copy data to servers in Shanghai daily. The Chinese government denied that they bugged the building, stating that the accusations were "utterly groundless and ridiculous."[11] Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn
Hailemariam Desalegn
rejected the French media report.[13] Moussa Faki
Moussa Faki
Mahamat, head of the African Union
African Union
Commission, said the allegations in the Le Monde's report were false. "These are totally false allegations and I believe that we are completely disregarding them."[14] African Union
African Union
Summits[edit]

Session Host Country Host City Date Theme Notes

30th[15]  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 000000002018-01-22-000022 January-000000002018-01-29-000029 January 2018 “Winning the Fight against Corruption: A Sustainable Path to Africa’s Transformation”

29th[16]  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 000000002017-06-27-000027 June-000000002017-07-04-00004 July 2017 “Harnessing the Demographic Dividend through Investments in Youth”

28th[17]  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 000000002017-01-22-000022-000000002017-01-31-000031 January 2017 “Harnessing the Demographic Dividend through investments in Youth” Morocco
Morocco
rejoins the AU after 33 years

27th[18]  Rwanda Kigali 000000002016-07-10-000010-000000002016-07-18-000018 July 2016 “African Year of Human Rights with particular focus on the Rights of Women” Launch of African Union
African Union
Passport

26th[19]  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 000000002016-01-21-000021-000000002016-01-31-000031 January 2016 “African Year of Human Rights with particular focus on the Rights of Women”

Third India- Africa
Africa
Forum Summit  India New Delhi 26–29 October 2015 Reinvigorated Partnership-Shared Vision

25th[20][21]  South Africa Johannesburg 000000002015-06-07-00007-000000002015-06-15-000015 June 2015 “Year of Women Empowerment and Development Towards Africa’s Agenda 2063” Featured Angelina Jolie[22]

24th[23]  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 000000002015-01-23-000023-000000002015-01-31-000031 January 2015 “Year of Women Empowerment and Development Towards Africa’s Agenda 2063”

2nd Africa-Turkey Summit[24][25]  Equatorial Guinea Malabo 000000002014-11-19-000019-000000002014-11-21-000021 November 2014 “A new model of partnership to enhance a sustainable development and integration of Africa”

23rd[26]  Equatorial Guinea Malabo 000000002014-06-20-000020-000000002014-06-27-000027 June 2014 “Year of Agriculture and food security”

22nd[27][28]  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 000000002014-01-21-000021-000000002014-01-31-000031 January 2014 “Year Agriculture and food security, Marking 10th Anniversary of the Adoption of the Comprehensive Africa
Africa
Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP)”

ICC – Extraordinary Summit[29]  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 000000002013-10-11-000011-000000002013-10-12-000012 October 2013 “Africa's relationship with the ICC” This was in regards to the ICC's non-adherence to AU calls to drop certain charges against sitting leaders and that it was disproportionally targeting Africans.[30]

21st[31]  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 000000002013-05-19-000019-000000002013-05-27-000027 May 2013 “Panafricanism and African Renaissance” 50th Anniversary of the Establishment of the Organisation of African Unity

20th[32]  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 000000002013-01-27-000027-000000002013-01-28-000028 January 2013 “Panafricanism and African Renaissance”

Diaspora Summit[33]  South Africa Sandton 000000002012-05-23-000023-000000002012-05-25-000025 May 2012 “Towards the realisation of a united and integrated Africa
Africa
and its diaspora”

19th[34]  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 000000002012-07-09-00009-000000002012-07-16-000016 July 2012 “Boosting Intra-African trade”

18th[35]  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 000000002012-01-23-000023-000000002012-01-30-000030 January 2012 “Boosting Intra-African trade”

17th[36]  Equatorial Guinea Malabo 000000002011-06-23-000023 June-000000002011-07-01-00001 July 2011 “Youth empowerment for sustainable development”

2nd Africa- India
India
Summit[37]  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 000000002011-05-20-000020-000000002011-05-25-000025 May 2011 “Enhancing partnership: shared vision”

16th[38]  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 000000002011-01-24-000024-000000002011-01-31-000031 January 2011 “Towards greater unity and integration through shared values”

15th[39]  Uganda Kampala 000000002010-07-19-000019-000000002010-07-27-000027 July 2010 “Maternal, Infant, and Child Health and Development in Africa”

14th[40]  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 000000002010-01-25-000025 January-000000002010-02-02-00002 February 2010 “Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Africa: Challenges and Prospects for Development”

13th[41]  Libya Sirte 000000002009-06-24-000024 June-000000002009-07-03-00003 July 2009 “Investing in Agriculture for Economic Growth and Food Security”

12th[42]  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 000000002009-01-26-000026 January-000000002009-02-03-00003 February 2009 “Infrastructure Development in Africa”

11th[43]  Egypt Sharm el-Sheikh 000000002008-06-24-000024 June-000000002008-07-01-00001 July 2008 “Meeting the Millennium Development Goals on Water and Sanitation”

10th[44]  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 000000002008-01-25-000025 January-000000002008-02-02-00002 February 2008 “Industrial Development of Africa”

9th[45]  Ghana Accra 000000002007-06-25-000025 June-000000002007-07-06-00006 July 2007 “Grand Debate on the Union Government”

8th[46]  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 000000002007-01-22-000022-000000002007-01-30-000030 January 2007 1. Science, Technology and Scientific Research for Development 2. Climate change in Africa

7th[47]  Gambia Banjul 000000002006-06-25-000025 June-000000002006-07-02-00002 July 2006 “Rationalisation of Recs and Regional Integration”

6th[48]  Sudan Khartoum 000000002006-01-16-000016-000000002006-01-24-000024 January 2006 “Education and Culture”

5th[49]  Libya Sirte 000000002005-06-28-000028-000000002005-06-29-000029 June 2005

Extraordinary summit on UN Reform[50]  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 000000002005-08-04-00004 August 2005

4th[51]  Nigeria Abuja 000000002005-01-24-000024-000000002005-01-31-000031 January 2005

3rd[52]  Ethiopia Addis Ababa 000000002004-07-06-00006-000000002004-07-08-00008 July 2004

2nd[53]  Mozambique Maputo 000000002003-07-02-00002-000000002003-07-12-000012 July 2003

1st[54]  South Africa Durban 000000002002-06-28-000028-000000002002-07-10-000010 July 2002 “Peace, Development and Prosperity: The African Century” Notable events include the launch of the African Union.[55]

Current issues[edit] The AU faces many challenges, including health issues such as combating malaria and the AIDS/HIV
AIDS/HIV
epidemic; political issues such as confronting undemocratic regimes and mediating in the many civil wars; economic issues such as improving the standard of living of millions of impoverished, uneducated Africans; ecological issues such as dealing with recurring famines, desertification, and lack of ecological sustainability; as well as the legal issues regarding Western Sahara. Union Government[edit] The principal topic for debate at the July 2007 AU summit held in Accra, Ghana, was the creation of a Union Government,[56] with the aim of moving towards a United States
United States
of Africa. A study on the Union Government was adopted in late 2006,[57] and proposes various options for "completing" the African Union
African Union
project. There are divisions among African states on the proposals, with some (notably Libya) following a maximalist view leading to a common government with an AU army; and others (especially the southern African states) supporting rather a strengthening of the existing structures, with some reforms to deal with administrative and political challenges in making the AU Commission and other bodies truly effective.[58] Following a heated debate in Accra, the Assembly of Heads of State and Government agreed in the form of a declaration to review the state of affairs of the AU with a view to determining its readiness towards a Union Government.[59] In particular, the Assembly agreed to:

Accelerate the economic and political integration of the African continent, including the formation of a Union Government of Africa; Conduct an audit of the institutions and organs of the AU; review the relationship between the AU and the RECs; find ways to strengthen the AU and elaborate a timeframe to establish a Union Government of Africa.

The declaration lastly noted the "importance of involving the African peoples, including Africans in the Diaspora, in the processes leading to the formation of the Union Government." Following this decision, a panel of eminent persons was set up to conduct the "audit review". The review team began its work on 1 September 2007. The review was presented to the Assembly of Heads of State and Government at the January 2008 summit in Addis Ababa. No final decision was taken on the recommendations, however, and a committee of ten heads of state was appointed to consider the review and report back to the July 2008 summit to be held in Egypt.[60] At the July 2008 summit, a decision was once again deferred, for a "final" debate at the January 2009 summit to be held in Addis Ababa. Role of African Union[edit]

Euler diagram
Euler diagram
showing the relationships between various multinational African entities v • d • e

One of the key debates in relation to the achievement of greater continental integration is the relative priority that should be given to integration of the continent as a unit in itself or to integration of the sub-regions. The 1980 Lagos
Lagos
Plan of Action for the Development of Africa
Africa
and the 1991 treaty to establish the African Economic Community (also referred to as the Abuja
Abuja
Treaty), proposed the creation of Regional Economic Communities (RECs) as the basis for African integration, with a timetable for regional and then continental integration to follow.[61] Currently, there are eight RECs recognised by the AU, each established under a separate regional treaty. They are:

the Arab Maghreb Union
Arab Maghreb Union
(AMU) the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Africa
(COMESA) the Community of Sahel-Saharan States
Community of Sahel-Saharan States
(CEN-SAD) the East African Community
East African Community
(EAC) the Economic Community of Central African States
Economic Community of Central African States
(ECCAS) the Economic Community of West African States
Economic Community of West African States
(ECOWAS) the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) the Southern Africa
Africa
Development Community (SADC)

The membership of many of the communities overlaps, and their rationalisation has been under discussion for several years – and formed the theme of the 2006 Banjul
Banjul
summit. At the July 2007 Accra summit the Assembly finally decided to adopt a Protocol on Relations between the African Union
African Union
and the Regional Economic Communities.[62] This protocol is intended to facilitate the harmonisation of policies and ensure compliance with the Abuja Treaty
Abuja Treaty
and Lagos
Lagos
Plan of Action time frames. Selection of chair[edit] In 2006, the AU decided to create a Committee "to consider the implementation of a rotation system between the regions" in relation to the presidency. Controversy arose at the 2006 summit when Sudan announced its candidacy for the AU's chairmanship, as a representative of the East African region. Several member states refused to support Sudan
Sudan
because of tensions over Darfur
Darfur
(see also below). Sudan ultimately withdrew its candidacy and President Denis Sassou-Nguesso of the Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
was elected to a one-year term. At the January 2007 summit, Sassou-Nguesso was replaced by President John Agyekum Kufuor of Ghana, despite another attempt by Sudan
Sudan
to gain the chair. 2007 was the 50th anniversary of Ghana's independence, a symbolic moment for the country to hold the chair of the AU—and to host the mid-year summit at which the proposed Union Government was also discussed. In January 2008, President Jakaya Kikwete
Jakaya Kikwete
of Tanzania took over as chair, representing the East African region and thus apparently ending Sudan's attempt to become chair—at least till the rotation returns to East Africa.[63] The current chair is Benin. AIDS in Africa[edit] The AU has been active in addressing the AIDS pandemic in Africa. In 2001, the AU established AIDS Watch Africa
Africa
to coordinate and mobilize a continent-wide response.[64] Sub-Saharan Africa, especially southern and eastern Africa, is the most affected area in the world. Though this region is home to only 6.2% of the world's population, it is also home to half of the world's population infected with HIV.[65] While the measurement of HIV prevalence rates has proved methodologically challenging, more than 20% of the sexually active population of many countries of southern Africa
Africa
may be infected, with South Africa, Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, and Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
all expected to have a decrease in life expectancy by an average of 6.5 years. The pandemic has had massive implications for the economy of the continent, reducing economic growth rates by 2–4% across Africa.[66] In July, 2007, the AU endorsed two new initiatives to combat the AIDS crisis, including a push to recruit, train and integrate 2 million community health workers into the continent's healthcare systems.[67] Libya[edit] The AU attempted to mediate in the early stages of the 2011 Libyan civil war, forming an ad hoc committee of five presidents (Congolese President Denis Sassou Nguesso, Malian President Amadou Toumani Touré, Mauritanian President Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz, South African President Jacob Zuma, and Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni) to broker a truce.[68] However, the beginning of the NATO-led military intervention in March 2011 prevented the committee from traveling to Libya
Libya
to meet with Libyan leader and former head of the AU until 2010 Muammar Gaddafi.[69] As a body, the AU sharply dissented from the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council's decision to create a no-fly zone over Libya,[70] though a few member states, such as Botswana,[71] Gabon,[72] Zambia,[73] and others expressed support for the resolution. As a result of Gaddafi's defeat at the Battle of Tripoli, the decisive battle of the war, in August 2011, the Arab League
Arab League
voted to recognise the anti-Gaddafi National Transitional Council
National Transitional Council
as the legitimate government of the country pending elections,[74] yet although the council has been recognised by several AU member states, including two countries that are also members of the Arab League,[75][76] the AU Peace and Security Council voted on 26 August 2011 not to recognise it, insisting that a ceasefire be agreed to and a national unity government be formed by both sides in the civil war.[77] A number of AU member states led by Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Rwanda
Rwanda
requested that the AU recognise the NTC as Libya's interim governing authority,[78][79] and several other AU member states have recognised the NTC regardless of the Peace and Security Council's decision.[80][81] However, AU member states Algeria[82] and Zimbabwe[83] have indicated they will not recognise the NTC, and South Africa
Africa
has expressed reservations as well.[84] On 20 September 2011, the African Union
African Union
officially recognised the National Transitional Council
National Transitional Council
as the legitimate representative of Libya.[85] Interventions in support of constitutionality[edit] Togo[edit] In response to the death of Gnassingbé Eyadéma, President of Togo, on 5 February 2005, AU leaders described the naming of his son Faure Gnassingbé the successor as a military coup.[86] Togo's constitution calls for the speaker of parliament to succeed the president in the event of his death. By law, the parliament speaker must call national elections to choose a new president within sixty days. The AU's protest forced Gnassingbé to hold elections. Under heavy allegations of election fraud, he was officially elected President on 4 May 2005. Mauritania[edit] On 3 August 2005, a coup in Mauritania
Mauritania
led the African Union
African Union
to suspend the country from all organisational activities. The Military Council that took control of Mauritania
Mauritania
promised to hold elections within two years.[citation needed] These were held in early 2007, the first time that the country had held elections that were generally agreed to be of an acceptable standard. Following the elections, Mauritania's membership of the AU was restored. However, on 6 August 2008, a fresh coup overthrew the government elected in 2007. The AU once again suspended Mauritania
Mauritania
from the continental body.[87] The suspension was once again lifted in 2009 after the military junta agreed with the opposition to organize elections [88] Mali[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2013)

In March 2012, a military coup was staged in Mali, when an alliance of Touareg and Islamist forces conquered the north, resulting in a coming to power of the Islamists. After a military intervention with help from French troops, the region was in control of the Malian army. To reinstall local authorities, the AU helped to form a caretaker government, supporting it and holding presidential elections in Mali in July 2013.[89] Regional conflicts and military interventions[edit] One of the objectives of the AU is to "promote peace, security, and stability on the continent".[90] Among its principles is 'Peaceful resolution of conflicts among Member States of the Union through such appropriate means as may be decided upon by the Assembly'.[91] The primary body charged with implementing these objectives and principles is the Peace and Security Council. The PSC has the power, among other things, to authorise peace support missions, to impose sanctions in case of unconstitutional change of government, and to "take initiatives and action it deems appropriate" in response to potential or actual conflicts. The PSC is a decision-making body in its own right, and its decisions are binding on member states. Article 4(h) of the Constitutive Act, repeated in article 4 of the Protocol to the Constitutive Act on the PSC, also recognises the right of the Union to intervene in member state in circumstances of war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity. Any decision to intervene in a member state under article 4 of the Constitutive Act will be made by the Assembly on the recommendation of the PSC. Since it first met in 2004, the PSC has been active in relation to the crises in Darfur, Comoros, Somalia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Côte d'Ivoire and other countries. It has adopted resolutions creating the AU peacekeeping operations in Somalia
Somalia
and Darfur, and imposing sanctions against persons undermining peace and security (such as travel bans and asset freezes against the leaders of the rebellion in Comoros). The Council is in the process of overseeing the establishment of a "standby force" to serve as a permanent African peacekeeping force.,[citation needed] Institute for Security Studies, South Africa, March 2008. The founding treaty of the AU also called for the establishment of the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA), including the African Standby Force (ASF), which is to be deployed in emergencies. That means, in cases of genocide or other serious human-rights violations, an ASF mission can be launched even against the wishes of the government of the country concerned, as long as it is approved by the AU General Assembly. In the past AU peacekeeping missions, the concept was not yet applied, forces had to be mobilised from member states. The AU is planning on putting the concept into practise by 2015 the earliest.[89] Darfur, Sudan[edit] Main article: African Union
African Union
Mission in Sudan

South Sudanese independence referendum, 2011

In response to the ongoing Darfur conflict
Darfur conflict
in Sudan, the AU has deployed 7,000 peacekeepers, many from Rwanda
Rwanda
and Nigeria, to Darfur. While a donor's conference in Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
in 2005 helped raise funds to sustain the peacekeepers through that year and into 2006, in July 2006 the AU said it would pull out at the end of September when its mandate expires.[92] Critics of the AU peacekeepers, including Dr. Eric Reeves, have said these forces are largely ineffective due to lack of funds, personnel, and expertise. Monitoring an area roughly the size of France
France
has made it even more difficult to sustain an effective mission. In June 2006, the United States
United States
Congress appropriated US$173 million for the AU force. Some, such as the Genocide Intervention Network, have called for UN or NATO
NATO
intervention to augment and/or replace the AU peacekeepers. The UN has considered deploying a force, though it would not likely enter the country until at least October 2007.[93] The under-funded and badly equipped AU mission was set to expire on 31 December 2006 but was extended to 30 June 2007 and merged with the United Nations
United Nations
African Union
African Union
Mission in Darfur
Darfur
in October 2007. In July 2009 the African Union
African Union
ceased cooperation with the International Criminal Court, refusing to recognise the international arrest warrant it had issued against Sudan's leader, Omar al-Bashir, who was indicted in 2008 for war crimes.[94] The AU struggled to have a strategic role in the independence talks and the reconciliation process of South Sudan, anyway due to overwhelming interests of African and non-African powers, its influence is still limited and not consistent.[95] Somalia[edit] Main article: African Union
African Union
Mission to Somalia From the early 1990s up until 2000, Somalia
Somalia
was without a functioning central government. A peace agreement aimed at ending the civil war that broke out following the collapse of the Siad Barre
Siad Barre
regime was signed in 2006 after many years of peace talks. However, the new government was almost immediately threatened by further violence. To temporarily shore up the government's military base, starting in March 2007, AU soldiers began arriving in Mogadishu
Mogadishu
as part of a peacekeeping force that was intended by the AU to eventually be 8,000 strong.[96] Eritrea
Eritrea
recalled its ambassadors to the African Union
African Union
on 20 November 2009[97] after the African Union
African Union
called on the United Nations Security Council to impose sanctions on them due to their alleged support of Somali Islamists attempting to topple the Transitional Federal Government
Transitional Federal Government
of Somalia, the internationally recognised government of Somalia
Somalia
which holds Somalia's seat on the African Union.[98] On 22 December 2009, the Security Council passed UNSCR 1907, which imposed an arms embargo on Eritrea, travel bans on Eritrean leaders, and asset freezes on Eritrean officials. Eritrea strongly criticised the resolution. In January 2011, Eritrea reestablished their mission to the AU in Addis Ababa.[99] Anjouan, Comoros[edit] Main article: 2008 invasion of Anjouan

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2016)

A 2008 attempt to gain independence for Anjouan
Anjouan
from Comoros
Comoros
was successfully stopped by joint AU forces. Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of the African Union The AU's future goals include the creation of a free trade area, a customs union, a single market, a central bank, and a common currency (see African Monetary Union), thereby establishing economic and monetary union. The current plan is to establish an African Economic Community with a single currency by 2023.[100] Languages[edit] Main article: Languages of the African Union According to the Constitutive Act of the African Union, its working languages are Arabic, English, French and Portuguese, and African languages "if possible".[101] A protocol amending the Constitutive Act, adopted in 2003 but as of June 2016 not yet ratified by a two-thirds majority of member states, would add Spanish, Swahili and "any other African language" and declare all "official" (rather than "working") languages of the African Union.[102] The Executive Council shall determine the process and practical modalities for the use of official languages as working languages. Founded in 2001 under the auspices of the AU, the African Academy of Languages promotes the usage and perpetuation of African languages among African people. The AU declared 2006 the Year of African Languages.[103][104] 2006 also marked Ghana's 55th anniversary since it founded the Bureau of Ghana
Ghana
Languages originally known as Gold Coast Vernacular Literature Bureau. Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of the African Union Member states of the African Union
Member states of the African Union
cover almost the entirety of continental Africa
Africa
and several off-shore islands. Consequently, the geography of the African Union
African Union
is wildly diverse, including the world's largest hot desert (the Sahara), huge jungles and savannas, and the world's longest river (the Nile). The AU presently has an area of 29,922,059 square kilometres (11,552,972 sq mi), with 24,165 kilometres (15,015 mi) of coastline. The vast majority of this area is on continental Africa, while the only significant territory off the mainland is the island of Madagascar
Madagascar
(the world's fourth largest island), accounting for slightly less than 2% of the total. Celebration[edit] Africa
Africa
Day, formerly African Freedom Day and African Liberation Day, is an annual commemoration regarding the founding of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), on 25 May 1963, and occurring on the same date of the month each year. Foreign relations[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of the African Union The individual member states of the African Union
African Union
coordinate foreign policy through this agency, in addition to conducting their own international relations on a state-by-state basis. The AU represents the interests of African peoples at large in intergovernmental organisations (IGOs); for instance, it is a permanent observer at the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly. Both the African Union
African Union
and the United Nations work in tandem to address issues of common concerns in various areas. The African Union
African Union
Mission in United Nations
United Nations
aspires to serve as a bridge between the two Organisations. Membership of the AU overlaps with other IGOs and occasionally these third-party organisations and the AU will coordinate matters of public policy. The African Union
African Union
maintains special diplomatic representation with the United States
United States
and the European Union. In 2016, the Union introduced continent-wide passports.[105] Upon the election of Donald Trump for the presidency of the U.S., in 2017, the latter passed an executive order for a ban on citizens from seven countries with suspected links to terrorism, that concerns three African countries. During the 28th African Union
African Union
Summit, in Ethiopia, African leaders criticized the ban[106] as they expressed their growing concerns for the African Economy, under Trump's policies. History[edit] Main article: History of the African Union The historical foundations of the African Union
African Union
originated in the Union of African States, an early confederation that was established by Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
in the 1960s, as well as subsequent attempts to unite Africa, including the Organisation of African Unity
Organisation of African Unity
(OAU), which was established on 25 May 1963, and the African Economic Community
African Economic Community
in 1981. Critics argued that the OAU in particular did little to protect the rights and liberties of African citizens from their own political leaders, often dubbing it the "Dictators' Club".[107] The idea of creating the AU was revived in the mid-1990s under the leadership of Libyan head of state Muammar al-Gaddafi: the heads of state and government of the OAU issued the Sirte Declaration (named after Sirte, in Libya) on 9 September 1999, calling for the establishment of an African Union. The Declaration was followed by summits at Lomé
Lomé
in 2000, when the Constitutive Act of the African Union was adopted, and at Lusaka
Lusaka
in 2001, when the plan for the implementation of the African Union
African Union
was adopted. During the same period, the initiative for the establishment of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), was also established. The African Union
African Union
was launched in Durban
Durban
on 9 July 2002, by its first chairperson, South African Thabo Mbeki, at the first session of the Assembly of the African Union. The second session of the Assembly was in Maputo
Maputo
in 2003, and the third session in Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
on 6 July 2004. Since 2010, the African Union
African Union
eyes the establishment of a joint African space agency.[108][109][110][111] Barack Obama
Barack Obama
was the first ever sitting United States
United States
president to speak in front of the African Union
African Union
in Addis Ababa, on 29 July 2015. With his speech, he encouraged the world to increase economic ties via investments and trade with the continent, and lauded the progresses made in education, infrastructure and economy. But he also criticized lacks of democracy and leaders who refuse to step down, discrimination against minorities ( LGBT
LGBT
people, religious groups and ethnicities) and corruption. He suggested an intensified democratization and free trade, to significantly increase living quality for Africans.[112][113] Symbols[edit]

Emblem of the African Union

The emblem of the African Union
African Union
consists of a gold ribbon bearing small interlocking red rings, from which palm leaves shoot up around an outer gold circle and an inner green circle, within which is a gold representation of Africa. The red interlinked rings stand for African solidarity and the blood shed for the liberation of Africa; the palm leaves for peace; the gold, for Africa's wealth and bright future; the green, for African hopes and aspirations. To symbolise African unity, the silhouette of Africa
Africa
is drawn without internal borders. The African Union
African Union
adopted its new flag at its 14th Ordinary Session of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government taking place in Addis Ababa 2010. During the 8th African Union
African Union
Summit which took place in Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
on 29 and 30 January 2007, the Heads of State and Government decided to launch a competition for the selection of a new flag for the Union. They prescribed a green background for the flag symbolising hope of Africa
Africa
and stars to represent Member States. Pursuant to this decision, the African Union Commission (AUC) organised a competition for the selection of a new flag for the African Union. The AUC received a total of 106 entries proposed by citizens of 19 African countries and 2 from the Diaspora. The proposals were then examined by a panel of experts put in place by the African Union Commission and selected from the five African regions for short listing according to the main directions given by the Heads of State and Government. At the 13th Ordinary Session of the Assembly, the Heads of State and Government examined the report of the Panel and selected one among all the proposals. The flag is now part of the paraphernalia of the African Union
African Union
and replaces the old one. The old flag of the African Union
African Union
bears a broad green horizontal stripe, a narrow band of gold, the emblem of the African Union
African Union
at the centre of a broad white stripe, another narrow gold band and a final broad green stripe. Again, the green and gold symbolise Africa's hopes and aspirations as well as its wealth and bright future, and the white represents the purity of Africa's desire for friends throughout the world. The flag has led to the creation of the "national colours" of Africa
Africa
of gold and green (sometimes together with white). These colours are visible in one way or another in the flags of many African nations. Together the colours green, gold, and red constitute the Pan-African colours. The African Union
African Union
has adopted the anthem, "Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together". List of chairpersons[edit] Main article: Chairperson of the African Union

Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
embracing Tanzanian President Kikwete after assuming the chairmanship.

Chairpersons of the African Union

Name Beginning of term End of term Country

Thabo Mbeki 9 July 2002 10 July 2003  South Africa

Joaquim Chissano 10 July 2003 6 July 2004  Mozambique

Olusegun Obasanjo 6 July 2004 24 January 2006  Nigeria

Denis Sassou-Nguesso 24 January 2006 24 January 2007  Congo

John Kufuor 30 January 2007 31 January 2008  Ghana

Jakaya Kikwete 31 January 2008 2 February 2009  Tanzania

Muammar al-Gaddafi 2 February 2009 31 January 2010  Libya

Bingu wa Mutharika[114][115] 31 January 2010 31 January 2011  Malawi

Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo[116] 31 January 2011 29 January 2012  Equatorial Guinea

Yayi Boni 29 January 2012 27 January 2013  Benin

Hailemariam Desalegn 27 January 2013 30 January 2014  Ethiopia

Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz 30 January 2014 30 January 2015  Mauritania

Robert Mugabe 30 January 2015 30 January 2016  Zimbabwe

Idriss Déby 30 January 2016 30 January 2017  Chad

Alpha Condé 30 January 2017 28 January 2018  Guinea

Paul Kagame[117] 28 January 2018 Incumbent  Rwanda

Indicators[edit] The following table shows various data for AU member states, including area, population, economic output and income inequality, as well as various indices, including human development, viability of the state, perception of corruption, economic freedom, state of peace, freedom of the press and democratic level.

Country Land Area (km²) 2015[118]

Population 2016[5]

GDP (PPP) (Intl. $) 2015[118]

GDP (PPP) per capita (Intl. $) 2015[118]

HDI 2014[119]

FSI 2016[120]

CPI 2016[121]

IEF 2016[122]

GPI 2016[123]

WPFI 2016[124]

DI 2016[125]

 Algeria 2,381,741 40,606,052 548,293,085,686 13,823 0.736 78.3 34 50.06 2.21 41.69 3.56

 Angola 1,246,700 28,813,463 173,593,223,667 6,938 0.532 90.5 18 48.94 2.14 39.89 3.40

 Benin 112,760 10,872,298 21,016,184,357 1,932 0.48 78.9 36 59.31 2.00 28.97 5.67

 Botswana 566,730 2,250,260 33,657,545,969 14,876 0.698 63.5 60 71.07 1.64 22.91 7.87

 Burkina Faso 273,600 18,646,433 28,840,666,622 1,593 0.402 89.4 42 59.09 2.06 22.66 4.70

 Burundi 25,680 10,524,117 7,634,578,343 300 0.4 100.7 20 53.91 2.50 54.10 2.40

 Cape Verde 4,030 539,560 3,205,197,585 6,158 0.646 71.5 59 66.46 N/A 19.82 7.94

 Cameroon 472,710 23,439,189 68,302,439,597 2,926 0.512 97.8 26 54.18 2.36 40.53 3.46

 Central African Republic 622,980 4,594,621 2,847,726,468 581 0.35 112.1 20 45.23 3.35 33.60 1.61

 Chad 1,259,200 14,452,543 28,686,194,920 2,044 0.392 110.1 20 46.33 2.46 40.59 1.50

 Comoros 1,861 795,601 1,098,546,195 1,393 0.503 83.8 24 52.35 N/A 24.33 3.71

 Congo, Democratic Republic of the 2,267,050 78,736,153 56,920,935,460 300 0.433

21 46.38 3.11 50.97 1.93

 Congo, Republic of the 341,500 5,125,821 27,690,345,067 5,993 0.591 92.2 20 42.80 2.25 35.84 2.91

 Côte d'Ivoire 318,000 23,695,919 74,916,780,423 3,300 0.462 97.9 34 60.01 2.28 30.17 3.81

 Djibouti 23,180 942,333 2,911,406,226 3,279 0.47 89.7 30 55.96 2.29 70.90 2.83

 Egypt 1,010,407 95,688,681 1,173,000,000,000 10,250 0.69 90.2 34 55.96 2.57 54.45 3.31

 Equatorial Guinea 28,050 1,221,490 32,317,928,931 38,243 0.587 85.2 N/A 43.67 1.94 66.47 1.70

 Eritrea[126] 101,000 4,954,645 8,845,000,000b 600b 0.391 98.6 18 42.7 2.46 83.92 2.37

 Ethiopia 1,104,300 102,403,196 152,057,290,468 1,530 0.442 97.2 34 51.52 2.28 45.13 3.60

 Gabon 257,670 1,979,786 32,539,376,597 18,860 0.684 72 35 58.96 2.03 32.20 3.74

 Gambia, The 10,120 2,038,501 3,140,820,062 1,578 0.441 86.8 26 57.14 2.09 46.53 2.91

 Ghana 227,540 28,206,728 108,393,071,924 3,955 0.579 71.2 43 63.00 1.81 17.95 6.75

 Guinea 245,720 12,395,924 14,316,884,358 1,135 0.411 103.8 27 53.33 2.15 33.08 3.14

 Guinea-Bissau 28,120 1,815,698 2,521,743,682 1,367 0.42 99.8 16 51.81 2.26 29.03 1.98

 Kenya 569,140 48,461,567 133,592,522,053 2,901 0.548 98.3 26 57.51 2.38 31.16 5.33

 Lesotho 30,360 2,203,821 5,914,437,068 2,770 0.497 80.9 39 50.62 1.94 28.78 6.59

 Liberia 96,320 4,613,823 3,533,313,381 500 0.43 95.5 37 52.19 2.00 30.71 5.31

 Libya[127] 1,759,540 6,293,253 94,010,000,000b 14,900b 0.724 96.4 14 N/A 3.20 57.89 2.25

 Madagascar 581,800 24,894,551 33,354,200,458 1,376 0.51 84.2 26 61.06 1.76 27.04 5.07

 Malawi 94,280 18,091,575 19,137,290,349 1,112 0.445 87.6 31 51.8 1.82 28.12 5.55

 Mali 1,220,190 17,994,837 33,524,899,739 1,905 0.419 95.2 32 56.54 2.49 39.83 5.70

 Mauritania[128] 1,030,700 4,301,018 16,190,000,000b 4,400b 0.506 95.4 27 54.8 2.30 24.03 3.96

 Mauritius 2,030 1,262,132 23,817,914,134 18,864 0.777 43.2 54 74.73 1.56 27.69 8.28

 Morocco 446,300 35,276,786 257,398,957,178 7,365 0.628 74.2 37 61.27 2.09 42.64 4.77

 Mozambique 786,380 28,829,476 31,326,751,237 1,120 0.416 87.8 27 53.19 1.96 30.25 4.02

 Namibia 823,290 2,479,713 24,043,436,006 9,778 0.628 71.1 52 61.85 1.87 15.15 6.31

 Niger 1,266,700 20,672,987 17,857,377,171 897 0.348 98.4 35 54.26 2.24 24.62 3.96

 Nigeria 910,770 185,989,640 1,168,000,000,000 5,639 0.514 103.5 28 57.46 2.88 35.90 4.50

 Rwanda 24,670 11,917,508 19,216,033,048 1,655 0.483 91.3 54 63.07 2.32 54.61 3.07

 São Tomé and Príncipe 960 199,910 575,391,345 3,023 0.555 72.9 46 56.71 N/A N/A N/A

 Senegal 192,530 15,411,614 34,398,281,018 2,274 0.466 83.6 45 58.09 1.98 27.99 6.21

 Seychelles 460 94,228 2,384,515,771 25,525 0.772 60.2 N/A 62.2 N/A 30.60 N/A

 Sierra Leone 72,180 7,396,190 9,511,431,824 1,474 0.413 91 30 52.31 1.81 29.94 4.55

 Somalia[129] 627,340 14,317,996 5,900,000,000c 600c N/A 114 10 N/A 3.41 65.35 N/A

 South Africa 1,213,090 56,015,473 742,461,000,000 12,393 0.666 69.9 45 61.9 2.32 21.92 7.41

 South Sudan 619,745 12,230,730 21,484,823,398 1,741 0.467 113.8 11 N/A 3.59 44.87 N/A

 Sudan 1,886,086 39,578,828 165,813,461,495 4,121 0.479 111.5 14 N/A 3.27 72.53 2.37

 Swaziland 17,200 1,343,098 10,452,834,007 8,122 0.531 87.6 N/A 59.65 2.07 52.37 3.03

 Tanzania 885,800 55,572,201 130,297,806,032 2,510 0.521 81.8 32 58.46 1.90 28.65 5.76

 Togo 54,390 7,606,374 10,018,697,437 1,372 0.484 85.8 32 53.64 1.95 30.31 3.32

 Tunisia 155,360 11,403,248 121,200,025,401 10,770 0.721 74.6 41 57.55 1.95 31.60 6.40

 Uganda 200,520 41,487,965 67,856,334,117 1,738 0.483 97.7 25 59.26 2.15 32.58 5.26

 Western Sahara[130] 266,000 538,755 906,500,000d 2,500d N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

 Zambia 743,390 16,591,390 58,400,082,027 3,602 0.586 86.3 38 58.79 1.78 35.08 5.99

 Zimbabwe 386,850 16,150,362 26,180,942,292 500 0.509 100.5 22 38.23 2.32 40.41 3.05

 African Union 30,370,000 1,225,080,510 5,457,724,064,668 4,602 0.524d 88.99d 31.51d 55.55d 2.27 37.89 4.30

Country Land Area (km²) 2015 Population 2016 GDP (PPP) (Intl. $) 2015

GDP (PPP) per capita (Intl. $) 2015

HDI 2014

FSI 2016

CPI 2016

IEF 2016

GPI 2016

WPFI 2016

DI 2016

a External data from 2016. b External data from 2015. c External data from 2014. d AU total used for indicators 1 through 3; AU weighted average used for indicator 4; AU unweighted average used for indicators 5 through 12. See also[edit]

Geography portal Africa
Africa
portal

List of country groupings List of multilateral free-trade agreements 17th Ordinary African Union
African Union
Summit African Century African Peer Review Mechanism African Renaissance African Unification Front Africanisation Arab Union Casablanca Group Central Asian Union Continental union East African Federation Ezulwini agreement Friends of the African Union Indigenous peoples of Africa Monrovia Group North American Union Pacific Union Union of South American Nations United States
United States
of Africa

References[edit]

^ " African Union
African Union
anthem, etc". Africamasterweb.com. Retrieved 26 November 2012.  ^ Kagame takes over AU leadership, commits to visa-free regime Africa News ^ Chad's Moussa Faki
Moussa Faki
Mahamat wins African Union's top job – BBC
BBC
News ^ Corresponds to the terrestrial surface. Including the Exclusive Economic Zones of each member state, the total area is 43 434 569 km². ^ a b "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ Thabo Mbeki
Thabo Mbeki
(9 July 2002). "Launch of the African Union, 9 July 2002: Address by the chairperson of the AU, President Thabo Mbeki". ABSA Stadium, Durban, South Africa: africa-union.org. Archived from the original on 3 May 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2009.  ^ Africa-union.org Archived 4 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Morocco
Morocco
rejoins African Union". Worldbulletin. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.  ^ Press release No 13 / 18th AU Summit : Inauguration of the new African Union
African Union
Conference Center Archived 16 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Directorate of Information and Communication. African Union Commission (28 January 2012). ^ Linyan, Wang. "New headquarters shows partnership entering era of hope: Ethiopia
Ethiopia
PM". China Daily. Retrieved 2 February 2012.  ^ a b c Diplomat, Shannon Tiezzi, The. "If China Bugged the AU Headquarters, What African Countries Should Be Worried?". The Diplomat. Retrieved 2018-02-04.  ^ "A Addis-Abeba, le siège de l'Union africaine espionné par Pékin". Le Monde.fr (in French). Retrieved 2018-02-04.  ^ "AU spying report absurd: China". enca.com. Retrieved 2018-03-21.  ^ " African Union
African Union
says has no secret dossiers after China spying report". reuter.com. Retrieved 2018-03-21.  ^ "30th AU summit". Retrieved 21 March 2018.  ^ "29th AU summit". 5 July 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2017.  ^ "28th AU summit". 30 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.  ^ "27th AU summit". July 2016. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "26th AU summit". January 2016. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "25th AU summit". June 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "25th African Union
African Union
Summit in Johannesburg
Johannesburg
– African Union Commission media information". June 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "A Call for Global Support in Ending Women's Violence Done by Angelina Jolie". newswatchngr.com. Newwatch NGR. February 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2016.  ^ "24th AU summit". January 2015. Archived from the original on 24 June 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "Second Turkey- Africa
Africa
Partnership Summit". November 2014. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ " Africa
Africa
Turkey 2014". November 2014. Archived from the original on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "23rd AU summit". June 2014. Archived from the original on 9 July 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "22nd AU summit". January 2014. Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "22nd Ordinary Session of the Summit of the African Union". January 2014. Archived from the original on 14 February 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "AU Extraordinary Summit on ICC". October 2013. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ " Kenya
Kenya
pushing for African split from International Criminal Court". Irish Times. Retrieved 30 January 2014.  ^ "21st AU summit". May 2013. Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "20th AU summit". January 2013. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "Global Africa
Africa
Diaspora Summit". May 2012. Archived from the original on 16 September 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "19th African Union
African Union
(AU) Summit to be held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia". June 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "18th AU summit". January 2012. Archived from the original on 14 June 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "17th AU summit". June 2011. Archived from the original on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "2nd Africa- India
India
Forum Summit". May 2011. Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "16th African Union
African Union
summit". January 2011. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "15th African Union
African Union
summit". July 2010. Archived from the original on 9 September 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "14th African Union
African Union
summit". January 2010. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "13th African Union
African Union
summit". July 2009. Archived from the original on 2 November 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "12th African Union
African Union
summit". January 2009. Archived from the original on 2 November 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "The 11th AU summit". July 2008. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "The 10th African Union
African Union
summit". January 2008. Archived from the original on 2 November 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "9th African Union
African Union
summit". July 2007. Archived from the original on 2 November 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "8th African Union
African Union
summit". January 2007. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "7th African Union
African Union
summit". July 2006. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "6th African Union
African Union
summit". January 2006. Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "5th African Union
African Union
summit". June 2005. Archived from the original on 24 February 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "AU Summit". Archived from the original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "4th African Union
African Union
summit". January 2005. Archived from the original on 15 March 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "3rd African Union
African Union
summit". July 2004. Archived from the original on 7 February 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ " African Union
African Union
Summit Maputo
Maputo
Mozambique". July 2003. Archived from the original on 8 July 2004. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "OAU/AU summit". June 2002. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ "1st AU summit: Documents and Speeches". June 2002. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ Decision on the Report of the 9th Extraordinary session of the executive council on the proposals for the Union Government, DOC.Assembly/AU/10 (VIII), Assembly/AU/Dec.156 (VIII). ^ Study on an African Union
African Union
Government: Towards a United States
United States
of Africa, 2006. See also, Decision on the Union Government, Doc. Assembly/AU/2(VII). ^ Pambazuka.org Archived 8 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Accra
Accra
Declaration, Assembly of the Union at its 9th Ordinary session in Accra, Ghana, 1–3 July 2007. ^ "Decision on the Report of the Executive Council on the Audit of the Union and the Report of the Ministerial Committee on the Union Government, Doc. Assembly/Au/8(X)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2012.  ^ See note on The Role of the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) as the Building Blocks of the African Union
African Union
prepared by the South African Department of Foreign Affairs. ^ Decision on the Protocol on Relations between the African Union
African Union
and the Regional Economic Communities (RECs), Assembly/AU/Dec.166 (IX). ^ See Towards a People-Driven African Union: Current Obstacles and New Opportunities Archived 16 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine., AfriMAP, AFRODAD and Oxfam GB, Updated Edition November 2007, pp. 45–46, and Strengthening Popular Participation in the African Union: A Guide to AU Structures and Processes, AfriMAP and Oxfam GB, 2010, pp. 8–9. ^ AIDS Watch Africa: An instrument for promoting AIDS responses in Africa
Africa
(PDF). Discussion Paper presented by HE President Olusegun Obasanjo to Heads of State of the African Union. July 2004.  ^ http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/2016-prevention-gap-report_en.pdf ^ Dixon, Simon; McDonald, Scott; Roberts, Jennifer (2002). "The Impact Of HIV And AIDS On Africa's Economic Development". BMJ: British Medical Journal. 324 (7331): 232–234.  ^ Barton-Knott, Sophie (July 3, 2017). " African Union
African Union
endorses major new initiatives to end AIDS". UNAIDS. Retrieved 6 August 2017.  ^ " African Union
African Union
urges restraint on both sides". The Star. 21 March 2011. Archived from the original on 21 March 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2011.  ^ Mulondo, Emmanuel (21 March 2011). "Kutesa, AU blocked from entering Libya". Daily Monitor. Retrieved 21 March 2011.  ^ " African Union
African Union
demands end to military strikes on Libya, skips Paris meeting". Sudan
Sudan
Tribune. 19 March 2011. Archived from the original on 21 March 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2011.  ^ Kayawe, Baboki (23 March 2011). "Khama supports no-fly zone on Libya". Mmegi. Retrieved 5 April 2011.  ^ "UN authorises no-fly zone over Libya". Al Jazeera. 18 March 2011. Archived from the original on 18 March 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2011.  ^ "Rupiah backs action against Libya". The Post. 27 March 2011. Archived from the original on 11 September 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2011.  ^ " Arab League
Arab League
Recognizes Libyan Rebel Council". RTTNews. 25 August 2011. Archived from the original on 8 December 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2011.  ^ "Tunis recognizes Libyan rebels as country's rep". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 20 August 2011. Archived from the original on 8 December 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2011.  ^ " Egypt
Egypt
recognises Libya
Libya
rebel government". The New Age. South Africa. 22 August 2011. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2011. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ Malone, Barry (26 August 2011). "AU won't recognise Libyan rebel council: diplomats". The Daily Star. Retrieved 26 August 2011.  ^ " Ethiopia
Ethiopia
recognizes Libyan rebels". NOW Lebanon. 24 August 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.  ^ "Libya-NTC: National Transitional Council
National Transitional Council
in Libya". Afrique en ligne. 27 August 2011. Archived from the original on 17 January 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2011.  ^ " Chad
Chad
recognises rebel council as only legitimate authority in neighbouring Libya". Al Jazeera. 24 August 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.  ^ " Benin
Benin
recognize Libyan rebels". Reuters. 27 August 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2011.  ^ " Algeria
Algeria
declines to recognize Libyan rebels". NOW Lebanon. 26 August 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2011.  ^ "Libyan envoy to Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
expelled for burning flag". The Zimbabwean. 26 August 2011. Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2011.  ^ "Libya: How SA stood firm on money for rebels". Mail & Globe Online. 26 August 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2011.  ^ " African Union
African Union
officially recognises Libya's new leadership". Archived from the original on 2011-11-20.  ^ "AU denounces Togo
Togo
'military coup'". BBC
BBC
News. 6 February 2005. Retrieved 10 July 2006.  ^ "All is rather easily forgiven". The Economist. 23 July 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2011.  ^ " African Union
African Union
lifts sanctions on Mauritania". Reuters. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ a b Bernadette Schulz, Ruth Langer, "Peace missions – The long haul", D+C, 27 August 2013. ^ Article 3(f) of the Constitutive Act. ^ Article 4(e) of the Constitutive Act. ^ "AU Darfur
Darfur
mission 'to end soon'". BBC
BBC
News. 28 June 2006. Retrieved 23 April 2010.  ^ "Security Council Authorises Deployment of United Nations-African Union 'Hybrid' Peace Operation in Bid To Resolve Darfur
Darfur
Conflict". United Nations. Archived from the original on 15 August 2007. Retrieved 26 November 2012.  ^ "African move on Bashir dismissed". BBC
BBC
News. 5 July 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2010.  ^ Sulaiman, Abubkar o.; Agoha, Ifeanyi Chuckwu (1 October 2013). "South Sudan
Sudan
Negotiated Independence: A Critique of African Union's Role". European Journal of Sustainable Development. 2 (3): 145–154. doi:10.14207/ejsd.2013.v2n3p145.  ^ Reynolds, Paul (8 July 2002). " African Union
African Union
replaces dictators' club". BBC
BBC
News. Archived from the original on 1 June 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010.  ^ Afro News Eritrea
Eritrea
breaks with African Union, 20 November 2009. ^ "AU Calls for sanctions on Eritrea" BBC.co.uk 23 May 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2009 ^ "Eritrea: Nation Appoints AU Envoy in Ethiopia". 20 January 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.  ^ "Profile: African Union". BBC
BBC
News. 1 July 2006. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006. Retrieved 10 July 2006.  ^ Article 25, Constitutive Act of the African Union. ^ "Protocol on the Amendments to the Constitutive Act of the African Union African Union". www.au.int. Retrieved 2018-02-20.  ^ "Ethiopia: AU Launches 2006 As Year of African Languages". AllAfrica.com. 21 June 2006. Retrieved 30 October 2016.  ^ Project for the Study of Alternative Education in South Africa (2006). "The Year of African Languages (2006) – Plan for the year of African Languages – Executive Summary". Project for the Study of Alternative Education in South Africa. Archived from the original on 23 September 2006. Retrieved 30 September 2006.  ^ Frugé, Anne (1 July 2016). "The Opposite of Brexit: African Union Launches an All- Africa
Africa
Passport". The Washington Post.  ^ " African Union
African Union
Slams Trump Muslim Ban, Invoking Legacy of Transatlantic Slave Trade". Democracy Now!. Retrieved 2017-02-01.  ^ African Union
African Union
replaces dictators' club, BBC, 8 July 2002. ^ Smith, David (5 September 2010). " Africa
Africa
prepares to join the big boys in the space race". The Guardian.  ^ Smith, David (6 September 2012). "Sudanese president calls for African space agency". The Guardian.  ^ Sep 11, 2012 (2012-09-11). " Africa
Africa
eyes joint space agency". Phys.org. Retrieved 2013-10-21.  ^ Ezigbo, Onyebuchi; Okpara, Lois (2010-08-09). "AU to Establish African Space Agency". All Africa. Retrieved 2015-12-11.  ^ Lee, Carol E. "Obama Becomes First U.S. President to Address African Union". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 29 July 2015.  ^ "Remarks by President Obama to the People of Africa". The White House. Retrieved 29 July 2015.  ^ Gaddafi fails in bid to remain African Union
African Union
chair, Reuters, 31 January 2010[dead link] ^ Malawi
Malawi
president takes over as AU president, AFP, 31 January 2010 ^ According to the AU Archived 6 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine., his official style is Son Excellence Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, Président de la République, Chef de l'État et Président Fondateur du Parti Démocratique de Guinée Equatoriale (in French). Retrieved 4 October 2011. ^ https://au.int/en/pressreleases/20180128/president-paul-kagame-elected-new-chairperson-african-union-year-2018 ^ a b c "The World Bank
World Bank
DataBank Explore. Create. Share". databank.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2017-02-04.  ^ Office, Human Development Report. "2015 Human Development Report". report.hdr.undp.org. Retrieved 2017-02-04.  ^ "The Fragile States Index
Fragile States Index
2016 The Fund for Peace". fsi.fundforpeace.org. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2017.  ^ e.V., Transparency International. "Corruption Perceptions Index 2016". www.transparency.org. Retrieved 2017-02-12.  ^ "Index of Economic Freedom: Promoting Economic Opportunity and Prosperity by Country". www.heritage.org. Retrieved 2017-02-12.  ^ "Vision of Humanity". static.visionofhumanity.org. Retrieved 2017-02-12.  ^ "2016 World Press Freedom Index Reporters Without Borders". RSF. Retrieved 2017-02-12.  ^ " Democracy Index
Democracy Index
2016" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 February 2017. Retrieved February 12, 2017.  ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-04.  ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-04.  ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-04.  ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-04.  ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-02-04. 

Bibliography[edit]

Strengthening Popular Participation in the African Union: A Guide to AU Structures and Processes, AfriMAP and Oxfam GB, 2010 Towards a People Driven African Union: Current Challenges and New Opportunities AfriMAP, AFRODAD and Oxfam GB, January 2007 The New African Initiative and the African Union: A Preliminary Assessment and Documentation by Henning Melber, Publisher: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Sweden; ISBN 91-7106-486-9; (October 2002) "The African Union, NEPAD and Human Rights: The Missing Agenda" Human Rights Quarterly Vol.26, No.4, November 2004. Bibliography on the AU at the Peace Palace Library

External links[edit]

Listen to this article (4 parts) · (info) Part 1 • Part 2 • Part 3 • Part 4

This audio file was created from a revision of the article "African Union" dated 2006-10-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles

Find more aboutAfrican Unionat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Data from Wikidata

Official website African Union
African Union
Mission in the United Nations 1st African Union
African Union
Summit July 2002 in Durban, South Africa, website created by SA government Southern Africa
Africa
Regional Poverty Network Page on the AU and NEPAD – many useful links Pan-African Perspective Background on Union Government debate BBC
BBC
Profile: African Union African Union
African Union
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Africa: 50 years of independence Radio France
France
Internationale in English "The broken dream of African unity, Jean-Karim Fall", Radio France Internationale in English

v t e

African Union
African Union
(AU)

History

Pan-Africanism Casablanca Group Monrovia Group Abuja
Abuja
Treaty Sirte
Sirte
Declaration Lome Summit

Organisation of African Unity

Chairperson Secretary General

Geography

Borders Extreme points Member states Regions

Organs

Executive Council Permanent Representatives' Committee Specialized Technical Committees

Assembly

Chairperson

Commission

Chairperson Deputy Chairperson AUCC

Pan-African Parliament

Bureau Secretariat Gallagher Estate

African Court of Justice

African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights

ECOSOCC Committees

Peace and Security Political Affairs Infrastructure and Energy Social Affairs and Health HR, Sciences and Technology Trade and Industry Rural Economy and Agriculture Economic Affairs Women and Gender Cross-Cutting Programs

Financial Institutions

AFRA Commission African Central Bank African Monetary Fund African Investment Bank

Peace and Security Council

ACIRC African Standby Force Panel of the Wise UNAMID AMIB AMIS AMISOM MISCA

Politics

APRM Foreign relations African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights Enlargement

Symbols

Anthem Emblem Flag

Economy

Currencies Development Bank African Economic Community NEPAD African Free Trade Zone Tripartite Free Trade Area

Culture

Africa
Africa
Day Languages

Theory

Afro United States
United States
of Africa United States
United States
of Latin Africa

Category

Articles related to the African Union

v t e

Africa articles

History

Chronology

Antiquity

North Africa

Archaeology Pre-colonial kingdoms Bantu expansion Arab conquest Exploration European colonisation Slavery

Atlantic Arab

Scramble for Africa Decolonisation

By topic

Economy Empires Historiography Military

conflicts

By region

Central East North South West

Geography

Countries and territories Highest points Impact craters Islands Natural history Regions

Central East North South West

Rivers

Politics

African Union Elections Heads of government Heads of state Human rights

LGBT
LGBT
rights Linguistic rights Religious rights Women's rights

International organisations Pan-African Parliament Pan-Africanism Politics

parties

United States
United States
of Africa

Economy

Central banks and currencies Countries by GDP (nominal) Countries by GDP (PPP) Countries by HDI Education Internet Millionaires Natural resources Poverty Renewable energy Stock exchanges

Society

Caste systems Etiquette Health

Circumcision

Infrastructure Languages Philosophy

Culture

Architecture Art

contemporary

Cinema

films film festivals

Cuisine Literature

writers by country

Media

Newspapers Radio TV

Music

musicians

guitarists

Religion

Irreligion

World Heritage Sites

Sport

African Cricket Association African Games Afro-Asian Games Australian-rules football Confederation
Confederation
of African Football

Africa
Africa
Cup of Nations

FIBA Africa Rugby Africa

Africa
Africa
Cup

Stadiums by capacity Tour d'Afrique

Demographics

Countries by population

density

Emigration Ethnic groups HIV/AIDS Urbanization

cities metropolitan areas

Youth in Africa

By year

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Outline Index

Book Category Portal

v t e

Regional organizations

Bodies

African Union Arab League Asia Cooperation Dialogue APEC OCS ASEAN BBIN BIMSTEC Caribbean Community Central American Integration System Commonwealth of Independent States Commonwealth of Nations Community of Latin American and Caribbean States Council of Europe East African Community ECOWAS Economic Cooperation Organization Eurasian Economic Union EU GUAM Gulf Cooperation Council IORA Latin American Parliament Melanesian Spearhead Group Mercosur NATO Nordic Council OAS PIF Polynesian Leaders Group RCEP SCO SAARC TAKM Trilateral Cooperation Secretariat Turkic Council Union of South American Nations V4 West Nordic Council

Topics

Regional integration Regional organizations by population Regionalism (international relations)

v t e

Pan-Africanism

Ideology

Variants

Afrocentrism African nationalism African socialism Black nationalism Garveyism Nkrumaism Sankarism Uhuru Movement Zikism

Concepts

African century Black Power Négritude Ubuntu Ujamaa United States
United States
of Africa

Proponents

Politicians

Nnamdi Azikiwe Amílcar Cabral David Comissiong Muammar Gaddafi Marcus Garvey Alieu Ebrima Cham Joof Kenneth Kaunda Jomo Kenyatta Patrice Lumumba Thabo Mbeki Robert Mugabe Abdias do Nascimento Gamal Abdel Nasser Kwame Nkrumah John Nyathi Pokela Julius Nyerere Thomas Sankara Ahmed Sékou Touré Haile Selassie Robert Sobukwe I. T. A. Wallace-Johnson

Others

Marimba Ani Molefi Kete Asante Steve Biko Edward Wilmot Blyden Stokely Carmichael John Henrik Clarke Cheikh Anta Diop W. E. B. Du Bois Frantz Fanon John G. Jackson Leonard Jeffries Yosef Ben-Jochannan Maulana Karenga Fela Kuti Malcolm X Zephania Mothopeng George Padmore Motsoko Pheko Runoko Rashidi Paul Robeson Randall Robinson Walter Rodney Burning Spear Henry Sylvester-Williams Issa Laye Thiaw Omali Yeshitela

Organizations

African Union African Unification Front All-African People's Revolutionary Party Conseil de l'Entente Convention People's Party Economic Freedom Fighters International African Service Bureau Organisation of African Unity Pan Africanist Congress of Azania Rassemblement Démocratique Africain UNIA-ACL

Symbols

Black Star of Africa Lion of Judah Pan-African colours Pan-African flag

Related

African philosophy African-American leftism Africanization All-African Peoples' Conference Kwanzaa Year of Africa

v t e

South–South cooperation and Third Worldism

Global South

Development

Landlocked developing countries Least Developed Countries Heavily indebted poor countries

Markets

Emerging markets Newly industrialized country Transition economy

Worlds Theory

First World Second World Third World Fourth World

Geopolitics

Decolonization Cold War Neocolonialism Multipolarity World Conference against Racism

Durban
Durban
I Durban
Durban
II Durban
Durban
III

Globalization

BRICS

Brazil–Russia–India–China–South Africa
Africa
(BRICS) BASIC ( BRICS
BRICS
less Russia) BRIC
BRIC
( BRICS
BRICS
less South Africa) India–Brazil–South Africa
Africa
Dialogue Forum (IBSA)

Finance

Debt Asian Clearing Union Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank Asian Development Bank Arab Monetary Fund BancoSur Caribbean Development Bank Common Fund for Commodities

Trade and development

Developmental state Flying geese paradigm Infrastructure-based development Sustainable development Global System of Trade Preferences Protocol on Trade Negotiations New International Economic Order New World Information and Communication Order United Nations
United Nations
Conference on Trade and Development United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme United Nations
United Nations
Industrial Development Organization

Public health

Generic drugs

biosimilar

Pharmaceutical patents

criticism

Test data exclusivity Doha Declaration World Health Organization

Organizations and groups

G-77 G-15 D-8 G20 developing nations
G20 developing nations
(G-20) G-24 G33 developing countries (G-33) G-11 G-90 Non-Aligned Movement African, Caribbean and Pacific Group African Union Afro–Asian Conference Association of Southeast Asian Nations Colombo Plan Community of Latin American and Caribbean States International Solar Alliance Like Minded Group Melanesian Spearhead Group Next Eleven North–South Summit Polynesian Leaders Group South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Small Island Developing States South Centre Third World
Third World
Network

North–South divide

Brandt Report Global financial system

International Monetary Fund World Bank World Trade Organization

Fair trade Financial regulation Global digital divide

v t e

Power in international relations

Types

Economic Energy Food Hard National Power politics Realpolitik Smart Soft Sharp

Status

Emerging Small Middle Regional Great Super Hyper

Geopolitics

American Asian British Chinese Indian Pacific

History

List of ancient great powers List of medieval great powers List of modern great powers International relations
International relations
of the Great Powers (1814–1919)

Theory

Balance of power

European

Center of power Hegemonic stability theory Philosophy of power Polarity Power projection Power transition theory Second Superpower Sphere of influence Superpower
Superpower
collapse Superpower
Superpower
disengagement

Studies

Composite Index of National Capability Comprehensive National Power

Organizations and groups by region or regions affected

Africa

African Union Union for the Mediterranean

Africa–Asia

Arab League Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
(GCC) Organization of Islamic Cooperation
Organization of Islamic Cooperation
(OIC)

Americas

Mercosur North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Organization of American States
Organization of American States
(OAS) Union of South American Nations
Union of South American Nations
(Unasur)

Asia

Asia Cooperation Dialogue
Asia Cooperation Dialogue
(ACD) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) China–Japan–South Korea trilateral summits Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO) South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
(SAARC) Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
(SCO)

Europe

Council of Europe
Council of Europe
(CE) European Union
European Union
(EU) Nordic Council Visegrád Group

Eurasia

Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) Collective Security Treaty Organization
Collective Security Treaty Organization
(CSTO) Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO) Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
(EaEU) Turkic Council

North America–Europe

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Arctic Council

Africa–Asia–Europe

Union for the Mediterranean

Africa–South America

South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone

Oceania-Pacific

Australia–New Zealand– United States
United States
Security Treaty (ANZUS) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) Melanesian Spearhead Group
Melanesian Spearhead Group
(MSG) Pacific Islands Forum
Pacific Islands Forum
(PIF) Polynesian Leaders Group
Polynesian Leaders Group
(PLG)

Non-regional

Brazil–Russia–India–China–South Africa
Africa
(BRICS) Commonwealth of Nations Francophonie Colombia–Indonesia–Vietnam–Egypt–Turkey–South Africa (CIVETS) E7 E9 G4 G7 G8 G8+5 G20 G24 G77 India–Brazil–South Africa
Africa
Dialogue Forum (IBSA) Mexico–Indonesia–Nigeria–Turkey (MINT) Next Eleven
Next Eleven
(N-11) Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM) Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Uniting for Consensus

Global

United Nations
United Nations
(UN)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 155382974 LCCN: no2001048790 ISNI: 0000 0001 2189 9463 GND: 10042911-7 SELIBR: 308373 SUDOC: 086197134 BNF: cb144997429 (data) NLA: 41330576 NKC: kn2007061

.