AFONSO III (Portuguese pronunciation: ; rare English alternatives:
Alphonzo or Alphonse), or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or
Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician ) or Alphonsus (
* 1 Early life
* 2 Reign
* 2.1 Final years and death
* 3 Marriages and descendants * 4 References * 5 Ancestors * 6 External links
In 1246, conflicts between his brother, the king, and the church became unbearable. In 1247, Pope Innocent IV ordered Sancho II to be removed from the throne and to be replaced by the Count of Boulogne. Afonso, of course, did not refuse the papal order and consequently marched to Portugal. Since Sancho was not a popular king and the order was not hard to enforce, he fled in exile to Toledo, Castile, where he died on 4 January 1248. Until his brother's death and his own eventual coronation, Afonso retained and used the title of Visitador, Curador e Defensor do Reino (Overseer, Curator and Defender of the Kingdom).
In order to ascend the throne Afonso abdicated his rights to the county of Boulogne in 1248. In 1253, he divorced Matilde in order to marry Beatrice of Castile , illegitimate daughter of Alfonso X, King of Castile , and Mayor Guillén de Guzmán .
Determined not to make the same mistakes as his brother, Afonso III paid special attention to what the middle class, composed of merchants and small land owners, had to say. In 1254, in the city of Leiria , he held the first session of the Cortes , a general assembly comprising the nobility, the middle class and representatives of all municipalities . He also made laws intended to restrain the upper classes from abusing the least favored part of the population. Remembered as a notable administrator, Afonso III founded several towns, granted the title of city to many others and reorganized public administration.
Afonso showed extraordinary vision for the time. Progressive measures taken during his kingship include: representatives of the commons, besides the nobility and clergy, were involved in governance; the end of preventive arrests such that henceforward all arrests had to be first presented to a judge to determine the detention measure; and fiscal innovation, such as negotiating extraordinary taxes with the mercantile classes and direct taxation of the Church, rather than debasement of the coinage. These may have led to his excommunication by the holy see and possibly precipitated his death, and his son Denis 's premature rise to the throne at only 18 years old.
Secure on the throne, Afonso III then proceeded to make war with the
Muslim communities that still thrived in the south. In his reign the
FINAL YEARS AND DEATH
Following his success against the Moors, Afonso III had to deal with
a political situation concerning the country's borders with Castile.
The neighbouring kingdom considered that the newly acquired lands of
MARRIAGES AND DESCENDANTS
Afonso's first wife was
Matilda II, Countess of Boulogne , daughter
Renaud, Count of Dammartin , and
Ida, Countess of Boulogne
NAME BIRTH DEATH NOTES
BY MATILDA II OF BOULOGNE (c. 1202–1262; married in 1239)
BY BEATRICE OF CASTILE (1242–1303; married in 1253)
Blanche 25 February 1259 17 April 1321 Lady of Las Huelgas
Fernando (Ferdinand) 1260 1262
9 October 1261
7 January 1325
Succeeded him as Denis, 6th King of
Sancha 2 February 1264 c. 1302
21 November 1264
6 June 1304
Nun in the Convent of Saint John in
Constança (Constance) 1266 1271
Vicente (Vincent) 1268 1271
BY MADRAGANA (MOR AFONSO) (c. 1230-?)
Martim Afonso Chichorro c. 1250 a. 1313 Natural son; Married Inês Lourenço de Valadres.
Urraca Afonso c. 1260 ? Natural daughter; Married twice: 1st to D. Pedro Anes de Riba Vizela, 2nd to João Mendes de Briteiros
BY MARIA PERES DE ENXARA (?-?)
Afonso Dinis c. 1260 a. 1310 Natural son; Married to D. Maria Pais Ribeira, Lady of the House of Sousa.
OTHER NATURAL OFFSPRING
Leonor Afonso c. 1250 1291 Natural daughter. Married twice: 1st to D. Estevão Anes de Sousa (without issue), 2nd to D. Gonçalo Garcia de Sousa, Count of Neiva (without issue).
Gil Afonso 1250 31 December 1346 Natural son; Knight of the Order of the Hospital.
Fernando Afonso ? ? Natural son; Knight of the Order of the Hospital.
Rodrigo Afonso 1258 about 12 May 1272 Natural son; Prior of the city of Santarém .
Leonor Afonso (nun) ? 1259 Natural daughter; Nun in the Monastery of Santa Clara of Santarém .
Henrique Afonso ? ? Natural son; Married to Inês (last name unknown).
ANCESTORS OF AFONSO III OF PORTUGAL
16. Henry, Count of
8. Afonso I of
17. Teresa of León
9. Mafalda of Savoy
19. Mahaut of Albon
23. Agnes of Aquitaine
1. AFONSO III OF PORTUGAL
24. Alfonso VII of León and Castile
13. Blanche of Navarre
27. Margaret of L\'Aigle
3. Urraca of Castile
29. Matilda of England
7. Eleanor of England