HOME
The Info List - Aeolic





In linguistics, Aeolic Greek
Aeolic Greek
(/iːˈɒlɪk/; also Aeolian /iːˈoʊliən/, Lesbian or Lesbic dialect) is the set of dialects of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
spoken mainly in Boeotia
Boeotia
(a region in Central Greece); Thessaly, in the Aegean island of Lesbos; and the Greek colonies
Greek colonies
of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
(Aeolis). The Aeolic dialect shows many archaisms in comparison to the other Ancient Greek dialects
Ancient Greek dialects
(Attic, Ionic, Doric, Northwestern and Arcadocypriot), as well as many innovations. Aeolic Greek
Aeolic Greek
is widely known as the language of Sappho
Sappho
and of Alcaeus of Mytilene. Aeolic poetry, which is exemplified in the works of Sappho, mostly uses four classical meters known as the Aeolics: Glyconic (the most basic form of Aeolic line), hendecasyllabic verse, Sapphic stanza, and Alcaic stanza (the latter two are respectively named for Sappho
Sappho
and Alcaeus). In Plato's Protagoras, Prodicus
Prodicus
labelled the Aeolic dialect of Pittacus of Mytilene
Pittacus of Mytilene
as "barbarian" (barbaros),[2] because of its difference from the Attic literary style:[3]

He didn't know to distinguish the words correctly, being from Lesbos, and having been raised with a barbarian dialect

Contents

1 Phonology

1.1 Consonants

1.1.1 Labiovelars 1.1.2 Sonorant clusters 1.1.3 Loss of h 1.1.4 Retention of w

1.2 Vowels

1.2.1 Long a 1.2.2 Boeotian

1.3 Accent

2 Morphology 3 Glossary

3.1 Aeolian

3.1.1 Boeotian 3.1.2 Thessalian

4 See also 5 References

Phonology[edit] Consonants[edit] Labiovelars[edit] Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Greek *kʷ changed to Aeolic p everywhere. By contrast, PIE
PIE
*kʷ changed to Attic/Ionic, Arcadocypriot, and Doric t before e and i.

PIE
PIE
*kʷetwores → Lesbian písures, Boeotian péttares ~ Attic téttares, Ionic tésseres, Doric tétores "four"

Similarly PIE/PGk *gʷ always became b and PIE
PIE
*gʷʰ > PGk *kʰʷ always became ph (whereas in other dialects they became alternating b/d and ph/th before back/front vowels). Labiovelars were treated the same way in the P-Celtic languages and the Sabellic languages. Sonorant clusters[edit] A Proto-Greek consonant cluster with h (from Indo-European *s) and a sonorant (r, l, n, m, w, y) changed to a double sonorant in Aeolic (rr, ll, nn, mm, ww, yy) by assimilation. In Attic/Ionic and Doric, the h assimilated to the vowel before the consonant cluster, causing the vowel to lengthen by compensatory lengthening.

PIE
PIE
VsR or VRs → Attic/Ionic-Doric VVR. VsR or VRs → Aeolic VRR.[4]

PIE
PIE
*h₁ésmi → Proto-Greek *ehmi → Aeolic emmi ~ Attic/Ionic ēmi (= εἰμί) "I am"

Loss of h[edit] Lesbian Aeolic lost in initial h- (psilosis "stripping") from Proto-Indo-European s- or y-. By contrast, Ionic sometimes retains it, and Attic always retains it.

PIE
PIE
*seh₂u̯elios → Proto-Greek *hāwelios → Lesbian āélios, Ionic ēélios ~ Attic hēlios "sun"

Retention of w[edit] In Thessalian and Boeotian (sub-dialects of Aeolic) and Doric, the Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Greek semi-vowel w (digamma) was retained at the beginning of a word.

PIE
PIE
wekʷ-es- → Boeotian, Doric wépos ~ Attic-Ionic épos "word", "epic" (compare Latin vōx "voice")

Vowels[edit] Long a[edit] In Aeolic and Doric, Proto-Greek long ā remains. By contrast, in Attic, long ā changes to long ē in most cases; in Ionic, it changes everywhere.[5]

PIE
PIE
*meh₂ter- → Aeolic, Doric mātēr ~ Attic/Ionic mētēr "mother"

Boeotian[edit] In Boeotian, the vowel-system was, in many cases, changed in a way reminiscent of the modern Greek pronunciation.

Attic/Ionic αι /ai/ ~ Boeotian η /eː/ ~ Modern Greek
Modern Greek
αι /e/ Attic/Ionic ει /eː/ ~ Boeotian ει /iː/ ~ Modern Greek
Modern Greek
ει /i/ Attic/Ionic οι /oi/ ~ Boeotian υ /yː/ ~ Mediaeval Greek and Old Athenaean οι /yː/ ~ Modern Greek
Modern Greek
οι /i/

Accent[edit] In Lesbian Aeolic, the accent of all words is recessive (barytonesis), as is typical only in the verbs of other dialects.[6]

Attic/Ionic potamós ~ Lesbian pótamos "river"

Morphology[edit] Contracted or vowel-stem verbs that are thematic in Attic/Ionic are often athematic (-mi) in Aeolic.[7]

Ionic philéō, Attic philô ~ Aeolic phílēmi "I love"

The same is also found in Irish, where this selection has been generalized, i.e. -im, also in Slovak -m.

Aeolic athematic infinitive active ends in -men or (Lesbian) -menai. ~ Attic/Ionic has -enai.

Lesbian émmen, émmenai; Thessalian, Boeotian eîmen ~ Attic/Ionic eînai (spurious diphthong) "to be"

In the Lesbian dialect this ending also extends to the thematic conjugation, where Attic/Ionic has -ein. All three of these Aeolic endings occur in Homer.

Homeric agémen

Proto-Greek -ans and -ons → -ais and -ois (first- and second declension accusative plural). ~ Attic/Ionic -ās and -ōs (= -ους).[8][9] Dative plural -aisi and -oisi. ~ Attic/Ionic -ais and -ois. The participle has ois and ais for Attic ōs (= ους), ās.[10] Glossary[edit] Aeolian[edit]

ἀέλιος āélios "sun" Doric also (Attic hēlios; Cretan abelios; Laconian
Laconian
bela; Pamphylian babelios) ( PIE
PIE
*sawel-) ἄγωνος ágōnos "struggle" (Attic ἀγῶν agōn; Elean dat. pl. agōnois for agōsi) ἀθρήματα athrḗmata gifts sent by kin to Lesbian brides ( Sappho
Sappho
fr.) (compare Homeric hedna, eedna) Αἰολίωνες Aiolíōnes "Aeolians" (Attic Αἰολεῖς Aioleîs) (aiolizō "speak Aeolic, compose in the Aeolian mode, trick out with false words" Sophocles
Sophocles
Fr.912 ) (aioleō vary, adorn, diversify (aiolos quick-moving, glittering, shifty) ἀκλάδες aklades (unpruned vineyards) (Attic akladeutoi ampeloi) ἀκόντιον akontion (part of troops) (Attic spear) (Macedonian rhachis, spine or backbone, anything ridged like the backbone) ἀμένης -τος amenēs -tos (Attic ὑμήν humēn) thin skin, membrane. ἀμώνες amōnes (Attic ἀνεμώνες anemones ἄορος aoros (Attic ἄϋπνος ahypnos, without sleep) Μηθυμναῖοι ἄρπυς arpys (Attic ἔρως Eros, Love) attested in Crinagoras, ἁρπάζειν harpazein to snatch. Homeric harpaleos attractive,devouring ἄσφε asphe to them (Attic sphe, sphi) βακχόα bakchoa (Attic βόθρος bothros sacred dungeon, pit) βάλλα balla threshold (Attic βῆλος bēlos) (Doric balos) βελφιν belphin dolphin (Attic delphis) and Βέλφοι Belphoi Delphi βᾶμα bama Doric also (Attic βῆμα bema walking, step) βλῆρ blēr incitement (Attic delear) τὸ δὲ αὐτὸ καὶ αἶθμα. παρὰ Ἀλκαίῳ ἡ λέξις βραδανίζω bradanizō brandish, shake off. (Cf.Elean bratana Common rhatane) βραδινός bradinos slender, soft (Attic rhadinos) Sapph.90,104. βράιδιον braidion (Attic ῥάιδιον rhaidion easy) βράκειν brakein to understand (dysbrakanon imprehensible) βράκος brakos long robe, Sapph.70 Homeric ῥάκος ϝράκος rhakos wrakos βρίζα briza root (Attic rhiza) βρόδον brodon (Attic ῥόδον rhodon, rose) and vagina metaphorically in Erotic Glossary. βροδόπαχυς brodopachus with pink, rosy forearms (Attic rhodopuches) (βροδόπαχυν brodopachun Sappho) and brododaktulos with rosy fingers βροχέως brocheos or βρουκέων broukeon (Attic βραχύ brachy short) (Sapph.fr. 2,7) δράσειν drasein (Attic θύειν to sacrifice) δνόφος dnophos darkness Ionic also (Attic ζόφος zophos) (akin to knephas) εἴδη eide (Attic ὕλη, forest) (εἴδη Ionian also) Ἐννησιάδες Ennesiades Lesbian Nymphs ἐπιάλτης epialtēs and epialēs nightmare (Attic ephialtēs) (wiki Ephialtes) ζάδηλον zadelon with holes in it, open (Attic diadelon obvious) (Alcaeus 30 D 148P) ἴμβηρις imbēris eel (Attic ἔγχελυς enchelys) Μηθυμναῖοι ἴρον iron holy (Attic ἱερόν hierón) (Doric hiarón) (Ionic hirón) Ἰσσα Issa old name of Lesbos
Lesbos
Island Cf. Antissa ἴσσασθαι issasthai (Attic κληροῦσθαι klerousthai to take sth by lot) καγκύλη kankulē (Attic κηκῖς kēkis wet,vapour, mordant dyeing) κάμμαρψις kammarpsis dry Measure (Attic ἡμιμέδιμνον hemimedimnon, one half of a medimnos) καραβίδες karabides (Attic γρᾶες graes) Μηθυμναῖοι καυαλέον kaualeon Hsch (Attic αἶθος aithos fire, burning heat) (Cf.kaiō burn) κλᾷδες klaides Doric also (Attic kleides bars, bolts, keys) Mεσοστροφώνια Mesostrophonia Lesbian festival μέσσυϊ messui (Attic ἐν μέσῳ in the middle) μόλσος molsos (Attic δημός, fat) ξέννος xennos foreigner, guest-friend, strange (Attic xenos) (Ionic xeinos) ξίμβα ximba (Attic ῥοιά rhoia pomegranate-tree) (Boeotian sida) ὄθματα othmata (Attic ommata eyes) ὄν ónὄνα óna (Attic ἀνά aná) upon,through,again ( Arcadocypriot
Arcadocypriot
also) πασσύριον passyrion (Attic passydia totally,all together,with the whole army) πεδαμείβω pedameivō (Attic metameivo exchange) (πεδέχω pedecho μετέχω metecho), pedoikos metoikos peda for meta πέμπε pempe five (Attic πέντε pente, Pamphylian πέδε pede ) ( πεμπάσσειν pempassein to count per five) (Attic pempe imp. of pempō send) Πέῤῥαμος Perrhamos Priamus
Priamus
(Alcaeus 74D,111P (it means also king) πέσδος pésdos pedestrian,infantry) (Attic πεζός pezós) πέσσον pesson plain (Attic πεδίον pedion) πέσσυρες pessyres four (Lesbian πίσυρες pisyres) (Boeotian πέτταρες pettares) (Attic τέσσαρες tessares) (Doric tetores) σάωμι saōmi save (Attic σῴζω sōizō ) (Homeric σαόω saoō) σίγλαι siglai ear-rings (Attic enōtia, Laconian
Laconian
exōbadia) σκίφος skiphos Attic xiphos sword (skiptō, given as etym. of skiphos and xiphos, Sch.Il.1.220; cf. skipei: nussei, it pricks,pierces) σπόλα spóla(Attic στολή stolē) equipment, garment (spaleis, the sent one, for staleis) στρότος strótos (Attic stratós) army συρξ syrx (Attic σάρξ flesh) (dative plural σύρκεσιν syrkesi Attic σαρξίν sarxin) τενεκοῦντι tenekounti (Attic enoikounti dative singular of ἐνοικῶν enoikōn inhabiting) τράγαις tragais you break, grow rough and hoarse and smell like a goat τῦδε tude tudai and tuide here) (Ionic tēde) ὔσδος usdos (Attic ozos twig, branch) φαυόφορος phauophoros priestess (Attic ἱέρεια hiereia) (light-keeper) (Aeolic phauō for Homeric phaō shine) (Homeric phaos light, Attic phōs and phōtophoros) φηρία phēria (Attic θηρία thēria beasts) Ψάπφω Psapphō, (Attic Σαπφώ Sapphō)

Boeotian[edit]

ἄας aas ἀεστητόν aestēton tomorrow (Attic αὔριον aurion) (Cf.Attic ēōs dawn) ἀμίλλακας amillakas wine Theban (Attic oinos) ἀνωδόρκας anōdorkas a fish βρίγκος ὁ ἰχθῦς, ὑπὸ Θηβαίων βαιδύμην baidumēn (Attic ἀροτριᾶν arotrian to plough) βανά bana (βαλάρα balara) woman ( Attic gunē ) (βανῆκες, banēkes βάττικες battikes women ( Attic gunaikes ) βάστραξ bastrax or bastax (Attic τράχηλος trachēlos neck) pl.bastraches βλεερεῖ bleerei (Attic οἰκτείρει he feels pity) Cf. eleairei γάδου gadou (ϝάδου wadou) (Attic ἡδύ hēdú) (Corinna.17) Δεύς Deus instead of Zeus. Attested also in Laconian
Laconian
and Rhodian. ἐμπυρία empyria divination (Attic manteia) (Hsch. public oath, Koine
Koine
ordeal by fire) ζεκελτίδες zekeltides gourds [11] Amerias zakeltides (Phrygian zelkia vegetables) ἴδηφιν idephin sweet-voiced. Hsch.: ἴδηφιν ἴδαις· Βοιωτοί. [καὶ ὁ ἡδυλάλος διὰ τῆς διφθόγγου] (Attic hēduphōnon) ( Aeolic wad-, ad- ) ἰστάκη istake scythe (Attic δρέπανον drepanon) ἰυγοδρομεῖν iugodromein (Attic ἐκβοηθεῖν, ekboēthein, and boēdromein, run to help) (Ἰύγγυϊ Dionysus, ἰυγή voice,scream (Soph. Phil. 752))(Iungios Thessalian month) ἰώ iō and hiōn (Attic ἐγώ egō, I) (hiōnga iōga for egōge) Καραιός Karaios Boeotian epithet for Zeus
Zeus
meaning tall,head. Boeotian eponym Karaidas[12] κᾶρουξ karoux[13] (Attic kēryx herald) κριδδέμεν kriddemen (Attic γελᾶν gelan to laugh) ( Strattis fr. 47) Cf. (Cf.Attic krizō creak,screech) κόριλλα korilla little girl ( Koine
Koine
korasion from Attic korasis girl) ( Aetolian
Aetolian
korudion) μηλάτας mēlatas (Attic ποιμήν poimen shepherd) (homeric μῆλον mēlon sheep) (Attic mēlon apple, Aeolic-Doric malon) μνάριον mnarion (Attic κάλλυντρον kallyntron broom, brush) ὀπισθοτίλα opisthotila (Attic σηπία sēpia cuttlefish) (Strattis. fr. 47,3) (squirts its liquor from behind) ὀπίττομαι opittomai (homeric opizomai I care,respect) ( Laconian
Laconian
opiddomai) ὀφρυγνᾷ ophrygnai (Attic ὀφρυάζειophryazei he winks raising the eyebrow,to be haughty) σεῖα seia I persecuted (Attic ἐδίωξα edioxa) (Cf.Homeric seuō move quickly,chase) συοβοιωτοί syoboiōtoi Hog-Boeotians (Cratinus.310) τρίπεζα tripeza (Attic trapeza,table)(from tetrapeza four-footed) (tripeza three-footed) (in Aeolic it would-be tripesda) ψώσματα psōsmata Boeotian word acc. Aristonymus

Thessalian[edit]

ἀβρεμής abremēs (Attic ἀβλεπής ablepēs ἀνάξιος του βλέπεσθαι unworthy seeing, despicable (Cypriotic also) (Hes. text ἀβλεπής Κύπριοι καὶ Θετταλοί ἀγορά agora (Attic λιμήν limen port, harbour) (Hes. text Θετταλοὶ δὲ καὶ τὸν λιμένα ἀγορὰν καλοῦσιν Κρῆτες δὲ τὴν ἐκκλησίαν ἀλφινία alphinia white poplar ( PIE
PIE
*albho- 'white') (Attic leukē, PIE
PIE
*leuk- 'bright,light') (Macedonian aliza) Ἄπλουν Aploun Apollo
Apollo
(Attic Ἀπόλλων Apollōn) (Doric, Pamphylian Ἀπέλο̄ν Apelon) ἀσπάλεια aspaleia safeness (Attic asphaleia)[14] ἀστραλός astralos (Attic ψάρ -ος psar Starling) βεβυκῶσθαι bebukousthai to be swollen (Homeric βυκτάων buktaon blowing) βουσία bousia (Attic γογγυλίδι gongylidi turnip) δάμοσσος dámossos public (Attic dēmósios) opp. ἰδδιούστικος iddioûstikos privative (Attic idiōtikós)[15][16] δάρατος daratos Thessalian bread (Macedonian dramis) (Athamanian dramix) ( PIE
PIE
*der- cut,split) δέσποινα despoina woman (Attic gunē, Doric guna) (fem. of despotes) ἔνορμος enormos (agora, assembly, market and chōra) (Attic enormeō get in a harbour, hormos bay,anchorage ἐρέας ereas children (Hsch.Attic τέκνα tekna) (Homeric ernos young sprout,scion) (Neo-Phrygian eiroi children) θεανῶσται theanoustai (Attic ξυστῆρες xysters) ἰθείη itheiē (Attic ἁμαξιτός hamaxitos chariot-road) (Homeric ἰθεῖα ὀρθή Ψ 580) (Attic ithys,eytheia straight line) ἴμψας impsas past participle of impto (Attic ζεύξας zeuxas zeugnymi join together)(Ἴμψιος Impsios Ποσειδῶν ὁ ζύγιος Poseidon
Poseidon
Zygius on horses) κάλαφος kalaphos (Attic ἀσκάλαφος, Ascalaphus a bird (Magnesian) καπάνη kapanē chariot (Attic ἀπήνη apēnē) also, a helmet(kapanikos plenteous κίς kis who, anyone (Attic tis) ( Laconian
Laconian
tir) ( Arcadocypriot
Arcadocypriot
sis) καρπαία karpaia Thessalo-Macedonian mimic military dance (see also Carpaea) Homeric karpalimos swift (for foot) eager,ravenous. κῦῤῥος kyrrhos or kyrros sir,master (Attic kyrios) Μακετοὺν Maketoun[17] 'Macedonian man' (Attic Μακεδών Makedōn) (Thessalian -ουν-oun suffix for Attic ων ōn in both nominative and genitive of participles,pronouns and nouns. ματτύη mattuē a meat-dessert of Macedonian or Thessalian origin (Athenaeus)[18](Macedonian mattuēs a kind of bird) ναελεῖς naeleis new-comers, newly caught ones (Cf.nealeis,neēludes) νεβεύω[19] nebeuō pray (Macedonian neuō) (Attic euchomai, neuō wink) ὀνάλα onala, ὀνάλουμα onalouma (Attic analōma expense cost) ( on- in the place of Attic prefix ana-, ongrapsantas SEG 27:202 Πέτθαλος Pétthalos and Πεθθάλειος (Boeotian Φέτταλος Phéttalos) (Attic Θετταλός Thettalós) (Ionic, Koine
Koine
Θεσσαλός Thessalós) 'Thesalian man' (Πετθαλια Petthalia Thessalia) (Petthaloi Thessalians) (Koine thessalisti the thessalian way) ( Attic ἐντεθετταλίζομαι entethettalizomai become a Thessalian, i.e. wear the large Thessalian cloak ( Thettalika ptera feathers' ), Eupolis.201. ) ταγεύω tageuō to be tagos archon in Thessaly ταγευόντουν τοῦμ Πετθαλοῦν

See also[edit]

Aeolus Sappho Alcaeus of Mytilene Ancient Macedonian language Hesychius of Alexandria

References[edit]

^ Roger D. Woodard (2008), "Greek dialects", in: The Ancient Languages of Europe, ed. R. D. Woodard, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 51. ^ Protagoras
Protagoras
by Plato
Plato
- Greek text ^ James A. Towle, Commentary on Plato: Protagoras
Protagoras
341c ^ V = vowel, R = sonorant, s is itself. VV = long vowel, RR = doubled or long sonorant. ^ Smyth, Greek Grammar, par. 30 and note, 31: Attic long e, long a ^ Smyth, par. 162 note: (Lesbian) Aeolic recessive accent ^ Smyth, Greek Grammar, par. 656: contract verbs in Aeolic ^ Smyth, par. 214 note 9: first declension in dialects ^ Smyth, par. 230 note: second declension in dialects ^ Smyth, par. 305 note ^ Athenaeus Deipnosophists -9.369 ^ Boiotia —Anthedon ^ Boiotia — Orchomenos — early 1st century BC ^ Krannon — c. 250 - 215 BC SEG 23:437, 7 ^ Selected Papers in Greek and Near Eastern History [1] by David Malcolm Lewis, Peter John Rhodes ^ Skotoussa
Skotoussa
— 197-185 BC SEG 43:311 ^ Thessalia — Larisa — 220-210 BC - SEG 27:202 ^ Deipnosophists 14.663-4(pp.1059-1062) ^ Magnesia — Demetrias
Demetrias
— late 2nd century BC [2]

v t e

Ancient Greece

Outline Timeline

History Geography

Periods

Cycladic civilization Minoan civilization Mycenaean civilization Greek Dark Ages Archaic period Classical Greece Hellenistic Greece Roman Greece

Geography

Aegean Sea Aeolis Alexandria Antioch Cappadocia Crete Cyprus Doris Ephesus Epirus Hellespont Ionia Ionian Sea Macedonia Magna Graecia Miletus Peloponnesus Pergamon Pontus Taurica Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
colonies

City states Politics Military

City states

Argos Athens Byzantion Chalcis Corinth Eretria Kerkyra Larissa Megalopolis Megara Rhodes Samos Sparta Syracuse Thebes

Politics

Boeotarch Boule Koinon Proxeny Strategos Tagus Tyrant Amphictyonic League

Athenian

Agora Areopagus Ecclesia Graphē paranómōn Heliaia Ostracism

Spartan

Apella Ephor Gerousia Harmost

Macedon

Synedrion Koinon

Military

Wars Athenian military Antigonid Macedonian army Army of Macedon Ballista Cretan archers Hellenistic armies Hippeis Hoplite Hetairoi Macedonian phalanx Phalanx Peltast Pezhetairos Sarissa Sacred Band of Thebes Sciritae Seleucid army Spartan army Toxotai Xiphos Xyston

People

List of ancient Greeks

Rulers

Kings of Argos Archons of Athens Kings of Athens Kings of Commagene Diadochi Kings of Lydia Kings of Macedonia Kings of Paionia Attalid kings of Pergamon Kings of Pontus Kings of Sparta Tyrants of Syracuse

Philosophers

Anaxagoras Anaximander Anaximenes Antisthenes Aristotle Democritus Diogenes of Sinope Empedocles Epicurus Gorgias Heraclitus Hypatia Leucippus Parmenides Plato Protagoras Pythagoras Socrates Thales Zeno

Authors

Aeschylus Aesop Alcaeus Archilochus Aristophanes Bacchylides Euripides Herodotus Hesiod Hipponax Homer Ibycus Lucian Menander Mimnermus Panyassis Philocles Pindar Plutarch Polybius Sappho Simonides Sophocles Stesichorus Theognis Thucydides Timocreon Tyrtaeus Xenophon

Others

Agesilaus II Agis II Alcibiades Alexander the Great Aratus Archimedes Aspasia Demosthenes Epaminondas Euclid Hipparchus Hippocrates Leonidas Lycurgus Lysander Milo of Croton Miltiades Pausanias Pericles Philip of Macedon Philopoemen Praxiteles Ptolemy Pyrrhus Solon Themistocles

Groups

Philosophers Playwrights Poets Tyrants

By culture

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
tribes Thracian Greeks Ancient Macedonians

Society Culture

Society

Agriculture Calendar Clothing Coinage Cuisine Economy Education Festivals Funeral and burial practices Homosexuality Law Olympic Games Pederasty Philosophy Prostitution Religion Slavery Warfare Wedding customs Wine

Arts and science

Architecture

Greek Revival architecture

Astronomy Literature Mathematics Medicine Music

Musical system

Pottery Sculpture Technology Theatre

Religion

Funeral and burial practices Mythology

mythological figures

Temple Twelve Olympians Underworld

Sacred places

Eleusis Delphi Delos Dodona Mount Olympus Olympia

Structures

Athenian Treasury Lion Gate Long Walls Philippeion Theatre of Dionysus Tunnel of Eupalinos

Temples

Aphaea Artemis Athena Nike Erechtheion Hephaestus Hera, Olympia Parthenon Samothrace Zeus, Olympia

Language

Proto-Greek Mycenaean Homeric Dialects

Aeolic Arcadocypriot Attic Doric Ionic Locrian Macedonian Pamphylian

Koine

Writing

Linear A Linear B Cypriot syllabary Greek alphabet Greek numerals Attic numerals

Lists

Cities

in Epirus

People Place names Stoae Temples Theatres

Category Portal

v t e

Greek language

Origin and genealogy

Proto-Greek Pre-Greek substrate Graeco-Armenian Graeco-Aryan Graeco-Phrygian Hellenic languages

Periods

Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
(c. 1600–1100 BC) Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
(c. 800–300 BC) Koine
Koine
Greek (c. 300 BC–AD 330) Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
(c. 330–1453) Modern Greek
Modern Greek
(since 1453)

Varieties

Ancient

Aeolic Arcadocypriot Attic and Ionic Doric Homeric Locrian Pamphylian Macedonian

Koine

Jewish Koine
Koine
Greek

Modern

Cappadocian

Misthiotika

Cretan Cypriot Demotic Himariote Italiot

Greco/Calabrian Griko/Apulian

Katharevousa Maniot Mariupolitan Pontic Tsakonian Yevanic

Phonology

Ancient (accent/teaching) Koine Standard Modern

Grammar

Ancient (tables) Koine
Koine
Greek grammar Standard Modern

Writing systems

Cypriot syllabary Linear B Greek alphabet

History Archaic forms Attic numerals Greek numerals Orthography Diacritics Braille Cyrillization and Romanization

Greeklish

Literature

Ancient Byzantine Modern

Promotion and study

Hellenic Foundation for Culture Center for the Greek Language

Other

Exonyms Morphemes in English Terms of endearment Place names Proverbs Greek language
Greek language
question

v t e

Ages of Greek

C. 3rd millennium BC C. 1600–1100 BC C. 800–300 BC C. 300 BC – AD 330 C. 330–1453 Since 1453

Proto-Greek

Mycenaean

Ancient

Koine

Medieval<

.