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The Info List - Afonso III Of Portugal



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AFONSO III (Portuguese pronunciation: ; rare English alternatives: Alphonzo or Alphonse), or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician ) or Alphonsus ( Latin
Latin
), the Bolognian (Port. o Bolonhês), King of Portugal
Portugal
(5 May 1210 – 16 February 1279) was the first to use the title King of Portugal
Portugal
and the Algarve , from 1249. He was the second son of King Afonso II of Portugal and his wife, Urraca of Castile ; he succeeded his brother, King Sancho II of Portugal
Portugal
, who died on 4 January 1248.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life

* 2 Reign

* 2.1 Final years and death

* 3 Marriages and descendants * 4 References * 5 Ancestors * 6 External links

EARLY LIFE

Afonso was born in Coimbra
Coimbra
. As the second son of King Afonso II of Portugal
Portugal
, he was not expected to inherit the throne, which was destined to go to his elder brother Sancho.

He lived mostly in France, where he married Matilda, the heiress of Boulogne , in 1238, thereby becoming Count of Boulogne , Mortain
Mortain
, Aumale
Aumale
and Dammartin-en-Goële jure uxoris .

REIGN

Afonso III of Portugal
Portugal
Portrait of D. Afonso III as king of Portugal
Portugal

In 1246, conflicts between his brother, the king, and the church became unbearable. In 1247, Pope Innocent IV ordered Sancho II to be removed from the throne and to be replaced by the Count of Boulogne. Afonso, of course, did not refuse the papal order and consequently marched to Portugal. Since Sancho was not a popular king and the order was not hard to enforce, he fled in exile to Toledo, Castile, where he died on 4 January 1248. Until his brother's death and his own eventual coronation, Afonso retained and used the title of Visitador, Curador e Defensor do Reino (Overseer, Curator and Defender of the Kingdom).

In order to ascend the throne Afonso abdicated his rights to the county of Boulogne in 1248. In 1253, he divorced Matilde in order to marry Beatrice of Castile , illegitimate daughter of Alfonso X, King of Castile , and Mayor Guillén de Guzmán .

Determined not to make the same mistakes as his brother, Afonso III paid special attention to what the middle class, composed of merchants and small land owners, had to say. In 1254, in the city of Leiria , he held the first session of the Cortes , a general assembly comprising the nobility, the middle class and representatives of all municipalities . He also made laws intended to restrain the upper classes from abusing the least favored part of the population. Remembered as a notable administrator, Afonso III founded several towns, granted the title of city to many others and reorganized public administration.

Afonso showed extraordinary vision for the time. Progressive measures taken during his kingship include: representatives of the commons, besides the nobility and clergy, were involved in governance; the end of preventive arrests such that henceforward all arrests had to be first presented to a judge to determine the detention measure; and fiscal innovation, such as negotiating extraordinary taxes with the mercantile classes and direct taxation of the Church, rather than debasement of the coinage. These may have led to his excommunication by the holy see and possibly precipitated his death, and his son Denis 's premature rise to the throne at only 18 years old.

Secure on the throne, Afonso III then proceeded to make war with the Muslim communities that still thrived in the south. In his reign the Algarve
Algarve
became part of the kingdom, following the capture of Faro .

FINAL YEARS AND DEATH

Following his success against the Moors, Afonso III had to deal with a political situation concerning the country's borders with Castile. The neighbouring kingdom considered that the newly acquired lands of the Algarve
Algarve
should be Castilian, not Portuguese, which led to a series of wars between the two kingdoms. Finally, in 1267, the Treaty of Badajoz
Badajoz
(1267) was signed in Badajoz
Badajoz
, determining that the southern border between Castile and Portugal
Portugal
should be the River Guadiana
Guadiana
, as it is today.

Afonso died in Alcobaça , Coimbra
Coimbra
or Lisbon
Lisbon
, aged 68.

MARRIAGES AND DESCENDANTS

Afonso's first wife was Matilda II, Countess of Boulogne , daughter of Renaud, Count of Dammartin , and Ida, Countess of Boulogne
Ida, Countess of Boulogne
. They had no surviving children. He divorced Matilda in 1253 and, in the same year, married Beatrice of Castile , illegitimate daughter of Alfonso X, King of Castile , and Mayor Guillén de Guzmán .

NAME BIRTH DEATH NOTES

BY MATILDA II OF BOULOGNE (c. 1202–1262; married in 1239)

BY BEATRICE OF CASTILE (1242–1303; married in 1253)

Blanche 25 February 1259 17 April 1321 Lady of Las Huelgas

Fernando (Ferdinand) 1260 1262

Dinis (Denis) 9 October 1261 7 January 1325 Succeeded him as Denis, 6th King of Portugal
Portugal
. Married Infanta Isabel of Aragon.

Afonso 8 February 1263 2 November 1312 Lord of Portalegre . Married to Violante Manuel of Castile (daughter of Manuel of Castile
Manuel of Castile
).

Sancha 2 February 1264 c. 1302

Maria 21 November 1264 6 June 1304 Nun in the Convent of Saint John in Coimbra
Coimbra
.

Constança (Constance) 1266 1271

Vicente (Vincent) 1268 1271

BY MADRAGANA (MOR AFONSO) (c. 1230-?)

Martim Afonso Chichorro c. 1250 a. 1313 Natural son; Married Inês Lourenço de Valadres.

Urraca Afonso c. 1260 ? Natural daughter; Married twice: 1st to D. Pedro Anes de Riba Vizela, 2nd to João Mendes de Briteiros

BY MARIA PERES DE ENXARA (?-?)

Afonso Dinis c. 1260 a. 1310 Natural son; Married to D. Maria Pais Ribeira, Lady of the House of Sousa.

OTHER NATURAL OFFSPRING

Leonor Afonso c. 1250 1291 Natural daughter. Married twice: 1st to D. Estevão Anes de Sousa (without issue), 2nd to D. Gonçalo Garcia de Sousa, Count of Neiva (without issue).

Gil Afonso 1250 31 December 1346 Natural son; Knight of the Order of the Hospital.

Fernando Afonso ? ? Natural son; Knight of the Order of the Hospital.

Rodrigo Afonso 1258 about 12 May 1272 Natural son; Prior of the city of Santarém .

Leonor Afonso (nun) ? 1259 Natural daughter; Nun in the Monastery of Santa Clara of Santarém .

Urraca Afonso 1250 4 November 1281 Natural daughter; Nun in the Monastery of Lorvão .

Henrique Afonso ? ? Natural son; Married to Inês (last name unknown).

REFERENCES

ANCESTORS

ANCESTORS OF AFONSO III OF PORTUGAL

16. Henry, Count of Portugal
Portugal

8. Afonso I of Portugal
Portugal

17. Teresa of León

4. Sancho I of Portugal

18. Amadeus III, Count of Savoy

9. Mafalda of Savoy

19. Mahaut of Albon

2. Afonso II of Portugal

20. Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona

10. Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona
Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona

21. Douce I, Countess of Provence

5. Dulce of Aragon

22. Ramiro II of Aragon

11. Petronilla of Aragon
Petronilla of Aragon

23. Agnes of Aquitaine

1. AFONSO III OF PORTUGAL

24. Alfonso VII of León and Castile

12. Sancho III of Castile

25. Berengaria of Barcelona

6. Alfonso VIII of Castile
Alfonso VIII of Castile

26. García Ramírez of Navarre
García Ramírez of Navarre

13. Blanche of Navarre

27. Margaret of L\'Aigle

3. Urraca of Castile

28. Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou
Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou

14. Henry II of England
Henry II of England

29. Matilda of England

7. Eleanor of England

30. William X, Duke of Aquitaine

15.