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Ancient Aethiopia
Aethiopia
(Greek: Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia) first appears as a geographical term in classical documents in reference to the upper Nile
Nile
region, as well as all certain areas south of the Sahara desert and south of the Atlantic Ocean. Its earliest mention is in the works of Homer: twice in the Iliad,[1] and three times in the Odyssey.[2] The Greek historian Herodotus
Herodotus
specifically uses the appellation to refer to such parts of Africa
Africa
as were then known within the inhabitable world.[3] In classical antiquity, Africa
Africa
(or Ancient Libya) referred to what is now known as the Maghreb
Maghreb
and south of the Libyan Desert
Libyan Desert
and Western Sahara, including all the desert land west of the southern Nile
Nile
river. Geographical knowledge of the continent gradually grew, with the first century AD Greek travelogue the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea describing areas along the Red Sea
Red Sea
(Erythraean Sea). The Greek name Αἰθιοπία (from Αἰθίοψ, Aithiops, 'an Ethiopian') is a compound word, derived from the two Greek words, from αἴθω + ὤψ (aitho "I burn" + ops "face"). According to the Perseus Digital Library, the designation properly translates as Burnt-face in noun form and red-brown in adjectival form.[4] It was used as a vague term for dark-skinned populations since the time of Homer.[5][6] It was applied to such dark-skinned populations as came within the range of observation of the ancient geographers i.e. primarily in what was then Nubia, and with the expansion of geographical knowledge, successively extended to certain other areas below the Sahara.

Contents

1 Before Herodotus 2 In Herodotus 3 Other Greco-Roman historians 4 Greek and medieval literature 5 See also 6 References

Before Herodotus[edit] Homer
Homer
(c. 8th century BC) is the first to mention "Aethiopians" (Αἰθίοπες, Αἰθιοπῆες); he mentions that they are to be found at the east and west extremities of the world, divided by the sea into "eastern" (at the sunrise) and "western" (at the sunset). Hesiod
Hesiod
(c. 8th century BC) speaks of Memnon as the "king of Aethiopia".[citation needed] In 515 BC, Scylax of Caryanda, on orders from Darius I
Darius I
of the Achaemenid Empire, sailed along the Indus River, Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
and Red Sea, circumnavigating the Arabian Peninsula. He mentioned "Aethiopians", but his writings on them have not survived. Hecataeus of Miletus (c. 500 BC) is also said to have written a book about Aethiopia, but his writing is now known only through quotations from later authors. He stated that Aethiopia
Aethiopia
was located to the east of the Nile, as far as the Red Sea
Red Sea
and Indian Ocean; he is also quoted as relating a myth that the Skiapods ("Shade feet") lived there, whose feet were supposedly large enough to serve as shade.[citation needed] In Herodotus[edit] In his Histories (c. 440 BC) Herodotus
Herodotus
presents some of the most ancient and detailed information about "Aethiopia".[3] He relates that he personally traveled up the Nile
Nile
to the border of Egypt as far as Elephantine
Elephantine
(modern Aswan); in his view, "Aethiopia" is all of the inhabited land found to the south of Egypt, beginning at Elephantine. He describes a capital at Meroë, adding that the only deities worshipped there were Zeus
Zeus
(Amun) and Dionysus
Dionysus
(Osiris). He relates that in the reign of Pharaoh Psamtik I
Psamtik I
(c. 650 BCE), many Egyptian soldiers deserted their country and settled amidst the Aethiopians. Herodotus
Herodotus
tells us that king Cambyses II
Cambyses II
(c. 570 BC) of the Achaemenid Empire sent spies to the Aethiopians "who dwelt in that part of Libya (Africa) which borders upon the southern sea." They found a strong and healthy people. Although Cambyses then campaigned toward their country, by not preparing enough provisions for the long march, his army completely failed and returned quickly.[citation needed] In Book 3, Herodotus
Herodotus
defines "Aethiopia" as the farthest region of "Libya" (i.e. Africa): "Where the south declines towards the setting sun lies the country called Aethiopia, the last inhabited land in that direction. There gold is obtained in great plenty, huge elephants abound, with wild trees of all sorts, and ebony; and the men are taller, handsomer, and longer lived than anywhere else."[7] Other Greco-Roman historians[edit] The Egyptian priest Manetho (c. 300 BC) listed Kushite (25th) dynasty, calling it the "Aethiopian dynasty". Moreover, when the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek (c. 200 BC), the Hebrew appellation "Kush, Kushite" became in Greek "Aethiopia, Aethiopians", appearing as "Ethiopia, Ethiopians" in the English King James Version.[citation needed] Agatharchides provides a relatively detailed description of the gold mining system of Aethiopia. His text was copied almost verbatim by virtually all subsequent ancient writers on the area, including Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
and Photius.[8] With regard to the Ethiopians, Strabo
Strabo
indicates that they looked similar to Indians, remarking "those who are in Asia (Indus), and those who are in Africa, do not differ from each other."[9] Pliny in turn asserts that the place-name "Aethiopia" was derived from one "Aethiop, a son of Vulcan"[9] [the smith-god Hephaestus[10]]. He also writes that the "Queen of the Ethiopians" bore the title Kandake, and avers that the Ethiopians had conquered ancient Syria
Syria
and the Mediterranean. Following Strabo, the Greco-Roman historian Eusebius notes that the Ethiopians had emigrated into the Red Sea
Red Sea
area from the Indus Valley and that there were no people in the region by that name prior to their arrival.[9] The first century AD Greek travelogue known as the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea first describes the Horn of Africa
Africa
littoral, based on its author's intimate knowledge of the area. The Periplus does not mention any dark-skinned "Ethiopians" among the area's inhabitants. They only later appear in Ptolemy's Geographia, but in a region far south, around the "Bantu nucleus" of northern Mozambique. According to John Donnelly Fage, these early Greek documents altogether suggest that the original inhabitants of Azania, the "Azanians", were of the same ancestral stock as the Afroasiatic-speaking populations to the north of them in the ancient Barbara region along the Red Sea. Subsequently, by the tenth century, these original "Azanians" had been replaced by early waves of Bantu settlers.[6] Greek and medieval literature[edit] Several notable personalities in Greek and medieval literature were identified as Aethiopian, including several rulers, male and female: Memnon and his brother Emathion, King of Arabia. Cepheus and Cassiopeia, parents of Andromeda, were named as king and queen of Aethiopia. Homer
Homer
in his description of the Trojan War mentions several other Aethiopians. In some cults of the youngest Olympian god, Dionysus, his maternal origins are believed to be Aethiopia.[citation needed] Ptolemy
Ptolemy
the geographer and other ancient Greek commentators believed that the "Aethiopian Olympus" was where the gods lived when they were not in Greece.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Aethiopian Sea Ethiopian historiography History of Ethiopia Index of Ethiopia-related articles Sigelwara Land White Aethiopians Black people in Ancient Roman history

References[edit]

^ Homer
Homer
Iliad
Iliad
I.423; XXIII.206. ^ Homer
Homer
Odyssey
Odyssey
I.22-23; IV.84; V.282-7. ^ a b For all references to Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in Herodotus, see: this list at the Perseus project. ^ Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert. "Aithiops". A Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus. Retrieved 2 December 2017.  ^ Αἰθίοψ in Liddell, Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon: "Αἰθίοψ , οπος, ὁ, fem. Αἰθιοπίς , ίδος, ἡ (Αἰθίοψ as fem., A.Fr.328, 329): pl. 'Αἰθιοπῆες' Il.1.423, whence nom. 'Αἰθιοπεύς' Call.Del.208: (αἴθω, ὄψ):— properly, Burnt-face, i.e. Ethiopian, negro, Hom., etc.; prov., Αἰθίοπα σμήχειν 'to wash a blackamoor white', Luc.Ind. 28." Cf. Etymologicum Genuinum s.v. [[:wikt:Αἰθίοψ]], Etymologicum Gudianum s.v.v. Αἰθίοψ. "Αἰθίοψ". Etymologicum Magnum (in Greek). Leipzig. 1818.  ^ a b Fage, John. A History of Africa. Routledge. pp. 25–26. ISBN 1317797272. Retrieved 20 January 2015.  ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
Histories III.114. ^ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press for the Royal Asiatic Society. 1892. p. 823. Retrieved 20 January 2015.  ^ a b c Turner, Sharon (1834). The Sacred History of the World, as Displayed in the Creation and Subsequent Events to the Deluge: Attempted to be Philosophically Considered, in a Series of Letters to a Son, Volume 2. Longman. pp. 480–482. Retrieved 20 January 2015.  ^ Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
Natural History VI.35. "Son of Hephaestus" was also a general Greek epithet meaning "blacksmith".

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Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile
Nile
Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile
Nile
Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold
Gold
Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountai

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