AESOP (/ˈiːsɒp/ EE-sop ; Greek : Αἴσωπος, Aisōpos; c.
620 – 564 BCE) was a Greek fabulist and story teller credited with a
number of fables now collectively known as Aesop\'s Fables . Although
his existence remains unclear and no writings by him survive, numerous
tales credited to him were gathered across the centuries and in many
languages in a storytelling tradition that continues to this day. Many
of the tales are characterized by animals and inanimate objects that
speak, solve problems, and generally have human characteristics.
Scattered details of Aesop's life can be found in ancient sources,
Herodotus , and
Plutarch . An ancient literary
work called The
Aesop Romance tells an episodic, probably highly
fictional version of his life, including the traditional description
of him as a strikingly ugly slave (δοῦλος) who by his
cleverness acquires freedom and becomes an adviser to kings and
city-states. Older spellings of his name have included Esop(e) and
Isope. Depictions of
Aesop in popular culture over the last 2500 years
have included many works of art and his appearance as a character in
numerous books, films, plays, and television programs.
* 1 Life
* 2 The
* 3 Fabulist
* 4 Physical appearance and the question of African origin
* 5 Depictions
* 5.1 Art and literature
* 5.2 20th century and popular culture
* 6 See also
* 7 Notes
* 8 References
* 9 Further reading
* 10 External links
The name of
Aesop is as widely known as any that has come down from
Graeco-Roman antiquity it is far from certain whether a historical
Aesop ever existed ... in the latter part of the fifth century
something like a coherent
Aesop legend appears, and
Samos seems to be
its home. —
Martin Litchfield West
Martin Litchfield West A woodcut from La vida
Ysopet con sus fabulas historiadas (Spain, 1489) depicting a
Aesop surrounded by events from the stories in Planudes '
version of his life
The earliest Greek sources, including
Aristotle , indicate that Aesop
was born around 620 BCE in
Thrace at a site on the
Black Sea coast
which would later become the city Mesembria . A number of later
writers from the Roman imperial period (including Phaedrus , who
adapted the fables into Latin) say that he was born in
Phrygia . The
Callimachus called him "
Sardis ," and the
Maximus of Tyre called him "the sage of
Herodotus we learn that
Aesop was a slave in
Samos and that his masters were first a man named Xanthus and then a
man named Iadmon; that he must eventually have been freed, because he
argued as an advocate for a wealthy Samian; and that he met his end in
the city of
Plutarch tells us that
Aesop had come to Delphi
on a diplomatic mission from King
Lydia , that he insulted
the Delphians, was sentenced to death on a trumped-up charge of temple
theft, and was thrown from a cliff (after which the Delphians suffered
pestilence and famine). Before this fatal episode,
Aesop met with
Corinth , where
Plutarch has him dining with the Seven
Sages of Greece , sitting beside his friend
Solon , whom he had met in
Sardis . (Leslie Kurke suggests that
Aesop himself "was a popular
contender for inclusion" in the list of Seven Sages.)
Problems of chronological reconciliation dating the death of Aesop
and the reign of
Croesus led the
Aesop scholar (and compiler of the
Perry Index ) Ben Edwin Perry in 1965 to conclude that "everything in
the ancient testimony about
Aesop that pertains to his associations
Croesus or with any of the so-called Seven Wise Men of
Greece must be reckoned as literary fiction," and Perry likewise
dismissed Aesop's death in
Delphi as legendary; but subsequent
research has established that a possible diplomatic mission for
Croesus and a visit to
Periander "are consistent with the year of
Aesop's death." Still problematic is the story by Phaedrus which has
Aesop in Athens, telling the fable of the frogs who asked for a king ,
during the reign of
Peisistratos , which occurred decades after the
presumed date of Aesop's death.
THE AESOP ROMANCE
Along with the scattered references in the ancient sources regarding
the life and death of Aesop, there is a highly fictional biography now
commonly called The
Aesop Romance (also known as the Vita or The Life
Aesop or The Book of Xanthus the Philosopher and
Aesop His Slave),
"an anonymous work of Greek popular literature composed around the
second century of our era ... Like The Alexander Romance , The Aesop
Romance became a folkbook, a work that belonged to no one, and the
occasional writer felt free to modify as it might suit him."
Multiple, sometimes contradictory, versions of this work exist. The
earliest known version was probably composed in the 1st century CE,
but the story may have circulated in different versions for centuries
before it was committed to writing, and certain elements can be shown
to originate in the 4th century BCE. Scholars long dismissed any
historical or biographical validity in The
Aesop Romance; widespread
study of the work began only toward the end of the 20th century.
Aesop is a slave of Phrygian origin on the
island of Samos, and extremely ugly. At first he lacks the power of
speech, but after showing kindness to a priestess of
Isis , is granted
by the goddess not only speech but a gift for clever storytelling,
which he uses alternately to assist and confound his master, Xanthus,
embarrassing the philosopher in front of his students and even
sleeping with his wife. After interpreting a portent for the people of
Aesop is given his freedom and acts as an emissary between the
Samians and King Croesus. Later he travels to the courts of Lycurgus
of Babylon and Nectanabo of Egypt – both imaginary rulers – in a
section that appears to borrow heavily from the romance of
The story ends with Aesop's journey to Delphi, where he angers the
citizens by telling insulting fables, is sentenced to death and, after
cursing the people of Delphi, is forced to jump to his death.
Aesop as depicted by Francis Barlow in the 1687 edition of
Aesop's Fables with His Life
Aesop may not have written his fables. The
Aesop Romance claims that
he wrote them down and deposited them in the library of Croesus;
Aesop a "writer of fables" and
Aristophanes speaks of
"reading" Aesop, but no writings by
Aesop have survived. Scholars
speculate that "there probably existed in the fifth century a written
book containing various fables of Aesop, set in a biographical
Sophocles in a poem addressed to
Euripides made reference
to Aesop's fable of the North Wind and the Sun .
Socrates while in
prison turned some of the fables into verse, of which Diogenes
Laertius records a small fragment. The early Roman playwright and
Ennius also rendered at least one of Aesop's fables in Latin
verse, of which the last two lines still exist.
The body of work identified as
Aesop's Fables was transmitted by a
series of authors writing in both Greek and Latin. Demetrius of
Phalerum made a collection in ten books, probably in prose
(Αισοπείων α) for the use of orators, which has been lost.
Next appeared an edition in elegiac verse, cited by the
Suda , but the
author's name is unknown. Phaedrus , a freedman of
Augustus , rendered
the fables into Latin in the 1st century CE. At about the same time
Babrius turned the fables into Greek choliambics . A 3rd-century
author, Titianus, is said to have rendered the fables into prose in a
work now lost.
Avianus (of uncertain date, perhaps the 4th century)
translated 42 of the fables into Latin elegiacs. The 4th-century
Dositheus Magister also made a collection of Aesop's
Fables, now lost.
Aesop's Fables continued to be revised and translated through the
ensuing centuries, with the addition of material from other cultures,
so that the body of fables known today bears little relation to those
Aesop originally told. With a surge in scholarly interest beginning
toward the end of the 20th century, some attempt has been made to
determine the nature and content of the very earliest fables which may
be most closely linked to the historic Aesop.
PHYSICAL APPEARANCE AND THE QUESTION OF AFRICAN ORIGIN
The anonymously authored
Aesop Romance (usually dated to the 1st or
2nd centuries CE) begins with a vivid description of Aesop's
appearance, saying he was "of loathsome aspect... potbellied,
misshapen of head, snub-nosed, swarthy, dwarfish, bandy-legged,
short-armed, squint-eyed, liver-lipped—a portentous monstrosity,"
or as another translation has it, "a faulty creation of Prometheus
when half-asleep." The earliest text by a known author that refers to
Aesop's appearance is
Himerius in the 4th century, who says that Aesop
"was laughed at and made fun of, not because of some of his tales but
on account of his looks and the sound of his voice." The evidence
from both of these sources is dubious, since
Himerius lived some 800
Aesop and his image of
Aesop may have come from The Aesop
Romance, which is essentially fiction; but whether based on fact or
not, at some point the idea of an ugly, even deformed
Aesop took hold
in popular imagination. Scholars have begun to examine why and how
this "physiognomic tradition" developed. Example of a coin image
Delphi thought by one antiquarian to represent Aesop.
A much later tradition depicts
Aesop as a black African from Ethiopia
. The first known promulgator of the idea was Planudes , a Byzantine
scholar of the 13th century who wrote a biography of
Aesop based on
Aesop Romance and conjectured that
Aesop might have been
Ethiopian, given his name. An English translation of Planudes'
biography from 1687 says that "his Complexion black, from which dark
Tincture he contracted his Name (Aesopus being the same with
Aethiops)". When asked his origin by a prospective new master, Aesop
replies, "I am a
Negro "; numerous illustrations by Francis Barlow
accompany this text and depict
Aesop accordingly. But according to
Gert-Jan van Dijk, "Planudes' derivation of 'Aesop' from 'Aethiopian'
is... etymologically incorrect," and
Frank Snowden says that
Planudes' account is "worthless as to the reliability of
The tradition of Aesop's African origin was continued in Britain, as
attested by the lively figurine of a negro from the Chelsea porcelain
factory which appeared in its
Aesop series in the mid-18th century.
It then carried forward into the 19th century. The frontispiece of
William Godwin 's Fables Ancient and Modern (1805) has a copperplate
Aesop relating his stories to little children that
gives his features a distinctly African appearance. The collection
includes the fable of "Washing the Blackamoor white", although
updating it and making the Ethiopian 'a black footman'. In 1856
William Martin Leake repeated the false etymological linkage of
"Aesop" with "Aethiop" when he suggested that the "head of a negro"
found on several coins from ancient
Delphi (with specimens dated as
early as 520 BCE) might depict Aesop, presumably to commemorate (and
atone for) his execution at Delphi, but
Theodor Panofka supposed the
head to be a portrait of Delphos , founder of Delphi, a view more
widely repeated by later historians.
The idea that
Aesop was Ethiopian seems supported by the presence of
camels, elephants and apes in the fables, even though these African
elements are more likely to have come from Egypt and Libya than from
Ethiopia, and the fables featuring African animals may have entered
the body of Aesopic fables long after
Aesop actually lived.
Nevertheless, in 1932 the anthropologist J.H. Driberg, repeating the
Aesop/Aethiop linkage, asserted that, while "some say he was a
Phrygian... the more general view... is that he was an African", and
Aesop was not an African, he ought to have been;" and in 2002
Richard A. Lobban cited the number of African animals and "artifacts"
in the Aesopic fables as "circumstantial evidence" that
Aesop may have
been a Nubian folkteller.
Aesop shown in Japanese dress in a
1659 edition of the fables from
Popular perception of
Aesop as black was to be encouraged by
comparison between his fables and the stories of the trickster Br\'er
Rabbit told by African-American slaves. In
Ian Colvin 's introduction
Aesop in Politics (1914), for example, the fabulist is bracketed
Uncle Remus , "For both were slaves, and both were black". The
traditional role of the slave
Aesop as "a kind of culture hero of the
oppressed" is further promoted by the fictional Life, emerging "as a
how-to handbook for the successful manipulation of superiors". Such a
perception was reinforced at the popular level by the 1971 TV
production Aesop\'s Fables in which
Bill Cosby played Aesop. In that
mixture of live action and animation,
Aesop tells fables that
differentiate between realistic and unrealistic ambition and his
version there of "
The Tortoise and the Hare " illustrates how to take
advantage of an opponent's over-confidence.
On other continents
Aesop has occasionally undergone a degree of
acculturation . This is evident in
Isango Portobello 's 2010
production of the play
Aesop's Fables at the Fugard Theatre in Cape
Town , South Africa. Based on a script by British playwright Peter
Terson (1983), it was radically adapted by the director Mark
Dornford-May as a musical using native African instrumentation, dance
and stage conventions. Although
Aesop is portrayed as Greek, and
dressed in the short Greek tunic, the all-black production
contextualises the story in the recent history of
South Africa . The
former slave, we are told "learns that liberty comes with
responsibility as he journeys to his own freedom, joined by the animal
characters of his parable-like fables." One might compare with this
Brian Seward's Aesop's Fabulous Fables (2009), which first played in
Singapore with a cast of mixed ethnicities. In it Chinese theatrical
routines are merged with those of a standard musical.
There had already been an example of Asian acculturation in
17th-century Japan. There Portuguese missionaries had introduced a
translation of the fables (Esopo no Fabulas, 1593) that included the
biography of Aesop. This was then taken up by Japanese printers and
taken through several editions under the title Isopo Monogatari. Even
when Europeans were expelled from Japan and Christianity proscribed,
this text survived, in part because the figure of
Aesop had been
assimilated into the culture and depicted in woodcuts as dressed in
ART AND LITERATURE
Ancient sources mention two statues of Aesop, one by Aristodemus and
Lysippus , and Philostratus describes a painting of Aesop
surrounded by the animals of his fables. None of these images have
survived. According to Philostratus,
The Fables are gathering about Aesop, being fond of him because he
devotes himself to them. For... he checks greed and rebukes insolence
and deceit, and in all this some animal is his mouthpiece — a lion
or a fox or a horse... and not even the tortoise is dumb — that
through them children may learn the business of life. So the Fables,
honoured because of Aesop, gather at the doors of the wise man to bind
fillets about his head and to crown him with a victor’s crown of
wild olive. And Aesop, methinks, is weaving some fable; at any rate
his smile and his eyes fixed on the ground indicate this. The painter
knows that for the composition of fables relaxation of the spirit is
needed. And the painting is clever in representing the persons of the
Fables. For it combines animals with men to make a chorus about Aesop,
composed of the actors in his fables; and the fox is painted as leader
of the chorus.
With the advent of printing in Europe, various illustrators tried to
recreate this scene. One of the earliest was in Spain's La vida del
Ysopet con sus fabulas historiadas (1489, see above). In France there
was I. Baudoin's Fables d’Ésope Phrygien (1631) and Matthieu
Guillemot's Les images ou tableaux de platte peinture des deux
Philostrates (1637). In England there was Francis Cleyn's
John Ogilby 's The Fables of
Aesop and the much later
frontispiece to Godwin's Fables Ancient and Modern mentioned above in
which the swarthy fabulist points out three of his characters to the
children seated about him.
Early on, the representation of
Aesop as an ugly slave emerged. The
later tradition which makes
Aesop a black African resulted in
depictions ranging from 17th-century engravings to a television
portrayal by a black comedian. In general, beginning in the 20th
century, plays have shown
Aesop as a slave, but not ugly, while movies
and television shows (such as The Bullwinkle Show ) have depicted him
as neither ugly nor a slave.
In 1843, the archaeologist
Otto Jahn suggested that
Aesop was the
person depicted on a Greek red-figure cup, c.450 BCE, in the Vatican
Museums . Paul Zanker describes the figure as a man with "emaciated
body and oversized head... furrowed brow and open mouth", who "listens
carefully to the teachings of the fox sitting before him. He has
pulled his mantle tightly around his meager body, as if he were
shivering... he is ugly, with long hair, bald head, and unkempt,
scraggly beard, and is clearly uncaring of his appearance." Some
archaeologists have suggested that the Hellenistic statue of a bearded
hunchback with an intellectual appearance, discovered in the 18th
century and pictured at the head of this article, also depicts Aesop,
although alternative identifications have since been put forward.
Aesop by Velázquez in the Prado.
Aesop began to appear equally early in literary works. The
4th-century-BCE Athenian playwright Alexis put
Aesop on the stage in
his comedy "Aesop", of which a few lines survive (
conversing with Solon,
Aesop praises the Athenian practice of adding
water to wine. Leslie Kurke suggests that
Aesop may have been "a
staple of the comic stage" of this era.
The 3rd-century-BCE poet
Poseidippus of Pella wrote a narrative poem
entitled "Aesopia" (now lost), in which Aesop's fellow slave Rhodopis
(under her original name Doricha) was frequently mentioned, according
Athenaeus 13.596. Pliny would later identify Rhodopis as Aesop's
lover, a romantic motif that would be repeated in subsequent popular
depictions of Aesop.
Aesop plays a fairly prominent part in
Plutarch 's conversation piece
"The Banquet of the Seven Sages" in the 1st century AD and is there
identified as the teller of amusing but moralistic fables. The
fabulist then makes a cameo appearance in the novel A True Story by
the 2nd-century satirist
Lucian ; when the narrator arrives at the
Island of the Blessed, he finds that "
Aesop the Phrygian was there,
too; he acts as their jester."
Beginning with the
Heinrich Steinhowel edition of 1476, many
translations of the fables into European languages, which also
incorporated Planudes' Life of Aesop, featured illustrations depicting
him as a hunchback. The 1687 edition of
Aesop's Fables with His Life:
in English, French and Latin included 28 engravings by Francis Barlow
which show him as a dwarfish hunchback (see in the section above), and
his facial features appear to accord with his statement in the text
(p. 7), "I am a Negro".
Diego Velázquez painted a portrait of Aesop, dated
1639-40 and now in the collection of the
Museo del Prado
Museo del Prado . The
presentation is anachronistic and Aesop, while arguably not handsome,
displays no physical deformities. It was partnered by another portrait
Menippus , a satirical philosopher equally of slave-origin. A
similar philosophers series was painted by fellow Spaniard Jusepe de
Ribera , who is credited with two portraits of Aesop. "Aesop, poet of
the fables" is in the El Escorial gallery and pictures him as an
author leaning on a staff by a table which holds copies of his work,
one of them a book with the name Hissopo on the cover. The other is
in the Museo de Prado, dated 1640-50 and titled "
Aesop in beggar’s
rags". There he is also shown at a table, holding a sheet of paper in
his left hand and writing with the other. While the former hints at
his lameness and deformed back, the latter only emphasises his
In 1690, French playwright
Edmé Boursault 's Les fables d'Esope
(later known as Esope à la ville) premiered in Paris. A sequel, Esope
à la cour (
Aesop at Court ), was first performed in 1701; drawing on
a mention in
Herodotus 2.134-5 that
Aesop had once been owned by the
same master as Rhodopis , and the statement in Pliny 36.17 that she
was Aesop's concubine as well, the play introduced Rodope as Aesop's
mistress, a romantic motif that would be repeated in later popular
depictions of Aesop. The beautiful Rhodope , in love with Aesop;
engraving by Bartolozzi, 1782, after Kauffman 's original
Sir John Vanbrugh 's comedy "Aesop" was premièred at the Theatre
Royal in Drury Lane, London, in 1697 and was frequently performed
there for the next twenty years. A translation and adaptation of
Boursault's Les fables d'Esope, Vanbrugh's play depicted a physically
Aesop acting as adviser to Learchus, governor of Cyzicus under
King Croesus, and using his fables to solve romantic problems and
quiet political unrest.
In 1780, the anonymously authored novelette The History and Amours of
Rhodope was published in London. The story casts the two slaves
Aesop as unlikely lovers, one ugly and the other
beautiful; ultimately Rhodope is parted from
Aesop and marries the
Pharaoh of Egypt. Some editions of the volume were illustrated with an
Francesco Bartolozzi of a work by the painter Angelica
Kauffman . Titled "The beautiful Rhodope in love with Aesop", it
pictures Rhodope leaning on an urn; she holds out her hand to Aesop,
who is seated under a tree and turns his head to look at her. His
right arm rests on a cage of doves, towards which he gestures. There
is some ambiguity here, for while the cage suggests the captive state
of both of them, a raven perched outside the cage may allude to his
supposed colour. In fact, the whole picture is planned to suggest how
different the couple are. Rhodope and
Aesop lean on opposite elbows,
gesture with opposite hands, and while Rhodope's hand is held palm
upwards, Aesop's is held palm downwards. She stands while he sits; he
is dressed in dark clothes, she in white. The theme of their
relationship was taken up again in 1844 by Walter Savage Landor
Imaginary Conversations ), who published two fictional
Aesop and Rhodope.
Later in the 19th century the subject of
Aesop telling his tales was
made popular by the painting of him entertaining the maids of Xanthus
by Roberto Fontana (1844-1907). A depiction of the fabulist
surrounded by laughing young women, it went on to win a prize at the
Brera Academy in 1876 and was then shown at the 1878
International Exhibition and the 11th exhibition of the Società di
Belle Arti di Trieste in 1879. A later painting by Julian Russell
Story widens Aesop's audience by showing people of both sexes and all
ages enjoying his narration. Though
Aesop is pictured as ugly in
both, his winning personality is suggested by his smiling face and
20TH CENTURY AND POPULAR CULTURE
The 20th century saw the publication of three novels about Aesop.
A.D. Wintle 's
Aesop (London, 1943) was a plodding fictional biography
described in a review of the time as so boring that it makes the
fables embedded in it seem ‘complacent and exasperating’. The two
others, preferring the fictional 'life' to any approach to veracity,
are genre works . The most recent is
John Vornholt 's The Fabulist
(1993) in which ‘an ugly, mute slave is delivered from wretchedness
by the gods and blessed with a wondrous voice. the tale of a most
unlikely adventurer, dispatched to far and perilous realms to battle
impossible beasts and terrible magicks.’
The other novel was George S. Hellman’s Peacock's Feather
(published in California in 1931). Its unlikely plot made it the
perfect vehicle for the 1946 Hollywood spectacular, Night in Paradise
. The perennial image of
Aesop as an ugly slave is kept up in the
movie, with a heavily disguised
Turhan Bey cast in the role. In a plot
containing ‘some of the most nonsensical screen doings of the
year’, he becomes entangled with the intended bride of King Croesus
, a Persian princess played by
Merle Oberon , and makes such a hash of
it that he has to be rescued by the gods. The 1953 teleplay
Rhodope takes up another theme of his fictional history. Written by
Helene Hanff , it was broadcast on
Hallmark Hall of Fame with Lamont
Johnson playing Aesop.
The three-act A raposa e as uvas ("The Fox and the Grapes" 1953),
marks Aesop's entry into Brazilian theatre. The three-act play was by
Guilherme Figueiredo and has been performed in many countries,
including a videotaped production in China in 2000 under the title Hu
li yu pu tao or 狐狸与葡萄. The play is described as an allegory
about freedom with
Aesop as the main character.
Beginning in 1959, animated shorts under the title
Aesop and Son
appeared as a recurring segment in the TV series Rocky and His Friends
and its successor, The Bullwinkle Show. The image of
Aesop as ugly
slave was abandoned;
Aesop (voiced by
Charles Ruggles ), a Greek
citizen, would recount a fable for the edification of his son, Aesop
Jr., who would then deliver the moral in the form of an atrocious pun.
Aesop's 1998 appearance in the episode "Hercules and the Kids" in the
animated TV series Hercules (voiced by
Robert Keeshan ) amounted to
little more than a cameo.
Occasions on which
Aesop is portrayed as black include Richard
Durham's "Destination Freedom" radio show broadcast (1949), where the
drama "The Death of Aesop," portrays him as an Ethiopian. In 1971,
Bill Cosby played
Aesop in the TV production Aesop\'s Fables .
Aesop's Fables by British playwright
Peter Terson was
first produced in 1983. In 2010, the play was staged at the Fugard
Cape Town ,
South Africa with Mhlekahi Mosiea as Aesop.
* List of Aesop\'s Fables
List of slaves
* ^ West, pp. 106 and 119.
* ^ Brill\'s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World
(hereafter BNP) 1:256.
* ^ Callimachus. Iambus 2 (Loeb fragment 192)
* ^ Maximus of Tyre, Oration 36.1
* ^ Aristotle. Rhetoric 2.20 Archived 2011-05-24 at the Wayback
* ^ Herodotus. Histories 2.134 Archived 2012-05-21 at the Wayback
* ^ Plutarch. On the Delays of Divine Vengeance; Banquet of the
Seven Sages; Life of Solon.
* ^ Kurke 2010, p. 135.
* ^ Perry, Ben Edwin. Introduction to
Babrius and Phaedrus, pp.
* ^ BNP 1:256.
* ^ Phaedrus 1.2
* ^ William Hansen, review of Vita Aesopi: Ueberlieferung, Sprach
und Edition einer fruehbyzantinischen Fassung des Aesopromans by
Grammatiki A. Karla in Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2004.09.39 Archived
2010-05-05 at the
Wayback Machine ..
* ^ Leslie Kurke, "
Aesop and the Contestation of Delphic
Authority", in The Cultures Within
Ancient Greek Culture: Contact,
Conflict, Collaboration, ed. Carol Dougherty and Leslie Kurke, p. 77.
* ^ François Lissarrague, "Aesop, Between Man and Beast: Ancient
Portraits and Illustrations", in Not the Classical Ideal: Athens and
the Construction of the Other in Greek Art, ed. Beth Cohen (hereafter,
Lissarrague), p. 133.
* ^ Lissarrague, p. 113.
* ^ BNP 1:257; West, p. 121; Hägg, p. 47.
* ^ Hägg, p. 47; also West, p. 122.
Athenaeus 13.82 Archived 2010-12-12 at the
Wayback Machine ..
Plato , Phaedo 61b Archived 2010-01-23 at the Wayback Machine
Diogenes Laertius , Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers
2.5.42 Archived 2010-03-02 at the
Wayback Machine .: "He also composed
a fable, in the style of Aesop, not very artistically, and it
Aesop one day did this sage counsel give / To the Corinthian
magistrates: not to trust / The cause of virtue to the people's
Aulus Gellius , Attic Nights 2.29.
* ^ Perry, Ben E.
Demetrius of Phalerum
Demetrius of Phalerum and the Aesopic Fables,
Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association,
Vol. 93, 1962, pp.287–346
Ausonius , Epistles 12 Archived 2014-02-02 at the Wayback
* ^ BNP 1:258–9; West; Niklas Holzberg, The Ancient Fable: An
Introduction, pp. 12–13; see also Ainoi, Logoi, Mythoi: Fables in
Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic Greek by Gert-Jan van Dijk and
History of the Graeco-Latin
Francisco Rodríguez Adrados .
* ^ The
Aesop Romance, translated by Lloyd W. Daly, in Anthology of
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* ^ Papademetriou, pp. 14-15.
* ^ Himerius, Orations 46.4, translated by Robert J. Penella in Man
and the Word: The Orations of Himerius, p. 250.
* ^ See Lissarrage; Papademetriou; Compton, Victim of the Muses;
Lefkowitz, "Ugliness and Value in the Life of Aesop" in Kakos: Badness
and Anti-value in Classical Antiquity ed. Sluiter and Rosen.
* ^ "... niger, unde see Aesopi Phrygis Fabulae Archived 2015-09-24
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* ^ Tho. Philipott (translating Planudes), Aesop\'s Fables with His
Life: in English, French and Latin, pp. 1 and 7.
* ^ Gert-Jan van Dijk, "Aesop" entry in The Encyclopedia of Ancient
Greece, ed. Nigel Wilson, p. 18.
* ^ Frank M. Snowden, Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the
Greco-Roman Experience (hereafter Snowden), p. 264.
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from the original on 2015-04-11.
* ^ Godwin then used the nom de plume of Edward Baldwin. The cover
can be viewed online Archived 2012-10-14 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Ancient Coins of Phocis Archived 2010-08-28 at the Wayback
Machine . web page, accessed 11-12-2010.
* ^ William Martin Leake, Numismata Hellenica: A Catalogue of Greek
Coins, p. 45. Archived 2014-02-02 at the
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* ^ Theodor Panofka, Antikenkranz zum fünften Berliner
Delphi und Melaine, p. 7 Archived 2016-12-29 at the
Wayback Machine .; an illustration of the coin in question follows p.
* ^ Snowden, pp. 150-51 and 307-8.
* ^ Robert Temple, Introduction to Aesop: The Complete Fables, pp.
* ^ Driberg, 1932.
* ^ Lobban, 2002.
* ^ Colvin, Ian Duncan. "
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* ^ A B "Aesop\'s Fables (TV Movie 1971)". IMDb. 31 October 1971.
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Aesop is conjectural; see the
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Babrius and Phaedrus.
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* Snowden, Jr., Frank M., 1970. Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in
the Greco-Roman Experience. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
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* Daly, Lloyd W., 1961.
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a Life of Aesop, Newly Translated and Edited. New York and London:
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* Sluiter, Ineke and Rosen, Ralph M. (editors), 2008. Kakos: Badness
and Anti-value in Classical Antiquity. Mnemosyne: Supplements. History
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