Afghan (also referred to as Afghanistani) (Pashto/Persian:
افغان; see etymology) refers to someone or something from
Afghanistan, in particular a citizen of that country. Prior to
the rise of the nation as Afghanistan, it was used by Persian speakers
and those influenced by the
Persian language to denote the Pashtun
people. In modern times, "Afghan" is rarely used as an ethnic term for
the Pashtuns, but is rather used as the national demonym for all
citizens of Afghanistan — Pashtuns, and a large number of
Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks, Aimaqs, Turkmens, Balochs, Nuristanis,
Pashayis, Pamiris, Arabs, and others. According to the
Encyclopædia Iranica, the word
Afghan (afḡān) in current political
usage means any citizen of Afghanistan, regardless of their tribal or
religious affiliation. According to the 1964 Constitution of
Afghanistan, all Afghans are equal in rights and obligations before
the law. The fourth article of the current Constitution of
Afghanistan states that citizens of
Afghanistan consist of Pashtun,
Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Turkmen, Aimaq, Arab, Baluch, Pashayi,
Nuristani, Qizilbash, Gurjar, Brahui, and members of other tribes.
As an adjective, the word
Afghan also means "of or relating to
Afghanistan or its people, language, or culture".
2 See also
3 Notes and references
4 External links
The term "Afghani" refers to the unit of
Afghan currency. It is often
improperly used for a person or thing related to Afghanistan. The
incorrect use of the term may have originated during the Soviet war in
Afghanistan when millions of Afghans took refuge in neighboring
Pakistan and Iran. The Afghani was created in 1925. Between 1925 and
1993 varieties of Afghani coins and banknotes were in circulation
through Afghanistan. Coins issued during this period consisted of: 1,
2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 25 pul in bronze, brass, copper nickel, and
aluminum-bronze; silver ½, 1, and 2½ Afghani; and gold ½, 1, and
2½ amani. Banknotes issued were in: 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1000,
5000, and 10,000 Afghani. In 1958 bank notes worth 2 and 5 were
switched with coins.
Demographics of Afghanistan
Notes and references
^ Garner, Bryan (2009). Garner's Modern American Usage (third ed.).
New York: Oxford University Press. p. 27.
^ Siegal, Allan M.; Connolly, William (2015). The New York Times
Manual of Style and Usage (fifth ed.). New York: Crown Publishing
Group. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-336-02484-7.
^ In referring to the former usage of "Afghan" as synonymous with
"Pashtun", Maley said, While this was certainly the sense in which the
word 'Afghan' was used in major nineteenth-century works (and
continues to be used in parts of Afghanistan), such usage has now
almost completely died out in English-language sources. Maley, William
Afghanistan Wars (second ed.). Basingstoke, England:
Palgrave Macmillan. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-230-21313-5.
^ Naby, Eden (1988). "The Changing Role of Islam as a Unifying Force
in Afghanistan". In Banuazizi, Ali; Weiner, Myron. The State,
Religion, and Ethnic Politics: Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan.
Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. pp. 124–154.
^ Central Intelligence Agency (22 January 1993). "Afghanistan:
People". The World Factbook. University of Missouri. Retrieved 20
^ "AFGHAN". Encyclopædia Iranica.
^ "Article 1 of the 1964 Constitution of Afghanistan". Government of
Afghanistan. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
^ "Constitution of Afghanistan". 2004. Retrieved 2013-02-16. National
Afghanistan shall belong to the nation, manifested
directly and through its elected representatives. The nation of
Afghanistan is composed of all individuals who possess the citizenship
of Afghanistan. The nation of
Afghanistan shall be comprised of
Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Turkman, Baluch, Pachaie, Nuristani,
Aymaq, Arab, Qirghiz, Qizilbash, Gujur, Brahwui and other tribes. The
Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan. No individual
of the nation of
Afghanistan shall be deprived of citizenship. The
citizenship and asylum related matters shall be regulated by
^ "More on Afghani". Slate.com. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
Afghan Afghani". famouswonders.com.
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