The AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (ANC) is the Republic of South
Africa\'s governing social democratic political party. It has been the
ruling party of post-apartheid
Founded on 8 January 1912 by
John Langalibalele Dube in Bloemfontein
as the South African Native National Congress, its primary mission was
give voting rights to black and mixed race Africans and, from the
1940s, to end Apartheid. The ANC originally attempted to use
nonviolent protests to end apartheid, however, the Sharpeville
massacre resulted in the deaths of 69 black Africans and contributed
to deteriorating relations with the South African government. On 8
April 1960, the administration of
Charles Robberts Swart
* 1 History
* 2 Ideology
* 2.1 Tripartite Alliance * 2.2 2008 schism * 2.3 2013 NUMSA split from Cosatu
* 3 ANC flag * 4 Party list * 5 ANC Today
* 6 Election results
* 6.1 National elections
* 6.1.1 National Assembly * 6.1.2 National Council of Provinces
* 6.2 Provincial elections * 6.3 Municipal elections
* 7 Role of the ANC in resolving the conflict
* 8 Criticism
* 8.1 Corruption controversies * 8.2 Condemnation over Secrecy Bill * 8.3 Role in the Marikana killings * 8.4 Constitutional Failures * 8.5 Qualification Fraud * 8.6 Racism
* 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links
Main article: History of the African National Congress
The founding of the SANNC was in direct response to injustice against black South Africans at the hands of the government then in power. It can be said that the SANNC had its origins in a pronouncement by Pixley ka Isaka Seme who said in 1911, "Forget all the past differences among Africans and unite in one national organisation." The SANNC was founded the following year on 8 January 1912.
The government of the newly formed Union of
By 1919, the SANNC was leading a campaign against passes (an ID which non-whites had to possess). However, it then became dormant in the mid-1920s. During that time, black people were also represented by the ICU and the previously white-only Communist party. In 1923, the organisation became the African National Congress, and in 1929 the ANC supported a militant mineworkers' strike.
By 1927, J.T. Gumede (president of the ANC) proposed co-operation with the Communists in a bid to revitalise the organisation, but he was voted out of power in the 1930s. This led to the ANC becoming largely ineffectual and inactive, until the mid-1940s when the ANC was remodelled as a mass movement.
The ANC responded to attacks on the rights of black South Africans, as well as calling for strikes, boycotts, and defiance. This led to a later Defiance Campaign in the 1950s, a mass movement of resistance to apartheid . The government tried to stop the ANC by banning party leaders and enacting new laws to stop the ANC, however these measures ultimately proved to be ineffective.
In 1955, the Congress of the People officially adopted the Freedom
Charter , stating the core principles of the South African Congress
Alliance , which consisted of the
African National Congress
UMKHONTO WE SIZWE
Umkhonto we Sizwe
Umkhonto we Sizwe
In co-operation with the South African Communist Party , MK was founded in 1961. MK commenced the military struggle against apartheid with acts of sabotage aimed at the installations of the state, and in the early stages was reluctant to target civilian targets. MK was responsible for the deaths of both civilians and members of the military. Acts committed by MK include the Church Street bombing and the Magoo's Bar bombing. It was integrated into the South African National Defence Force by 1994.
The ANC and its members were officially removed from the US terrorism watch list in 2008.
The ANC deems itself a force of national liberation in the post-apartheid era; it officially defines its agenda as the National Democratic Revolution. The ANC is a member of the Socialist International . It also sets forth the redressing of socio-economic differences stemming from colonial- and apartheid-era policies as a central focus of ANC policy.
The National Democratic Revolution (NDR) is described as a process through which the National Democratic Society (NDS) is achieved; a society in which people are intellectually, socially, economically and politically empowered. The drivers of the NDR are also called the motive forces and are defined as the elements within society that gain from the success of the NDR. Using contour plots or concentric circles the centre represents the elements in society that gain the most out of the success of the NDR. Moving away from the centre results in the reduction of the gains that those elements derive. It is generally believed that the force that occupies the centre of those concentric circles in countries with low unemployment is the working class while in countries with higher levels of unemployment it is the unemployed. Some of the many theoreticians that have written about the NDR include Joe Slovo , Joel Netshitenzhe and Tshilidzi Marwala .
In 2004 the ANC declared itself to be a social democratic party.
The 53rd National Conference of the ANC, held in 2015, stated in its "Discussion Document" that "China economic development trajectory remains a leading example of the triumph of humanity over adversity. The exemplary role of the collective leadership of the Communist Party of China in this regard should be a guiding lodestar of our own struggle." It went on to state that "The collapse of the Berlin Wall and socialism in the Soviet Union and Eastern European States influenced our transition towards the negotiated political settlement in our country. The cause of events in the world changed tremendously in favour of the US led imperialism."
Main article: Tripartite Alliance
The ANC holds a historic alliance with the South African Communist Party (SACP) and Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), known as the Tripartite Alliance. The SACP and COSATU have not contested any election in South Africa, but field candidates through the ANC, hold senior positions in the ANC, and influence party policy and dialogue. During Mbeki's presidency, the government took a more pro-capitalist stance, often running counter to the demands of the SACP and COSATU.
Following Zuma's accession to the ANC leadership in 2007 and Mbeki's resignation as president in 2008, a number of former ANC leaders led by Mosiuoa Lekota split away from the ANC to form the Congress of the People .
2013 NUMSA SPLIT FROM COSATU
On 20 December 2013, a special congress of the National Union of
The ANC flag comprises three equal horizontal stripes – black,
green and gold. Black symbolises the native people of South Africa,
green represents the land and gold represents the mineral and other
natural wealth of South Africa. This flag was also the battle flag of
Umkhonto we Sizwe
The Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach used an unrelated but identical flag from 1813 to 1897.
The black, green and gold tricolor was also used on the flag of the
Politicians in the party win a place in parliament by being on the Party List, which is drawn up before the elections and enumerates, in order, the party's preferred MPs. The number of seats allocated is proportional to the popular national vote, and this determines the cut-off point.
The ANC has also gained members through the controversial floor crossing process.
Although most South African parties announced their candidate list for provincial premierships in the 2009 election, the ANC did not, as it is not required for parties to do so.
In 2001, the ANC launched an online weekly web-based newsletter , ANC
Today – Online Voice of the
African National Congress
Proportion of votes cast for the ANC in the 2014 election, by ward. 0–20% 20–40% 40–60% 60–80% 80–100%
ELECTION TOTAL VOTES SHARE OF VOTE SEATS +/– GOVERNMENT
1994 12,237,655 62.65 252 / 400 – In government
1999 10,601,330 66.35 266 / 400 14 In government
2004 10,880,915 69.69 279 / 400 13 In government
2009 11,650,748 65.90 264 / 400 15 In government
2014 11,436,921 62.15 249 / 400 15 In government
National Council Of Provinces
ELECTION Total # of seats won +/–
1994 60 / 90
1999 63 / 90 3
2004 65 / 90 2
2009 62 / 90 3
2014 60 / 90 2
ELECTION EASTERN CAPE FREE STATE GAUTENG KWAZULU-NATAL LIMPOPO MPUMALANGA NORTH-WEST NORTHERN CAPE WESTERN CAPE
% SEATS % SEATS % SEATS % SEATS % SEATS % SEATS % SEATS % SEATS % SEATS
1994 84.35% 48/56 76.65% 24/30 57.60% 50/86 32.23% 26/81 91.63% 38/40 80.69% 25/30 83.33% 26/30 49.74% 15/30 33.01% 14/42
1999 73.80% 47/63 80.79% 25/30 67.87% 50/73 39.38% 32/80 88.29% 44/49 84.83% 26/30 78.97% 27/33 64.32% 20/30 42.07% 18/42
2004 79.27% 51/63 81.78% 25/30 68.40% 51/73 46.98% 38/80 89.18% 45/49 86.30% 27/30 80.71% 27/33 68.83% 21/30 45.25% 19/42
2009 68.82% 44/63 71.10% 22/30 64.04% 47/73 62.95% 51/80 84.88% 43/49 85.55% 27/30 72.89% 25/33 60.75% 19/30 31.55% 14/42
2014 70.09% 45/63 69.85% 22/30 53.59% 40/73 64.52% 52/80 78.60% 39/49 78.23% 24/30 67.39% 23/33 64.40% 20/30 32.89% 14/42
ELECTION VOTES % CHANGE
1995–96 5,033,855 58%
2000 None released 59.4% 1.4%
2006 17,466,948 66.3% 6.9%
2011 16,548,826 61.9% 4.4%
2016 21,450,332 55.7% 6.2%
ROLE OF THE ANC IN RESOLVING THE CONFLICT
The ANC represented the main opposition to the government during apartheid and therefore they played a major role in resolving the conflict through participating in the peacemaking and peace-building processes. Initially intelligence agents of the National Party met in secret with ANC leaders, including Nelson Mandela, to judge whether conflict resolution was possible. Discussions and negotiations took place leading to the eventual unbanning of the ANC and other opposing political parties by then President de Klerk on 2 February 1990.
The next official step towards rebuilding
Later the Pretoria Minute represented another step towards resolution where agreements at Groote Schuur were reconsolidated and steps towards setting up an interim government and drafting a new constitution were established as well as suspension of the military wing of the ANC – the Umkhonto we Sizwe. This step helped end much of the violence within South Africa. Another agreement that came out of the Pretoria Minute was that both parties would try and raise awareness that a new way of governance was being created for South Africa, and that further violence would only hinder this process. However, violence still continued in Kwazulu-Natal, which violated the trust between Mandela and de Klerk. Moreover, internal disputes in the ANC prolonged the war as consensus on peace was not reached.
The next significant steps towards resolution were the Repeal of the Population Registration Act, the repeal of the Group Areas and the Native Land Acts and a catch-all Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act was passed. These measures ensured no one could claim, or be deprived of, any land rights on the basis of race.
In December 1991 the Convention for a Democratic
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For more details on this topic, see South African Arms Deal .
The most prominent corruption case involving the ANC relates to a
series of bribes paid to companies involved in the ongoing R55 billion
Arms Deal saga , which resulted in a long term jail sentence to then
Jacob Zuma 's legal adviser
Schabir Shaik . Zuma, now
the South African President, was charged with fraud, bribery and
corruption in the Arms Deal, but the charges were subsequently
withdrawn by the National Prosecuting Authority of
Other recent corruption issues include the sexual misconduct and criminal charges of Beaufort West municipal manager Truman Prince , and the Oilgate scandal, in which millions of Rand in funds from a state-owned company were funnelled into ANC coffers.
The ANC has also been accused of using government and civil society to fight its political battles against opposition parties such as the Democratic Alliance . The result has been a number of complaints and allegations that none of the political parties truly represent the interests of the poor. This has resulted in the "No Land! No House! No Vote!" Campaign which became very prominent during s.
CONDEMNATION OVER SECRECY BILL
Further information: Protection of State Information Bill
In late 2011 the ANC was heavily criticised over the passage of the
Protection of State Information Bill , which opponents claimed would
improperly restrict the freedom of the press . Opposition to the bill
included otherwise ANC-aligned groups such as
COSATU . Notably, Nelson
Mandela and other Nobel laureates
Nadine Gordimer , Archbishop Desmond
Tutu , and
F. W. de Klerk
ROLE IN THE MARIKANA KILLINGS
Further information: Marikana miners\' strike
The ANC have been criticised for its role in failing to prevent 16 August 2012 massacre of Lonmin miners at Marikana in the North West. Some allege that Police Commissioner Riah Phiyega and Police Minister Nathi Mthethwa, a close confidant of Jacob Zuma, may have given the go ahead for the police action against the miners on that day.
Commissioner Phiyega of the ANC came under further criticism as being
insensitive and uncaring when she was caught smiling and laughing
during the Farlam Commission's video playback of the 'massacre'.
Desmond Tutu has announced that he no longer can bring
himself to exercise a vote for the ANC as it is no longer the party
that he and
The ANC has a growing list of constitutional failures. One of the most prominent relates to president of the ANC and of the Republic, Jacob Zuma , and his Nkandla homestead 's security upgrades, valued at around R250 million. His swimming pool, for example, was termed a 'fire pool' and his amphitheatre an 'emergency meeting point', thus leaving the taxpayer to carry the costs. After the Public Protector released her report (Secure in Comfort) which found that Zuma must pay back the money spent on the non-security features, he refused to do so. In 2016 the Constitutional Court ruled that Zuma, as well as the National Assembly, had "breached the Constitution" and failed to uphold it. Zuma apologised to the nation as follows: “The matter has caused a lot of frustration and confusion for which I apologise on my behalf and on behalf of government.” However he claimed not to have asked nor known about the non-security upgrades, despite the media reporting on them almost daily.
There is also a growing trend for ANC members as well as those individuals appointed by the ANC to public positions of power to misrepresent their qualifications. The result of such lies typically lead to those appointed being unable to fulfill their obligations while being paid very large salaries, and typically cost the taxpayer large amount of monies while attempting to defend themselves in court. A small selection follows:
Carl Niehaus , who served as ANC speaker, claimed to have a B.A., Masters and Doctorate degrees; in reality he never received the Masters or Doctoral degrees.
Pallo Jordan , who served as Minister of Arts and Culture claimed to be in possession of a PhD, when in reality he has no tertiary education at all.
Daniel Mtimkulu , who was employed as chief engineer at Passenger
Rail Agency of
Ellen Tshabalala , former chairperson of the South African
Broadcasting Corporation (SABC), claimed to have a BComm degree. In
reality her marks were so poor (13% for one module and 35% for
another, amongst others) that she was not allowed to rewrite some of
her exams. She later claimed that he degree certificate was stolen.
Defending Tshabalala in court cost the
Hlaudi Motsoeneng , former COO of the
Dudu Myeni , chairperson of South African Airways (SAA) and good friend of Jacob Zuma, claimed to have a Bachelor's degree in administration. This was proven false. Under her leadership "SAA’s losses for the 2014/15 financial year were R5.6-billion – close to R1-billion more than the expected amount of R4.7-billion".
Sicelo Shiceka , Minister of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs lied about being in possession of a Master's degree. He used taxpayer's money to fund a party for his mother and secured a government car for his girlfriend, whereafter he was appointed as a member of the inter-ministerial task team on corruption.
A 2016 statement issued by Zizi Kodwa, the ANC National Spokesperson states that "he ANC rejects these comments with the contempt they deserve and calls on all South Africans to join in the rejection of all racists in our country, wherever they are. It is sad that well meaning South Africans have to contend with this backward attitude." In support of this statement, the ANC has publicly called for legal action to be taken against whites who have publicly made racist comments against blacks, usually through social media.
Penny Sparrow is one such high-profile case. She posted the following through her Facebook account:
These monkeys that are allowed to be released on New Year’s eve and
New Year’s day on to public beaches towns etc obviously have no
education what so ever so to allow them loose is inviting huge dirt
and troubles and discomfort to others. I’m sorry to say that I was
among the revellers and all I saw were black on black skins what a
shame. I do know some wonderful and thoughtful black people. This lot
of monkeys just don’t want to even try. But think they can voice
opinions about statute and get their way oh dear. From now I shall
address the blacks of
Sparrow pleaded guilty to crimen injuria, and was presented with a choice of either paying a R5,000 fine or 12 months in jail, in addition to paying the legal fees incurred by the ANC, who brought the matter to court. In a separate instance, she was also ordered to pay R150,000 to the Oliver and Adelaide Tambo Trust.
In contrast to the ANC's swift and decisive action towards Sparrow and other white racists, they have mostly ignored racist comments voiced by blacks, in particular ANC members. For example, Kenny Barrel Nkosi, an ANC ward councillor (Govan Mbeki Municipality, Mpumalanga) posted the following on his Facebook account: "The first people that need to fokkof are whites, cubans never oppressed us. these are our true friends they were there in the times on needs. welcom cdes welcome " The municipality issued the following statement: “The matter has been investigated and at the time of the comment, the ward councillor was not representing the views of either the ANC or the Govan Mbeki Municipality, but merely as a personal opinion.” No further action was taken.
At a Gupta family wedding held at Sun City in 2013, various incidents of racism occurred. The family made clear that they wanted only white workers, including waiters, security, bar staff and cleaning staff. Black workers were told to wash before they interacted with guests. These allegations were denied by the Gupta family. Nonetheless, in the Gupta e-mail leak of 2017 these allegations were shown to be correct. Moreover, the e-mails also make clear that a black worker was called a monkey by a member of the Gupta family. That the Gupta family is a large, vocal and powerful supporter of the ANC and a personal friend of Jacob Zuma, may explain why no action was taken against them with regards to racism.
Lindiwe Sisulu , ANC member and Minister of Defence and Military
Veterans (who demanded that the Estate Agency Affairs Board report to
her regarding action taken against Sparrow) called the Democratic
Alliance leader, Mmusi Maimane, a "hired native". Ironically – due
to the fact that Chris Hart, prominent economist and investment
Standard Bank , was forced to resign for his racist
tweet stating that "ore than 25 years after
Lulu Xingwana , former ANC Minister of Women, Children and People
with Disabilities, stated that "oung
Jimmy Manyi , ANC director general of labour and later ANC
spokesperson, is quotes as saying the following on a TV interview:
“I think its very important for coloured people in this country to
Julius Malema , former ANCYL leader and current EFF leader, stated at a political rally in 2016 that “We are not calling for the slaughter of white people‚ at least for now". When asked for comment by a news agency, the ANC spokesperson, Zizi Kodwa stated that there will be no comment from the ANC, as "e was addressing his own party supporters." While still the ANCYL leader, Malema was taken to the Equality Court by AfriForum for repeatedly singing “dubul’ ibhunu”, which translate as “shoot the boer ”. The ANC supported Malema, though AfriForum and the ANC reached a settlement before the appeal case was due to be argued in the Supreme Court of Appeal .
In partial response to the Penny Sparrow case, Velaphi Khumalo, while
working for the Department of Sport, Arts, Culture and Recreation ,
posted the following on his Facebook account: "I want to cleans this
country of all white people. we must act as Hitler did to the Jews. I
don't believe any more that the is a large number of not so racist
whit people. I'm starting to be sceptical even of those within our
Movement the ANC. I will from today unfriend all white people I have
as friends from today u must be put under the same blanket as any
other racist white because secretly u all are a bunch of racist fuck
heads. as we have already seen ." He also posted "Noo seriously though
u oppressed us when u were a minority and then manje u call us monkeys
and we supposed to let it slide . white people in south Africa deserve
to be hacked and killed like Jews. U have the same venom moss . look
at Palestine . noo u must be bushed alive and skinned and your off
used as garden fertiliser ". The Department of Sports, Arts, Culture
and Recreation responded with a statement wherein it "views the
hateful post by Velaphi Khumalo in a serious light. Our key mandate is
nation-building and social cohesion. His sentiments take our country
backwards and do not reflect what the
Esethu Hasane, Media and Communication Manager for the Department of
Sport and Recreation tweeted the following during the severe droughts
in the Western cape in 2017: "Only
* Category:Members of the
African National Congress
* ^ Mataboge, Mmanaledi (10 October 2015). "Smaller provinces the
saving grace for ANC membership".
Mail & Guardian . Retrieved 11
* ^ A B Mapekuka, Vulindlela (November 2007). "The ANC and the
Socialist International". Umrabulo. African National Congress. 30.
Archived from the original on 24 September 2011.
* ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "
African National Congress
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