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Ancient AETHIOPIA (Greek : Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia) first appears as a geographical term in classical documents in reference to the upper Nile
Nile
region, as well as all certain areas south of the Sahara desert and south of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. Its earliest mention is in the works of Homer
Homer
: twice in the Iliad
Iliad
, and three times in the Odyssey
Odyssey
. The Greek historian Herodotus
Herodotus
specifically uses the appellation to refer to such parts of Africa
Africa
as were then known within the inhabitable world .

In classical antiquity, Africa
Africa
(or Ancient Libya ) referred to what is now known as the Maghreb
Maghreb
and south of the Libyan Desert
Libyan Desert
and Western Sahara
Sahara
, including all the desert land west of the southern Nile river. Geographical knowledge of the continent gradually grew, with the first century AD Greek travelogue the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea describing areas as far south as Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
. Αἰθίοψ (Aithiops), meaning "burnt-face", was used as a vague term for dark-skinned populations since the time of Homer
Homer
. It was applied to such dark-skinned populations as came within the range of observation of the ancient geographers i.e. primarily in what was then Nubia
Nubia
, and with the expansion of geographical knowledge, successively extended to certain other areas below the Sahara.

CONTENTS

* 1 Before Herodotus
Herodotus
* 2 In Herodotus
Herodotus
* 3 Other Greco-Roman historians * 4 Greek and medieval literature * 5 See also * 6 References

BEFORE HERODOTUS

Homer
Homer
(c. 8th century BC) is the first to mention "Aethiopians" (Αἰθίοπες, Αἰθιοπῆες); he mentions that they are to be found at the east and west extremities of the world, divided by the sea into "eastern" (at the sunrise) and "western" (at the sunset). Hesiod (c. 8th century BC) speaks of Memnon as the "king of Aethiopia".

In 515 BC, Scylax of Caryanda , on orders from Darius I of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
, sailed along the Indus River
Indus River
, Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
and Red Sea
Red Sea
, circumnavigating the Arabian Peninsula . He mentioned "Aethiopians", but his writings on them have not survived. Hecataeus of Miletus (c. 500 BC) is also said to have written a book about Aethiopia, but his writing is now known only through quotations from later authors. He stated that Aethiopia
Aethiopia
was located to the east of the Nile, as far as the Red Sea
Red Sea
and Indian Ocean; he is also quoted as relating a myth that the Skiapods ("Shade feet") lived there, whose feet were supposedly large enough to serve as shade.

IN HERODOTUS

In his Histories (c. 440 BC) Herodotus
Herodotus
presents some of the most ancient and detailed information about "Aethiopia". He relates that he personally traveled up the Nile
Nile
to the border of Egypt as far as Elephantine (modern Aswan
Aswan
); in his view, "Aethiopia" is all of the inhabited land found to the south of Egypt, beginning at Elephantine. He describes a capital at Meroë , adding that the only deities worshipped there were Zeus
Zeus
( Amun
Amun
) and Dionysus ( Osiris
Osiris
). He relates that in the reign of Pharaoh Psamtik I (c. 650 BCE), many Egyptian soldiers deserted their country and settled amidst the Aethiopians.

Herodotus
Herodotus
tells us that king Cambyses II
Cambyses II
(c. 570 BC) of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
sent spies to the Aethiopians "who dwelt in that part of Libya (Africa) which borders upon the southern sea." They found a strong and healthy people. Although Cambyses then campaigned toward their country, by not preparing enough provisions for the long march, his army completely failed and returned quickly.

In Book 3, Herodotus
Herodotus
defines "Aethiopia" as the farthest region of "Libya" (i.e. Africa): "Where the south declines towards the setting sun lies the country called Aethiopia, the last inhabited land in that direction. There gold is obtained in great plenty, huge elephants abound, with wild trees of all sorts, and ebony ; and the men are taller, handsomer, and longer lived than anywhere else."

OTHER GRECO-ROMAN HISTORIANS

The Egyptian priest Manetho (c. 300 BC) listed Kushite (25th) dynasty, calling it the "Aethiopian dynasty". Moreover, when the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
was translated into Greek (c. 200 BC), the Hebrew appellation "Kush, Kushite" became in Greek "Aethiopia, Aethiopians", appearing as "Ethiopia, Ethiopians" in the English King James Version .

Agatharchides provides a relatively detailed description of the gold mining system of Aethiopia. His text was copied almost verbatim by virtually all subsequent ancient writers on the area, including Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
and Photius .

With regard to the Ethiopians, Strabo
Strabo
indicates that "those who are in Asia, and those who are in Africa, do not differ from each other." Pliny in turn asserts that the place-name "Aethiopia" was derived from one "Aethiop, a son of Vulcan" ]. He also writes that the "Queen of the Ethiopians" bore the title Kandake , and avers that the Ethiopians had conquered ancient Syria
Syria
and the Mediterranean . Following Strabo, the Greco-Roman historian Eusebius notes that the Ethiopians had emigrated into the Red Sea
Red Sea
area from the Indus Valley and that there were no people in the region by that name prior to their arrival.

The first century AD Greek travelogue known as the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea first describes the Horn of Africa
Africa
littoral, based on its author's intimate knowledge of the area. The Periplus does not mention any dark-skinned "Ethiopians" among the area's inhabitants. They only later appear in Ptolemy
Ptolemy
's Geographia , but in a region far south, around the "Bantu nucleus" of northern Mozambique
Mozambique
. According to John Donnelly Fage , these early Greek documents altogether suggest that the original inhabitants of Azania , the "Azanians", were of the same ancestral stock as the Afroasiatic -speaking populations to the north of them in the ancient Barbara region along the Red Sea. Subsequently, by the tenth century, these original "Azanians" had been replaced by early waves of Bantu settlers.

GREEK AND MEDIEVAL LITERATURE

Several notable personalities in Greek and medieval literature were identified as Aethiopian, including several rulers, male and female: Memnon and his brother Emathion , King of Arabia
Arabia
. Cepheus and Cassiopeia , parents of Andromeda , were named as king and queen of Aethiopia. Homer
Homer
in his description of the Trojan War mentions several other Aethiopians. Ptolemy
Ptolemy
the geographer and other ancient Greek commentators believed that the "Aethiopian Olympus " was where the gods lived when they were not in Greece.

SEE ALSO

* Aethiopian Sea * Ethiopian historiography * History of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
* Index of Ethiopia-related articles * Sigelwara Land * White Aethiopians

REFERENCES

* ^ Homer
Homer
Iliad
Iliad
I.423; XXIII.206. * ^ Homer
Homer
Odyssey
Odyssey
I.22-23; IV.84; V.282-7. * ^ A B For all references to Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in Herodotus, see: this list at the Perseus project. * ^ Αἰθίοψ in Liddell, Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon : "Αἰθίοψ , οπος, ὁ, fem. Αἰθιοπίς , ίδος, ἡ (Αἰθίοψ as fem., A.Fr.328, 329): pl. 'Αἰθιοπῆες' Il.1.423, whence nom. 'Αἰθιοπεύς' Call.Del.208: (αἴθω, ὄψ):— properly, Burnt-face, i.e. Ethiopian, negro, Hom., etc.; prov., Αἰθίοπα σμήχειν 'to wash a blackamoor white', Luc.Ind. 28." Cf. Etymologicum Genuinum s.v. ], Etymologicum Gudianum s.v.v. Αἰθίοψ. "Αἰθίοψ". Etymologicum Magnum (in Greek). Leipzig. 1818. * ^ A B Fage, John. A History of Africa. Routledge. pp. 25–26. ISBN 1317797272 . Retrieved 20 January 2015. * ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
Histories III.114. * ^ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press for the Royal Asiatic Society. 1892. p. 823. Retrieved 20 January 2015. * ^ A B C Turner, Sharon (1834). The Sacred History of the World, as Displayed in the Creation and Subsequent Events to the Deluge: Attempted to be Philosophically Considered, in a Series of Letters to a Son, Volume 2. Longman. pp. 480–482. Retrieved 20 January 2015. * ^ Pliny the Elder Natural History VI.35. "Son of Hephaestus" was also a general Greek epithet meaning "blacksmith".

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Aethiopia
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