AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY is the taking of photographs of the ground from an elevated/direct-down position. Usually the camera is not supported by a ground-based structure. Platforms for aerial photography include fixed-wing aircraft , helicopters , unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or "drones"), balloons , blimps and dirigibles , rockets , pigeons , kites , parachutes , stand-alone telescoping and vehicle-mounted poles. Mounted cameras may be triggered remotely or automatically; hand-held photographs may be taken by a photographer.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Early history * 1.2 World War I * 1.3 Commercial aerial photography * 1.4 World War II
* 2 Uses
* 3 Platforms
* 4 Regulations
* 4.1 Australia * 4.2 United States * 4.3 United Kingdom
* 5 Types
* 5.1 Oblique * 5.2 Vertical * 5.3 Combinations * 5.4 Orthophotos
* 6 Aerial video * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links
Kite aerial photography was pioneered by British meteorologist E.D. Archibald in 1882. He used an explosive charge on a timer to take photographs from the air. Frenchman Arthur Batut began using kites for photography in 1888, and wrote a book on his methods in 1890. Samuel Franklin Cody developed his advanced 'Man-lifter War Kite' and succeeded in interesting the British War Office with its capabilities.
The first use of a motion picture camera mounted to a heavier-than-air aircraft took place on April 24, 1909 over Rome in the 3:28 silent film short, _ Wilbur Wright und seine Flugmaschine _.
WORLD WAR I
The use of aerial photography rapidly matured during the war, as reconnaissance aircraft were equipped with cameras to record enemy movements and defences. At the start of the conflict, the usefulness of aerial photography was not fully appreciated, with reconnaissance being accomplished with map sketching from the air.
Frederick Charles Victor Laws started aerial photography experiments
in 1912 with No.1 Squadron of the
Royal Flying Corps
The first purpose-built and practical aerial camera was invented by Captain John Moore-Brabazon in 1915 with the help of the Thornton-Pickard company, greatly enhancing the efficiency of aerial photography. The camera was inserted into the floor of the aircraft and could be triggered by the pilot at intervals. Moore-Brabazon also pioneered the incorporation of stereoscopic techniques into aerial photography, allowing the height of objects on the landscape to be discerned by comparing photographs taken at different angles.
By the end of the war aerial cameras had dramatically increased in
size and focal power and were used increasingly frequently as they
proved their pivotal military worth; by 1918 both sides were
photographing the entire front twice a day, and had taken over half a
million photos since the beginning of the conflict. In January 1918,
General Allenby used five Australian pilots from No. 1 Squadron AFC to
photograph a 624 square miles (1,620 km2) area in Palestine as an aid
to correcting and improving maps of the Turkish front. This was a
pioneering use of aerial photography as an aid for cartography .
Leonard Taplin , Allan Runciman Brown , H. L. Fraser,
Edward Patrick Kenny , and L. W. Rogers photographed a block of land
stretching from the Turkish front lines 32 miles (51 km) deep into
their rear areas. Beginning 5 January, they flew with a fighter escort
to ward off enemy fighters. Using Royal
COMMERCIAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY
The first commercial aerial photography company in the UK was
Aerofilms Ltd, founded by World War I veterans Francis Wills and
Claude Graham White in 1919. The company soon expanded into a business
with major contracts in Africa and Asia as well as in the UK.
Operations began from the
Stag Lane Aerodrome at Edgware, using the
aircraft of the London Flying School. Subsequently, the Aircraft
Manufacturing Company (later the De Havilland
From 1921, Aerofilms carried out vertical photography for survey and mapping purposes. During the 1930s, the company pioneered the science of photogrammetry (mapping from aerial photographs), with the Ordnance Survey amongst the company's clients.
Another successful pioneer of the commercial use of aerial
photography was the American
Sherman Fairchild who started his own
aircraft firm Fairchild
WORLD WAR II
Sidney Cotton and
They proposed the use of Spitfires with their armament and radios
removed and replaced with extra fuel and cameras. This led to the
development of the Spitfire PR variants. Spitfires proved to be
extremely successful in their reconnaissance role and there were many
variants built specifically for that purpose. They served initially
with what later became No. 1 Photographic Reconnaissance Unit (PRU).
In 1928, the
Cotton's aerial photographs were far ahead of their time. Together with other members of the 1 PRU, he pioneered the techniques of high-altitude, high-speed stereoscopic photography that were instrumental in revealing the locations of many crucial military and intelligence targets. According to R.V. Jones , photographs were used to establish the size and the characteristic launching mechanisms for both the V-1 flying bomb and the V-2 rocket . Cotton also worked on ideas such as a prototype specialist reconnaissance aircraft and further refinements of photographic equipment. At the peak, the British flew over 100 reconnaissance flights a day, yielding 50,000 images per day to interpret. Similar efforts were taken by other countries.
Abalone point .. Irvine Cove, Laguna Beach an example of low-altitude aerial photography
In the United States, except when necessary for take off and landing, full-sized manned aircraft are prohibited from flying at altitudes under 1000 feet over congested areas and not closer than 500 feet from any person, vessel, vehicle or structure over non-congested areas. Certain exceptions are allowed for helicopters, powered parachutes and weight-shift-control aircraft.
RADIO-CONTROLLED MODEL AIRCRAFT
A drone carrying a camera for aerial photography Two drones that can be used to take aerial photographs
Advances in radio controlled models have made it possible for model aircraft to conduct low-altitude aerial photography. This had benefited real-estate advertising, where commercial and residential properties are the photographic subject when in 2014 the US Federal Communications Commission, issued an order banning the use of "Drones" in any commercial application related to photographs for use in real estate advertisement's. This ban has since been lifted, as the FAA Part 107 regulations for small UAS became effective on August 29, 2016.
Small scale model aircraft offer increased photographic access to these previously restricted areas. Miniature vehicles do not replace full size aircraft, as full size aircraft are capable of longer flight times, higher altitudes, and greater equipment payloads. They are, however, useful in any situation in which a full-scale aircraft would be dangerous to operate. Examples would include the inspection of transformers atop power transmission lines and slow, low-level flight over agricultural fields, both of which can be accomplished by a large-scale radio controlled helicopter. Professional-grade, gyroscopically stabilized camera platforms are available for use under such a model; a large model helicopter with a 26cc gasoline engine can hoist a payload of approximately seven kilograms (15 lbs). In addition to gyroscopically stabilized footage, the use of RC copters as reliable aerial photography tools increased with the integration of FPV (first-person-view) technology. Many radio-controlled aircraft are now capable of utilizing Wi-Fi to stream live video from the aircraft's camera back to the pilot's ground station.
In Australia Civil Aviation Safety Regulation 101 (CASR 101) allows
for commercial use of radio control aircraft. Under these regulations
radio controlled unmanned aircraft for commercial are referred to as
Due to a number of illegal operators in Australia making false claims of being approved, CASA maintains and publishes a list of approved UAS operators. However, CASA has modified the regulations and from the 29th of September 2016 drones under 2 kg may be operated for commercial purposes.
June 25, 2014, The FAA, in ruling 14 CFR Part 91 "Interpretation of
Because anything capable of being viewed from a public space is considered outside the realm of privacy in the United States, aerial photography may legally document features and occurrences on private property.
June 21, 2016, the
April 7, 2017, the
Oblique Aerial Photo
Photographs taken at an angle are called _oblique photographs_. If they are taken from a low angle earth surface–aircraft, they are called _low oblique_ and photographs taken from a high angle are called _high_ or _steep oblique_. An aerial photographer prepares continuous oblique shooting in a Cessna 206
Vertical Orientation Aerial Photo
Vertical photographs are taken straight down. They are mainly used in photogrammetry and image interpretation. Pictures that will be used in photogrammetry are traditionally taken with special large format cameras with calibrated and documented geometric properties.
Aerial photographs are often combined. Depending on their purpose it can be done in several ways, of which a few are listed below.
* Panoramas can be made by stitching several photographs taken with one hand held camera. * In pictometry five rigidly mounted cameras provide one vertical and four low oblique pictures that can be used together. * In some digital cameras for aerial photogrammetry images from several imaging elements, sometimes with separate lenses, are geometrically corrected and combined to one image in the camera.
Vertical photographs are often used to create orthophotos , alternatively known as orthophotomaps , photographs which have been geometrically "corrected" so as to be usable as a map. In other words, an orthophoto is a simulation of a photograph taken from an infinite distance, looking straight down to nadir . Perspective must obviously be removed, but variations in terrain should also be corrected for. Multiple geometric transformations are applied to the image, depending on the perspective and terrain corrections required on a particular part of the image.
Orthophotos are commonly used in geographic information systems , such as are used by mapping agencies (e.g. Ordnance Survey ) to create maps. Once the images have been aligned, or "registered", with known real-world coordinates, they can be widely deployed.
Large sets of orthophotos, typically derived from multiple sources
and divided into "tiles" (each typically 256 x 256 pixels in size),
are widely used in online map systems such as
Google Maps .
Aerial View Hotel Müggelsee in
Play media The
Cliffs of Moher
With advancements in video technology, aerial video is becoming more popular. Orthogonal video is shot from aircraft mapping pipelines, crop fields, and other points of interest. Using GPS, video may be embedded with meta data and later synced with a video mapping program.
This "Spatial Multimedia" is the timely union of digital media including still photography, motion video, stereo, panoramic imagery sets, immersive media constructs, audio, and other data with location and date-time information from the GPS and other location designs.
Aerial videos are emerging Spatial Multimedia which can be used for scene understanding and object tracking. The input video is captured by low flying aerial platforms and typically consists of strong parallax from non-ground-plane structures. The integration of digital video, global positioning systems (GPS) and automated image processing will improve the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of data collection and reduction. Several different aerial platforms are under investigation for the data collection.
Aerial landscape art
* ^ History of Aerial
* ^ "U.S. Transportation Secretary Foxx Announces