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The Info List - Aerobic Organism


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An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.[1] In contrast, an anaerobic organism (anaerobe) is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. Some anaerobes react negatively or even die if oxygen is present.[2]

Contents

1 Types 2 Glucose 3 See also 4 References

Types[edit]

Obligate aerobes need oxygen to grow. In a process known as cellular respiration, these organisms use oxygen to oxidize substrates (for example sugars and fats) and generate energy.[3] Facultative anaerobes
Facultative anaerobes
use oxygen if it is available, but also have anaerobic methods of energy production.[2] Microaerophiles require oxygen for energy production, but are harmed by atmospheric concentrations of oxygen (21% O2).[3] Aerotolerant
Aerotolerant
anaerobes do not use oxygen but are not harmed by it.[3]

When an organism is able to survive in both oxygen and anaerobic environments, the use of the Pasteur effect can distinguish between facultative anaerobes and aerotolerant organisms. If the organism is using fermentation in an anaerobic environment, the addition of oxygen will cause facultative anaerobes to suspend fermentation and begin using oxygen for respiration. Aerotolerant
Aerotolerant
organisms must continue fermentation in the presence of oxygen. Glucose[edit] A good example is the oxidation of glucose (a monosaccharide) in aerobic respiration.

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 38 ADP + 38 phosphate → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 38 ATP

Oxygen
Oxygen
is used during the oxidation of glucose and water is produced.[2] This equation is a summary of what happens in three series of biochemical reactions: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. See also[edit]

Aerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion Fermentation (biochemistry) Aerobic vaginitis Oxygenation (environmental)

References[edit]

^ "aerobe" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary ^ a b c Hentges DJ (1996). "17: Anaerobes:General Characteristics". In Baron S. Medical Microbiology
Microbiology
(4 ed.). Galveston, Texas: University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. Retrieved 24 July 2016.  ^ a b c Kenneth Todar. "Nutrition and Growth of Bacteria". Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology. p. 4. Retrieved 24 July 2016. 

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Microbiology: Bacteria

Medical microbiology

infection Coley's toxins Exotoxin Lysogenic cycle Pathogenic bacteria resistance

Biochemistry and ecology

Oxygen preference

Aerobic

Obligate

Anaerobic

Facultative Obligate

Microaerophile Nanaerobe Aerotolerant

Other

Extremophile Human flora

Gut Lung Mouth Skin Vaginal (In pregnancy) Placental Uterine Salivary

Microbial metabolism Nitrogen fixation Microbial ecology Primary nutritional groups Substrate preference

Lipophilic Saccharophilic

Shape

Bacterial cellular morphologies Coccus

Diplococcus

Bacillus Coccobacillus Spiral

Structure

Cell envelope

Cell membrane Cell wall: Peptidoglycan

NAM NAG DAP

Gram-positive bacteria
Gram-positive bacteria
only: Teichoic acid Lipoteichoic acid Endospore Gram-negative bacteria
Gram-negative bacteria
only: Bacterial outer membrane

Porin Lipopolysaccharide

Periplasmic space Mycobacteria only: Arabinogalactan Mycolic acid

Outside envelope

Bacterial capsule Slime layer S-layer Glycocalyx Pilus Fimbria Non-motile bacteria

Composite

Biofilm

Taxonomy

Bacteria
Bacteria
(classifications) Bacterial phyla Former groupings: Schizomycetes Monera Prokaryota

Gracilicutes Firmicutes Mollicutes

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