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The Aeneid
Aeneid
(/ɪˈniːɪd/; Latin: Aeneis [ae̯ˈneːɪs]) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil
Virgil
between 29 and 19 BC,[1] that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans. It comprises 9,896 lines in dactylic hexameter.[2] The first six of the poem's twelve books tell the story of Aeneas's wanderings from Troy
Troy
to Italy, and the poem's second half tells of the Trojans' ultimately victorious war upon the Latins, under whose name Aeneas
Aeneas
and his Trojan followers are destined to be subsumed. The hero Aeneas
Aeneas
was already known to Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
legend and myth, having been a character in the Iliad. Virgil
Virgil
took the disconnected tales of Aeneas's wanderings, his vague association with the foundation of Rome and a personage of no fixed characteristics other than a scrupulous pietas, and fashioned The Aeneid
Aeneid
into a compelling founding myth or national epic that tied Rome to the legends of Troy, explained the Punic Wars, glorified traditional Roman virtues, and legitimized the Julio-Claudian dynasty
Julio-Claudian dynasty
as descendants of the founders, heroes, and gods of Rome and Troy. The Aeneid
Aeneid
is widely regarded as Virgil's masterpiece[3][4] and one of the greatest works of Latin
Latin
literature.[5][6]

Contents

1 Story

1.1 Journey to Italy (books 1–6)

1.1.1 Theme 1.1.2 Storm and Refuge 1.1.3 Trojan Horse 1.1.4 Wanderings 1.1.5 Fate
Fate
of Queen Dido 1.1.6 Sicily 1.1.7 Underworld

1.2 War in Italy (books 7–12)

2 Reception 3 Virgil's death and editing 4 History 5 Style

5.1 Structure

6 Themes

6.1 Pietas 6.2 Divine intervention 6.3 Fate 6.4 Violence and conflict 6.5 Propaganda

7 Allegory 8 Influence

8.1 Parodies and travesties

9 See also 10 Footnotes 11 Further reading 12 External links

12.1 Translations 12.2 Text 12.3 Sequels 12.4 Illustrations 12.5 Commentary

Story[edit] See also: Characters in the Aeneid
Aeneid
and Parallels between the Aeneid and Homer's Iliad
Iliad
and Odyssey The Aeneid
Aeneid
can be divided into two halves based on the disparate subject matter of Books 1–6 (Aeneas's journey to Latium
Latium
in Italy) and Books 7–12 (the war in Latium). These two halves are commonly regarded as reflecting Virgil's ambition to rival Homer
Homer
by treating both the Odyssey's wandering theme and the Iliad's warfare themes.[7] This is, however, a rough correspondence, the limitations of which should be borne in mind.[8] Journey to Italy (books 1–6)[edit] Theme[edit] Virgil
Virgil
begins his poem with a statement of his theme (Arma virumque cano ..., "I sing of arms and of a man ...") and an invocation to the Muse, falling some seven lines after the poem's inception (Musa, mihi causas memora ..., "O Muse, recount to me the causes ..."). He then explains the reason for the principal conflict in the story: the resentment held by the goddess Juno against the Trojan people. This is consistent with her role throughout the Homeric epics. Storm and Refuge[edit] Also in the manner of Homer, the story proper begins in medias res (into the middle of things), with the Trojan fleet in the eastern Mediterranean, heading in the direction of Italy. The fleet, led by Aeneas, is on a voyage to find a second home. It has been foretold that in Italy he will give rise to a race both noble and courageous, a race which will become known to all nations. Juno is wrathful, because she had not been chosen in the judgment of Paris, and because her favorite city, Carthage, will be destroyed by Aeneas's descendants. Also, Ganymede, a Trojan prince, was chosen to be the cup bearer to her husband, Jupiter—replacing Juno's daughter, Hebe. Juno proceeds to Aeolus, King of the Winds, and asks that he release the winds to stir up a storm in exchange for a bribe (Deiopea, the loveliest of all her sea nymphs, as a wife). Aeolus does not accept the bribe, but agrees to carry out Juno's orders (line 77, "My task is / To fulfill your commands"); the storm then devastates the fleet.

Paul Cézanne, Aeneas
Aeneas
Meeting Dido
Dido
at Carthage, ca. 1875, Princeton University Art Museum

Neptune takes notice: although he himself is no friend of the Trojans, he is infuriated by Juno's intrusion into his domain, and stills the winds and calms the waters, after making sure that the winds would not bother the Trojans again, lest they be punished more harshly than they were this time. The fleet takes shelter on the coast of Africa, where Aeneas
Aeneas
rouses the spirits of his men, reassuring them that they have been through worse situations before. There, Aeneas's mother, Venus, in the form of a huntress very similar to the goddess Diana, encourages him and recounts to him the history of Carthage. Eventually, Aeneas
Aeneas
ventures into the city, and in the temple of Juno he seeks and gains the favor of Dido, queen of the city, which has only recently been founded by refugees from Tyre and which will later become a great imperial rival and enemy to Rome. Meanwhile, Venus has her own plans. She goes to her son, Aeneas's half-brother Cupid, and tells him to imitate Ascanius
Ascanius
(the son of Aeneas
Aeneas
and his first wife Creusa). Disguised as such, Cupid
Cupid
goes to Dido
Dido
and offers the gifts expected from a guest. With Dido's motherly love revived as she cradles the boy during a banquet given in honour of the Trojans, Cupid
Cupid
secretly weakens her sworn fidelity to the soul of her late husband, Sychaeus, who had been murdered by her brother, Pygmalion. Trojan Horse[edit] Aeneas
Aeneas
sadly recounts the events that occasioned the Trojans' arrival. He begins the tale shortly after the war described in the Iliad: Cunning Ulysses devised a way for Greek warriors to gain entry into the walled city of Troy
Troy
by hiding in a large wooden horse. The Greeks pretended to sail away, leaving a warrior, Sinon, to inform the Trojans that the horse was an offering and that if it were taken into the city, the Trojans would be able to conquer Greece. The Trojan priest Laocoön
Laocoön
saw through the Greek plot and urged the horse's destruction, but his protests fell on deaf ears, so he hurled his spear at the horse. Then, in what would be seen by the Trojans as punishment from the gods, two serpents emerged from the sea and devoured Laocoön, along with his two sons. The Trojans then took the horse inside the fortified walls, and after nightfall the armed Greeks emerged from it, opening the city's gates to allow the returned Greek army to slaughter the Trojans. In a dream, Hector, the fallen Trojan prince, advised Aeneas
Aeneas
to flee with his family. Aeneas
Aeneas
awoke and saw with horror what was happening to his beloved city. At first he tried to fight the enemy, but soon he lost his comrades and was left alone to fend off the Greeks. He witnessed the murder of Priam
Priam
by Achilles' son Pyrrhus. His mother, Venus, appeared to him and led him back to his house. Aeneas
Aeneas
tells of his escape with his son, Ascanius, and father, Anchises, after the occurrence of various omens (Ascanius' head catching fire without his being harmed, a clap of thunder and a shooting star). After fleeing Troy, he goes back for his wife, Creusa, but she has been killed. Her ghost tells him that his destiny is to found a new city in the West. Wanderings[edit] He tells of how, rallying the other survivors, he built a fleet of ships and made landfall at various locations in the Mediterranean: Thrace, where they find the last remains of a fellow Trojan, Polydorus; the Strophades, where they encounter the Harpy Celaeno, who tells them to leave her island and to look for Italy; Crete, which they believe to be the land where they are to build their city, which they name Pergamea (but they are set straight by Apollo); and Buthrotum. This last city had been built in an attempt to replicate Troy. In Buthrotum, Aeneas
Aeneas
meets Andromache, the widow of Hector. She is still lamenting the loss of her valiant husband and beloved child. There, too, Aeneas
Aeneas
sees and meets Helenus, one of Priam's sons, who has the gift of prophecy. Through him, Aeneas
Aeneas
learns the destiny laid out for him: he is divinely advised to seek out the land of Italy (also known as Ausonia or Hesperia), where his descendants will not only prosper, but in time rule the entire known world. In addition, Helenus also bids him go to the Sibyl
Sibyl
in Cumae.

The suicide of Queen Dido
Dido
(book 4), sculpture by Claude-Augustin Cayot (fr) (1667–1722)

Heading into the open sea, Aeneas
Aeneas
leaves Buthrotum, rounds the SE tip of Italy and makes his way towards Sicily
Sicily
(Trinacria). There, they are caught in the whirlpool of Charybdis
Charybdis
and driven out to sea. Soon they come ashore at the land of the Cyclopes. There they meet a Greek, Achaemenides, one of Ulysses' men, who has been left behind when his comrades escaped the cave of Polyphemus. They take Achaemenides on board and narrowly escape Polyphemus. Shortly after, Anchises
Anchises
dies peacefully of old age, and Aeneas
Aeneas
sails to Carthage. Fate
Fate
of Queen Dido[edit] Aeneas
Aeneas
finishes his story, and Dido
Dido
realizes that she has fallen in love with Aeneas. Juno seizes upon this opportunity to make a deal with Venus, Aeneas's mother, with the intention of distracting Aeneas from his destiny of founding a city in Italy. Aeneas
Aeneas
is inclined to return Dido's love, and during a hunting expedition, a storm drives them into a small covered grove in which Aeneas
Aeneas
and Dido
Dido
presumably have sex, an event that Dido
Dido
takes to indicate a marriage between them. But when Jupiter sends Mercury to remind Aeneas
Aeneas
of his duty, he has no choice but to part. Her heart broken, Dido
Dido
commits suicide by stabbing herself upon a pyre with Aeneas's sword. Before dying, she predicts eternal strife between Aeneas's people and hers; "rise up from my bones, avenging spirit" (4.625, trans. Fitzgerald) is a possible invocation to Hannibal.[9] Looking back from the deck of his ship, Aeneas
Aeneas
sees the smoke of Dido's funeral pyre and knows its meaning only too clearly. Nevertheless, destiny calls, and the Trojan fleet sails on to Italy. Sicily[edit]

Boxing scene from the Aeneid
Aeneid
(book 5), mosaic floor from a Gallo-Roman villa in Villelaure
Villelaure
(France), ca. 175 AD, Getty Villa
Getty Villa
(71.AH.106)

Book 5 takes place on Sicily
Sicily
and centers on the funeral games that Aeneas
Aeneas
organizes for the anniversary of his father's death. Aeneas
Aeneas
and his men have left Carthage
Carthage
for Sicily, where Aeneas
Aeneas
organizes celebratory games—a boat race, a foot race, a boxing match, and an archery contest. In all those contests, Aeneas
Aeneas
is careful to reward winners and losers, showing his leadership qualities by not allowing antagonism even after foul play. Each of these contests comments on past events or prefigures future events: the boxing match, for instance, is "a preview of the final encounter of Aeneas
Aeneas
and Turnus", and the dove, the target during the archery contest, is connected to the deaths of Polites and King Priam
Priam
in Book 2 and that of Camilla in Book 11.[10] Afterwards, Ascanius
Ascanius
leads the boys in a military parade and mock battle, a tradition he will teach the Latins
Latins
while building the walls of Alba Longa. During these events (in which only men participate), Juno incites the womenfolk to burn the fleet and prevent the Trojans from ever reaching Italy, but her plan is thwarted when Ascanius
Ascanius
and Aeneas
Aeneas
intervene. Aeneas
Aeneas
prays to Jupiter to quench the fires, which the god does with a torrential rainstorm. An anxious Aeneas
Aeneas
is comforted by a vision of his father, who tells him to go to the underworld to receive a vision of his and Rome's future. In return for safe passage to Italy, the gods, by order of Jupiter, will receive one of Aeneas's men as a sacrifice: Palinurus, who steers Aeneas's ship by night, falls overboard. Underworld[edit] See also: The Golden Bough (mythology) In Book 6, Aeneas, with the guidance of the Cumaean Sibyl, descends into the underworld. They pass by crowds of the dead by the banks of the river Acheron
Acheron
and are ferried across by Charon before passing by Cerberus, the three-headed guardian of the underworld. Then Aeneas
Aeneas
is shown the fates of the wicked in Tartarus
Tartarus
and is warned by the Sibyl to bow to the justice of the gods. He is then brought to green fields of Elysium. There he speaks with the spirit of his father and is offered a prophetic vision of the destiny of Rome. War in Italy (books 7–12)[edit]

Roman bas-relief, 2nd century: Aeneas
Aeneas
lands in Latium, leading Ascanius; the sow identifies the place to found his city (book 8).

Upon returning to the land of the living, Aeneas
Aeneas
leads the Trojans to settle in Latium, where he courts Lavinia, the daughter of King Latinus. Although Aeneas
Aeneas
wished to avoid a war, hostilities break out. Juno is heavily involved in bringing about this war—she has persuaded the Queen of Latium
Latium
to demand that Lavinia
Lavinia
be married to Turnus, the ruler of a local people, the Rutuli. Juno continues to stir up trouble, even summoning the fury Alecto to ensure that a war takes place. Seeing the masses of warriors that Turnus
Turnus
has brought against him, Aeneas
Aeneas
seeks help from the Tuscans, enemies of the Rutuli. He meets King Evander of Arcadia, whose son Pallas agrees to lead troops against the other Italians. Meanwhile, in book 9, the Trojan camp is attacked, and a midnight raid leads to the deaths of Nisus and his companion, Euryalus. The gates, however, are defended until Aeneas returns with his Tuscan and Arcadian reinforcements.

Aeneas's defeat of Turnus
Turnus
(book 12), painting by Luca Giordano

In the battling that follows, many are slain—notably Pallas (a close friend of Aeneas), who is killed by Turnus, and Mezentius, Turnus's close associate. Mezentius, who has allowed his son to be killed while he himself fled, reproaches himself and faces Aeneas
Aeneas
in single combat—an honourable but essentially futile endeavour. In book 11, another notable, Camilla, a sort of Amazon character, fights bravely but is killed. She has been a virgin devoted to Diana and to her nation; Arruns, the man who kills her, is struck dead by Diana's sentinel, Opis. Single combat
Single combat
is then proposed between Aeneas
Aeneas
and Turnus, but Aeneas is so obviously superior to Turnus
Turnus
that the Italians, urged on by Turnus's divine sister, Juturna, break the truce. Aeneas
Aeneas
is injured, but returns to the battle. Turnus
Turnus
and Aeneas
Aeneas
dominate the battle on opposite wings, but when Aeneas
Aeneas
makes a daring attack at the city of Latium
Latium
(causing the queen of Latium
Latium
to hang herself in despair), he forces Turnus
Turnus
into single combat once more. Turnus's strength deserts him as he tries to hurl a rock, and Aeneas's spear goes through his thigh. As Turnus
Turnus
is begging on his knees for his life, the epic ends with Aeneas
Aeneas
first tempted to obey pleas to spare Turnus's life, but killing him in rage when he sees that Turnus
Turnus
is wearing his friend Pallas's belt over a shoulder as a trophy.

Reception[edit] Critics of the Aeneid
Aeneid
focus on a variety of issues.[11] The tone of the poem as a whole is a particular matter of debate; some see the poem as ultimately pessimistic and politically subversive to the Augustan regime, while others view it as a celebration of the new imperial dynasty. Virgil
Virgil
makes use of the symbolism of the Augustan regime, and some scholars see strong associations between Augustus
Augustus
and Aeneas, the one as founder and the other as re-founder of Rome. A strong teleology, or drive towards a climax, has been detected in the poem. The Aeneid
Aeneid
is full of prophecies about the future of Rome, the deeds of Augustus, his ancestors, and famous Romans, and the Carthaginian Wars; the shield of Aeneas
Aeneas
even depicts Augustus' victory at Actium in 31 BC. A further focus of study is the character of Aeneas. As the protagonist of the poem, Aeneas
Aeneas
seems to constantly waver between his emotions and commitment to his prophetic duty to found Rome; critics note the breakdown of Aeneas's emotional control in the last sections of the poem where the "pious" and "righteous" Aeneas
Aeneas
mercilessly slaughters the Latin
Latin
warrior Turnus. The Aeneid
Aeneid
appears to have been a great success. Virgil
Virgil
is said to have recited Books 2, 4 and 6 to Augustus;[12] the mention of her son, Marcellus, in book 6 apparently caused Augustus' sister Octavia to faint. The poem was unfinished when Virgil
Virgil
died in 19 BC. Virgil's death and editing[edit]

Virgil, holding a manuscript of the Aeneid, flanked by the muses Clio (history) and Melpomene
Melpomene
(tragedy). Roman mosaic, third century AD, from Hadrumetum, now in the Bardo Museum, Tunis.

According to tradition, Virgil
Virgil
traveled to Greece around 19 BC to revise the Aeneid. After meeting Augustus
Augustus
in Athens and deciding to return home, Virgil
Virgil
caught a fever while visiting a town near Megara. Virgil
Virgil
crossed to Italy by ship, weakened with disease, and died in Brundisium
Brundisium
harbour on 21 September 19 BC, leaving a wish that the manuscript of the Aeneid
Aeneid
was to be burned. Augustus
Augustus
ordered Virgil's literary executors, Lucius Varius Rufus and Plotius Tucca, to disregard that wish, instead ordering the Aeneid
Aeneid
to be published with as few editorial changes as possible.[13] As a result, the existing text of the Aeneid
Aeneid
may contain faults which Virgil
Virgil
was planning to correct before publication. However, the only obvious imperfections are a few lines of verse that are metrically unfinished (i.e., not a complete line of dactylic hexameter). Other alleged "imperfections" are subject to scholarly debate. History[edit]

Folio 22 from the Vergilius Vaticanus—flight from Troy

The Aeneid
Aeneid
was written in a time of major political and social change in Rome, with the fall of the Republic and the Final War of the Roman Republic having torn through society and many Romans' faith in the "Greatness of Rome" severely faltering. However, the new emperor, Augustus
Augustus
Caesar, began to institute a new era of prosperity and peace, specifically through the re-introduction of traditional Roman moral values. The Aeneid
Aeneid
was seen as reflecting this aim, by depicting the heroic Aeneas
Aeneas
as a man devoted and loyal to his country and its prominence, rather than his own personal gains. In addition, the Aeneid
Aeneid
gives mythic legitimization to the rule of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and, by extension, to his adopted son Augustus, by immortalizing the tradition that renamed Aeneas's son, Ascanius
Ascanius
(called Ilus from Ilium, meaning Troy), Iulus, thus making him an ancestor of the gens Julia, the family of Julius Caesar, and many other great imperial descendants as part of the prophecy given to him in the Underworld. (The meter shows that the name "Iulus" is pronounced as 3 syllables, not as "Julus".) Despite the polished and complex nature of the Aeneid
Aeneid
(legend stating that Virgil
Virgil
wrote only three lines of the poem each day), the number of half-complete lines and the abrupt ending are generally seen as evidence that Virgil
Virgil
died before he could finish the work. Because this poem was composed and preserved in writing rather than orally, the Aeneid
Aeneid
is more complete than most classical epics. Furthermore, it is possible to debate whether Virgil
Virgil
intended to rewrite and add to such lines. Some of them would be difficult to complete, and in some instances, the brevity of a line increases its dramatic impact (some arguing the violent ending as a typically Virgilian comment on the darker, vengeful side of humanity). However, these arguments may be anachronistic—half-finished lines might equally, to Roman readers, have been a clear indication of an unfinished poem and have added nothing whatsoever to the dramatic effect.[citation needed] The perceived deficiency of any account of Aeneas's marriage to Lavinia
Lavinia
or his founding of the Roman race led some writers, such as the 15th-century Italian poet Maffeo Vegio (through his Mapheus Vegius widely printed in the Renaissance), Pier Candido Decembrio (whose attempt was never completed), Claudio Salvucci (in his 1994 epic poem The Laviniad), and Ursula K. Le Guin
Ursula K. Le Guin
(in her 2008 novel Lavinia) to compose their own supplements. Some legends state that Virgil, fearing that he would die before he had properly revised the poem, gave instructions to friends (including the current emperor, Augustus) that the Aeneid
Aeneid
should be burned upon his death, owing to its unfinished state and because he had come to dislike one of the sequences in Book VIII, in which Venus and Vulcan have sexual intercourse, for its nonconformity to Roman moral virtues. The friends did not comply with Virgil's wishes and Augustus
Augustus
himself ordered that they be disregarded. After minor modifications, the Aeneid
Aeneid
was published. The first full and faithful rendering of the poem in an Anglic language is the Scots translation by Gavin Douglas—his Eneados, completed in 1513, which also included Maffeo Vegio's supplement. Even in the 20th century, Ezra Pound
Ezra Pound
considered this still to be the best Aeneid
Aeneid
translation, praising the "richness and fervour" of its language and its hallmark fidelity to the original.[14][15] The English translation by the 17th-century poet John Dryden
John Dryden
is another important version. Most classic translations, including both Douglas and Dryden, employed a rhyme scheme, a very non-Roman convention that is not usually followed in modern versions. Recent English verse translations include those by British Poet Laureate Cecil Day-Lewis
Cecil Day-Lewis
(1963) which strove to render Virgil's original hexameter line, Allen Mandelbaum (honoured by a 1973 National Book Award), Library of Congress Poet Laureate
Poet Laureate
Robert Fitzgerald (1981), Stanley Lombardo (2005), Robert Fagles
Robert Fagles
(2006), Sarah Ruden (2008), and Barry B. Powell (2015). Style[edit] As with other classical Latin
Latin
poetry, the meter is based on the length of syllables rather than the stress, though the interplay of meter and stress is also important. Virgil
Virgil
also incorporated such poetic devices as alliteration, onomatopoeia, synecdoche, and assonance. Furthermore, he uses personification, metaphor and simile in his work, usually to add drama and tension to the scene. An example of a simile can be found in book II when Aeneas
Aeneas
is compared to a shepherd who stood on the high top of a rock unaware of what is going on around him.[16] It can be seen that just as the shepherd is a protector of his sheep, so too is Aeneas
Aeneas
to his people. As was the rule in classical antiquity, an author's style was seen as an expression of his personality and character. Virgil's Latin
Latin
has been praised for its evenness, subtlety and dignity.[citation needed] Structure[edit] The Aeneid, like other classical epics, is written in dactylic hexameters: each line consists of six metrical feet made up of dactyls (one long syllable followed by two short syllables) and spondees (two long syllables). This epic consists of twelve books, and the narrative is broken up into three sections of four books each, respectively addressing Dido; the Trojans' arrival in Italy; and the war with the Latins. Each book has about 1000 lines. The Aeneid
Aeneid
comes to an abrupt ending, and scholars have speculated that Virgil
Virgil
died before he could finish the poem.[17] Themes[edit] Pietas[edit] The Roman ideal of pietas ("piety, dutiful respect"), which can be loosely translated from the Latin
Latin
as a selfless sense of duty toward one's filial, religious, and societal obligations, was a crux of ancient Roman morality. Throughout the Aeneid, Aeneas
Aeneas
serves as the embodiment of pietas, with the phrase "pious Aeneas" occurring 20 times throughout the poem,[18] thereby fulfilling his capacity as the father of the Roman people.[19] For instance, in Book 2 Aeneas describes how he carried his father Anchises
Anchises
from the burning city of Troy: "No help/ Or hope of help existed./ So I resigned myself, picked up my father,/ And turned my face toward the mountain range."[20] Furthermore, Aeneas
Aeneas
ventures into the underworld, thereby fulfilling Anchises' wishes. His father's gratitude is presented in the text by the following lines: "Have you at last come, has that loyalty/ Your father counted on conquered the journey? [21] However, Aeneas's pietas extends beyond his devotion to his father: we also see several examples of his religious fervour. Aeneas
Aeneas
is consistently subservient to the gods, even in actions opposed to his own desires, as he responds to one such divine command, "I sail to Italy not of my own free will."[22][23] In addition to his religious and familial pietas, Aeneas
Aeneas
also displays fervent patriotism and devotion to his people, particularly in a military capacity. For instance, as he and his followers leave Troy, Aeneas
Aeneas
swears that he will "take up/ The combat once again. We shall not all/ Die this day unavenged."[24] Aeneas
Aeneas
is a symbol of pietas in all of its forms, serving as a moral paragon to whom a Roman should aspire. Divine intervention[edit] One of the most recurring themes in the Aeneid
Aeneid
is that of divine intervention.[25] Throughout the poem, the gods are constantly influencing the main characters and trying to change and impact the outcome, regardless of the fate that they all know will occur.[26] For example, Juno comes down and acts as a phantom Aeneas
Aeneas
to drive Turnus away from the real Aeneas
Aeneas
and all of his rage from the death of Pallas.[27] Even though Juno knows in the end that Aeneas
Aeneas
will triumph over Turnus, she does all she can to delay and avoid this outcome. Divine intervention occurs multiple times in Book 4 especially. Aeneas falls in love with Dido, delaying his ultimate fate of traveling to Italy. However, it is actually the gods who inspired the love, as Juno plots:

Dido
Dido
and the Trojan captain [will come] To one same cavern. I shall be on hand, And if I can be certain you are willing, There I shall marry them and call her his. A wedding, this will be.[28]

Juno is speaking to Venus, making an agreement and influencing the lives and emotions of both Dido
Dido
and Aeneas. Later in the same book, Jupiter steps in and restores what is the true fate and path for Aeneas, sending Mercury down to Aeneas's dreams, telling him that he must travel to Italy and leave his new-found lover. As Aeneas
Aeneas
later pleads with Dido:

The gods' interpreter, sent by Jove himself-- I swear it by your head and mine-- has brought Commands down through the racing winds!... I sail for Italy not of my own free will.[29]

Several of the gods try to intervene against the powers of fate, even though they know what the eventual outcome will be. The interventions are really just distractions to continue the conflict and postpone the inevitable. If the gods represent humans, just as the human characters engage in conflicts and power struggles, so too do the gods. Fate[edit] Fate, described as a preordained destiny that men and gods have to follow, is a major theme in the Aeneid. One example is when Aeneas
Aeneas
is reminded of his fate through Jupiter and Mercury while he is falling in love with Dido. Mercury urges, "Think of your expectations of your heir,/ Iulus, to whom the whole Italian realm, the land/ Of Rome, are due."[30] Mercury is referring to Aeneas's preordained fate to found Rome, as well as Rome's preordained fate to rule the world:

He was to be ruler of Italy, Potential empire, armorer of war; To father men from Teucer's noble blood And bring the whole world under law's dominion.[31]

It is important to recognize that there is a marked difference between fate and divine intervention, as even though the gods might remind mortals of their eventual fate, the gods themselves are not in control of it.[32] For example, the opening lines of the poem specify that Aeneas
Aeneas
"came to Italy by destiny," but is also harassed by the separate force of "baleful Juno in her sleepless rage." [33] Even though Juno might intervene, Aeneas's fate is set in stone and cannot be changed. Later in Book 6 when Aeneas
Aeneas
visits the underworld, his father Anchises introduces him to the larger fate of the Roman people, as contrasted against his own personal fate to found Rome:

So raptly, everywhere, father and son Wandered the airy plain and viewed it all. After Anchises
Anchises
had conducted him To every region and had fired his love Of glory in the years to come, he spoke Of wars that he might fight, of Laurentines, And of Latinus' city, then of how He might avoid or bear each toil to come.[34]

Violence and conflict[edit] From the very beginning of the Aeneid, violence and conflict are used as a means of survival and conquest. Aeneas's voyage is caused by the Trojan War and the destruction of Troy.[35] Aeneas
Aeneas
describes to Dido in Book 2 the massive amount of destruction that occurs after the Greeks
Greeks
sneak into Troy. He recalls that he asks his men to "defend/ A city lost in flames. Come, let us die,/ We'll make a rush into the thick of it."[36] This is one of the first examples of how violence begets violence: even though the Trojans know they have lost the battle, they continue to fight for their country. This violence continues as Aeneas
Aeneas
makes his journey. Dido
Dido
kills herself in an excessively violent way over a pyre in order to end and escape her worldly problem: being heartbroken over the departure of her "husband" Aeneas. Queen Dido's suicide is a double edged sword. While releasing herself from the burden of her pain through violence, her last words implore her people to view Aeneas's people with hate for all eternity:

This is my last cry, as my last blood flows. Then, O my Tyrians, besiege with hate His progeny and all his race to come: Make this your offering to my dust. No love, No pact must be between our peoples.[37]

Furthermore, her people, hearing of their queen's death, have only one avenue on which to direct the blame: the already-departed Trojans. Thus, Dido's request of her people and her people's only recourse for closure align in their mutual hate for Aeneas
Aeneas
and his Trojans. In effect, Dido's violent suicide leads to the violent nature of the later relationship between Carthage
Carthage
and Rome.[38] Finally, when Aeneas
Aeneas
arrives in Latium, conflict inevitably arises.[39] Juno sends Alecto, one of the Furies, to cause Turnus
Turnus
to go against Aeneas. In the ensuing battles, Turnus
Turnus
kills Pallas, who is supposed to be under Aeneas's protection. This act of violence causes Aeneas
Aeneas
to be consumed with fury. Although Turnus
Turnus
asks for mercy in their final encounter, when Aeneas
Aeneas
sees that Turnus
Turnus
has taken Pallas' sword belt, Aeneas
Aeneas
proclaims:

You in your plunder, torn from one of mine, Shall I be robbed of you? This wound will come From Pallas: Pallas makes this offering And from your criminal blood exacts his due.[40]

This final act of violence shows how Turnus' violence—the act of killing Pallas—inevitably leads to more violence and his own death. It is possible that the recurring theme of violence in the Aeneid
Aeneid
is a subtle commentary on the bloody violence contemporary readers would have just experienced during the Late Republican civil wars. The Aeneid
Aeneid
potentially explores whether the violence of the civil wars was necessary to establish a lasting peace under Augustus, or whether it would just lead to more violence in the future.[41] Propaganda[edit] Main article: Political commentary of the Aeneid Written during the reign of Augustus, the Aeneid
Aeneid
presents the hero Aeneas
Aeneas
as a strong and powerful leader. The favorable representation of Aeneas
Aeneas
parallels Augustus
Augustus
in that it portrays his reign in a progressive and admirable light, and allows Augustus
Augustus
to be positively associated with the portrayal of Aeneas.[42] Although Virgil's patron Maecenas was obviously not Augustus
Augustus
himself, he was still a high figure within Augustus' administration and could have personally benefitted from representing Aeneas
Aeneas
in a positive light. In the Aeneid, Aeneas
Aeneas
is portrayed as the singular hope for the rebirth of the Trojan people. Charged with the preservation of his people by divine authority, Aeneas
Aeneas
is symbolic of Augustus' own accomplishments in establishing order after the long period of chaos of the Roman civil wars. Augustus
Augustus
as the light of savior and the last hope of the Roman people is a parallel to Aeneas
Aeneas
as the savior of the Trojans. This parallel functions as propaganda in support of Augustus,[43][44] as it depicts the Trojan people, future Romans themselves, as uniting behind a single leader who will lead them out of ruin:

New refugees in a great crowd: men and women Gathered for exile, young-pitiful people Coming from every quarter, minds made up, With their belongings, for whatever lands I'd lead them to by sea.[45]

Later in Book 6, Aeneas
Aeneas
travels to the underworld where he sees his father Anchises, who tells him of his own destiny as well as that of the Roman people. Anchises
Anchises
describes how Aeneas's descendant Romulus will found the great city of Rome, which will eventually be ruled by Caesar Augustus:

Turn your two eyes This way and see this people, your own Romans. Here is Caesar, and all the line of Iulus, All who shall one day pass under the dome Of the great sky: this is the man, this one, Of whom so often you have heard the promise, Caesar Augustus, son of the deified, Who shall bring once again an Age of Gold To Latium, to the land where Saturn reigned In early times.[46]

Virgil
Virgil
writes about the fated future of Lavinium, the city that Aeneas will found, which will in turn lead directly to the golden reign of Augustus. Virgil
Virgil
is using a form of literary propaganda to demonstrate the Augustan regime's destiny to bring glory and peace to Rome. Rather than use Aeneas
Aeneas
indirectly as a positive parallel to Augustus
Augustus
as in other parts of the poem, Virgil
Virgil
outright praises the emperor in Book 6, referring to Augustus
Augustus
as a harbinger for the glory of Rome and new levels of prosperity. Allegory[edit] The poem abounds with smaller and greater allegories. Two of the debated allegorical sections pertain to the exit from the underworld and to Pallas's belt.

There are two gates of Sleep, one said to be of horn, whereby the true shades pass with ease, the other all white ivory agleam without a flaw, and yet false dreams are sent through this one by the ghost to the upper world. Anchises
Anchises
now, his last instructions given, took son and Sibyl
Sibyl
and let them go by the Ivory Gate. —Book VI, lines 1211–1218, Fitzgerald trans. (emphasis added)

Aeneas's leaving the underworld through the gate of false dreams has been variously interpreted: One suggestion is that the passage simply refers to the time of day at which Aeneas
Aeneas
returned to the world of the living; another is that it implies that all of Aeneas's actions in the remainder of the poem are somehow "false". In an extension of the latter interpretation, it has been suggested that Virgil
Virgil
is conveying that the history of the world since the foundation of Rome is but a lie. Other scholars claim that Virgil
Virgil
is establishing that the theological implications of the preceding scene (an apparent system of reincarnation) are not to be taken as literal.[47] The second section in question is

Then to his glance appeared the accurst swordbelt surmounting Turnus' shoulder, shining with its familiar studs—the strap Young Pallas wore when Turnus
Turnus
wounded him and left him dead upon the field; now Turnus
Turnus
bore that enemy token on his shoulder—enemy still. For when the sight came home to him, Aeneas
Aeneas
raged at the relic of his anguish worn by this man as trophy. Blazing up and terrible in his anger, he called out: "You in your plunder, torn from one of mine, shall I be robbed of you? This wound will come from Pallas: Pallas makes this offering, and from your criminal blood exacts his due." He sank his blade in fury in Turnus' chest ... —Book XII, lines 1281–1295, Fitzgerald trans. (emphasis added)

This section has been interpreted to mean that for the entire passage of the poem, Aeneas
Aeneas
who symbolizes pietas (reason) in a moment becomes furor (fury), thus destroying what is essentially the primary theme of the poem itself. Many have argued over these two sections. Some claim that Virgil
Virgil
meant to change them before he died, while others find that the location of the two passages, at the very end of the so-called Volume I (Books 1–6, the Odyssey), and Volume II (Books 7–12, the Iliad), and their short length, which contrasts with the lengthy nature of the poem, are evidence that Virgil
Virgil
placed them purposefully there. Influence[edit]

Virgil
Virgil
Reading the Aeneid
Aeneid
to Augustus
Augustus
and Octavia,[48] by Jean-Joseph Taillasson, 1787, an early neoclassical painting (National Gallery, London)

The Aeneid
Aeneid
is a cornerstone of the Western canon, and early (at least by the 2nd century AD) became one of the essential elements of a Latin education,[49] usually required to be memorized.[50] Even after the decline of the Roman Empire, it "remained central to a Latin education".[51] In Latin-Christian culture, the Aeneid
Aeneid
was one of the canonical texts, subjected to commentary as a philological and educational study,[52] with the most complete commentary having been written by the 4th-century grammarian Maurus Servius
Servius
Honoratus.[53] It was widely held to be the pinnacle of Latin
Latin
literature, much in the same way that the Iliad
Iliad
was seen to be supreme in Greek literature. The strong influence of the Aeneid
Aeneid
has been identified in the development of European vernacular literatures—some English works that show its influence being Beowulf, Layamon's Brut (through the source text Historia Regum Britanniae), The Faerie Queene, and Milton's Paradise Lost. The Italian poet Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
was himself profoundly influenced by the Aeneid, so much so that his magnum opus The Divine Comedy, itself widely considered central to the western canon, includes a number of quotations from and allusions to the Aeneid
Aeneid
and features the author Virgil
Virgil
as a major character – the guide of Dante through the realms of the Inferno and Purgatorio. Another continental work displaying the influence of the Aeneid
Aeneid
is the 16th-century Portuguese epic Os Lusíadas, written by Luís Vaz de Camões and dealing with Vasco de Gama's voyage to India. The importance of Latin
Latin
education itself was paramount in Western culture: "from 1600 to 1900, the Latin
Latin
school was at the center of European education, wherever it was found"; within that Latin
Latin
school, Virgil
Virgil
was taught at the advanced level and, in 19th-century England, special editions of Virgil
Virgil
were awarded to students who distinguished themselves.[54] In the United States, Virgil
Virgil
and specifically the Aeneid
Aeneid
were taught in the fourth year of a Latin
Latin
sequence, at least until the 1960s;[55] the current (2011) Advanced Placement
Advanced Placement
curriculum in Latin
Latin
continues to assign a central position to the poem: "The AP Latin: Virgil
Virgil
Exam is designed to test the student's ability to read, translate, understand, analyze, and interpret the lines of the Aeneid that appear on the course syllabus in Latin."[56] Many phrases from this poem entered the Latin
Latin
language, much as passages from Shakespeare and Alexander Pope
Alexander Pope
have entered the English language. One example is from Aeneas's reaction to a painting of the sack of Troy: Sunt lacrimae rerum et mentem mortalia tangunt—"These are the tears of things, and our mortality cuts to the heart" (Aeneid I, 462). The influence is also visible in very modern work: Brian Friel's Translations
Translations
(a play written in the 1980s, set in 19th century Ireland), makes references to the classics throughout and ends with a passage from the Aeneid:

Urbs antiqua fuit—there was an ancient city which, 'tis said, Juno loved above all the lands. And it was the goddess's aim and cherished hope that here should be the capital of all nations—should the fates perchance allow that. Yet in truth she discovered that a race was springing from Trojan blood to overthrow some day these Tyrian towers—a people late regem belloque superbum—kings of broad realms and proud in war who would come forth for Libya's downfall.[57]

The Aeneid
Aeneid
was the basis for the 1962 Italian film The Avenger. In the musical Spring Awakening, based on the play of the same title by Frank Wedekind, schoolboys study the Latin
Latin
text, and the first verse of Book 1 is incorporated into the number "All That's Known". Ursula Le Guin's 2008 novel Lavinia
Lavinia
is a free prose retelling of the last six books of the Aeneid
Aeneid
narrated by and centered on Aeneas' Latin wife Lavinia, a minor character in the epic poem. It carries the action forward to the crowning of Aeneas' grandson Silvius as king of Latium. A seventeenth century popular broadside ballad also appears to recount events from books 1–4 of the Aeneid, focusing mostly on the relationship between Aeneas
Aeneas
and Dido. The ballad, "The Wandering Prince of Troy", presents many similar elements as Virgil's epic, but alters Dido's final sentiments toward Aeneas, as well as presents an interesting end for Aeneas
Aeneas
himself.[58] Parodies and travesties[edit]

A number of parodies and travesties of the Aeneid
Aeneid
have been made.[59] One of the earliest was written in Italian by Giovanni Batista Lalli in 1635, titled L'Eneide travestita del Signor Gio. A French parody by Paul Scarron
Paul Scarron
became famous in France in the mid-17th century, and spread rapidly through Europe, accompanying the growing French influence. Its influence was especially strong in Russia. Charles Cotton's work Scarronides included a travestied Aeneid. In 1791 the Russian poet N. P. Osipov
N. P. Osipov
published Eneida travestied (ru) (Russian: Вирги́лиева Энеи́да, вы́вороченная наизна́нку, lit. 'Vergil's Aeneid, turned inside out'). From the late 18th to the early 19th centuries, many Slavic language folk parodies of the story were made. One of these, Енеїда (Eneyida), was written in 1798 by Ivan Kotlyarevsky. It is the first literary work written in popular Ukrainian.[60] His epic poem was adapted into an animated feature film of the same name, in 1991, by Ukranimafilm.[61]

See also[edit]

Brutus of Troy Greek mythology Les Troyens Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 31 Prosody (Latin) Roman mythology

Footnotes[edit]

^ Magill, Frank N. (2003). The Ancient World: Dictionary of World Biography, Volume 1. Routledge. p. 226. ISBN 1135457409.  ^ Gaskell, Philip (1999). Landmarks in Classical Literature. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 161. ISBN 1-57958-192-7.  ^ "History of Latin
Latin
Literature". HistoryWorld. Retrieved December 5, 2016.  ^ Aloy, Daniel (May 22, 2008). "New translation of 'Aeneid' restores Virgil's wordplay and original meter". Cornell Chronicle. Retrieved December 5, 2016.  ^ Damen, Mark (2004). "Chapter 11: Vergil and The Aeneid". Retrieved December 5, 2016.  ^ Gill, N. S. "Why Read the Aeneid
Aeneid
in Latin?". About.com. Retrieved December 5, 2016.  ^ E.G. Knauer, "Vergil's Aeneid
Aeneid
and Homer", Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 5 (1964) 61–84. Originating in Servius's observation, tufts.edu ^ The majority of the Odyssey
Odyssey
is devoted to events on Ithaca, not to Odysseus' wanderings, so that the second half of the Odyssey
Odyssey
very broadly corresponds to the second half of the Aeneid
Aeneid
(the hero fights to establish himself in his new/renewed home). Joseph Farrell has observed, "... let us begin with the traditional view that Virgil's epic divides into 'Odyssean' and 'Iliadic' halves. Merely accepting this idea at face value is to mistake for a destination what Virgil
Virgil
clearly offered as the starting-point of a long and wondrous journey" ("The Virgilian Intertext", Cambridge Companion to Virgil, p. 229). ^ Publius Vergilius Maro (2006). The Aeneid, translated by Robert Fagles, introduction by Bernard Knox (deluxe ed.). New York, New York 10014, U.S.A.: Viking Penguin. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-14-310513-8.  ^ Glazewski, Johanna (1972). "The Function of Vergil's Funeral Games". The Classical World. 66 (2): 85–96. doi:10.2307/4347751. JSTOR 4347751.  ^ Fowler, "Virgil", in Hornblower and Spawnforth (eds), Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd edition, 1996, pp. 1605–06 ^ Fowler, pg.1603 ^ Sellar, William Young; Glover, Terrot Reaveley (1911). "Virgil". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). p. 112. Retrieved 7 June 2012.  ^ Pound and Spann; Confucius to Cummings: An Anthology of Poetry, New Directions, p. 34. ^ See Emily Wilson Passions and a Man Archived 14 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine., New Republic Online (11 January 2007), which cites Pound's claim that the translation even improved on the Virgil because Douglas had "heard the sea". ^ "Virgil: Aeneid
Aeneid
II". Poetryintranslation.com. Retrieved 27 November 2012.  ^ Fitzgerald 1990, 416–17. ^ Search of the Latin
Latin
from perseus.tufts.edu ^ Hahn, E. Adelaide. " Pietas
Pietas
versus Violentia in the Aeneid." The Classical Weekly, 25.2 (1931): 9–13. ^ Fitzgerald 1983, 2.1043–1047. ^ Fitzgerald 1983, 6.921–923. ^ Fitzgerald 1983, 4.499. ^ McLeish, Kenneth. "Dido, Aeneas, and the Concept of 'Pietas'." Greece and Rome 19.2 (1972): 127–135. ^ Fitzgerald 1983, 2.874–876. ^ Coleman, Robert. "The Gods in the Aeneid." Greece and Rome 29.2 (Oct 1982): 143–168; also see Block, E. "The Effects of Divine Manifestation on the Reader's Perspective in Vergil's Aeneid." (Salem, NH) 1984. ^ Duckworth, George E. " Fate
Fate
and Free Will in Vergil's "Aeneid"". The Classical Journal 51.8 (1956): 357–364. ^ Fitzgerald 1983, 10.890–966. ^ Fitzgerald 1983, 4.173–177. ^ Fitzgerald 1983, 4.492–499. ^ Fitzgerald 1983, 4.373–375. ^ Fitzgerald 1983, 4.312–315. ^ Fitzgerald, Robert, translator and postscript. "Virgil's The Aeneid". New York: Vintage Books (1990). 415. ^ Fitzgerald 1983, 1.3–8. ^ Fitzgerald 1983, 6.1203–1210. ^ Scully, Stephen. "Refining Fire in "Aeneid" 8." Vergilius (1959–) 46 (2000): 93–113. ^ Fitzgerald 1983, 4.469–471. ^ Fitzgerald 1983, 4.864–868. ^ Fitzgerald, Robert, translator and postscript. "Virgil's The Aeneid". New York: Vintage Books (1990). 407. ^ Hahn, E. Adelaide. " Pietas
Pietas
versus Violentia in the Aeneid." The Classical Weekly, 25.2 (1931): 9. ^ Fitzgerald 1983, 12.1291–1294. ^ Pogorselski, Randall J. "The "Reassurance of Fratricide" in The Aeneid." The American Journal of Philology 130.2 (Summer 2009): 261–289. ^ Fitzgerald, Robert, translator and postscript. "Virgil's The Aeneid". New York: Vintage Books (1990). 412–414. ^ Grebe, Sabine. "Augustus' Divine Authority and Virgil's Aeneid." Vergilius (1959–) 50 (2004): 35–62. ^ Scully, Stephen. "Refining Fire in Aeneid
Aeneid
8." Vergilius (1959–) 46 (2000): 91–113. ^ Fitzgerald 1983, 2.1036–1040. ^ Fitzgerald 1983, 6.1058–1067. ^ Trans. David West, "The Aeneid" (1991) xxiii. ^ The anecdote, in which the poet read the passage in Book VI in praise of Octavia's late son Marcellus, and Octavia fainted with grief, was recorded in the late fourth-century vita of Virgil
Virgil
by Aelius Donatus. ^ Kleinberg, Aviad M. (2008). Flesh Made Word: Saints' Stories and the Western Imagination. Harvard UP. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-674-02647-6.  ^ Montaner, Carlos Alberto (2003). Twisted Roots: Latin
Latin
America's Living Past. Algora. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-87586-260-6.  ^ Horsfall, Nicholas (2000). A Companion to the Study of Virgil. Brill. p. 303. ISBN 978-90-04-11951-2.  ^ Burman, Thomas E. (2009). Reading the Qur'ān in Latin
Latin
Christendom, 1140–1560. U of Pennsylvania P. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-8122-2062-9.  ^ Savage, John J.H. (1932). "The Manuscripts of the Commentary of Servius
Servius
Danielis on Virgil". Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. 43: 77–121. JSTOR 310668.  ^ Grafton, Anthony; Most, Glenn W.; Settis, Salvatore (2010). The Classical Tradition. Harvard UP. pp. 294–97. ISBN 978-0-674-03572-0.  ^ Skinner, Marilyn B. (2010). A Companion to Catullus. John Wiley. pp. 448â??49. ISBN 978-1-4443-3925-3.  ^ "Latin : Virgil; Course Description" (PDF). College Board. 2011. p. 14. Retrieved 30 August 2011.  ^ McGrath, F. C. (1990). " Brian Friel
Brian Friel
and the Politics of the Anglo-Irish Language". Colby Quarterly. 26 (4): 247.  ^ Ballad
Ballad
Full Text at the English Broadside Ballad
Ballad
Archive ^ [1] Archived 14 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "The Aeneid". V.I. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine. World Digital Library. Retrieved 25 December 2013.  ^ "Russian animation in letters and figures Films ╚ENEIDA╩". Animator.ru. Retrieved 27 November 2012. 

Library resources about Aeneid

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Further reading[edit]

Buckham, Philip Wentworth; Spence, Joseph; Holdsworth, Edward; Warburton, William; Jortin, John, Miscellanea Virgiliana: In Scriptis Maxime Eruditorum Virorum Varie Dispersa, in Unum Fasciculum Collecta, Cambridge: Printed for W. P. Grant; 1825. Maronis, P. Vergili (1969), Mynors, R.A.B., ed., Opera, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-814653-7  Virgil
Virgil
(2001), Fairclough, H.R.; Goold, G.P., eds., Eclogues, Georgics, Aeneid
Aeneid
1–6, Loeb Classical Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-99583-X  Virgil
Virgil
(2001), Fairclough, H.R.; Goold, G.P., eds., Aeneid
Aeneid
Books 7–12, Appendix Vergiliana, Loeb Classical Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-99586-4  Virgil; Ahl, Frederick (trans.) (2007), The Aeneid, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-283206-1  Virgil; Fitzgerald, Robert (trans.) (1983), The Aeneid, New York: Random House, ISBN 978-0-394-52827-4  Paperback reprint: Vintage Books, 1990. Virgil: The Aeneid
Aeneid
(Landmarks of World Literature (Revival)) by K. W. Gransden ISBN 0-521-83213-6 Virgil's 'Aeneid': Cosmos and Imperium by Philip R. Hardie ISBN 0-19-814036-3 Heinze, Richard (1993), Virgil's Epic Technique, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-06444-5  Johnson, W.R. (1979), Darkness Visible: A Study of Vergil's Aeneid, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-03848-7  Brooks Otis, Virgil: A Study in Civilized Poetry, Oxford, 1964 Lee Fratantuono, Madness Unchained: A Reading of Virgil's Aeneid, Lexington Books, 2007. Joseph Reed, Virgil's Gaze, Princeton, 2007. Kenneth Quinn, Virgil's Aeneid: A Critical Description, London, 1968. Francis Cairns, Virgil's Augustan Epic, Cambridge, 1989. Gian Biagio Conte, The Poetry of Pathos: Studies in Vergilian Epic, Oxford, 2007. Karl Gransden, Virgil's Iliad, Cambridge, 1984. Richard Jenkyns, Virgil's Experience, Oxford, 1998. Michael Burden, A woman scorned; responses to the Dido
Dido
myth, London, Faber and Faber, 1998, especially Andrew Pinnock, 'Book IV in plain brown paper wrappers', on the Dido
Dido
travesties. Wolfgang Kofler, Aeneas
Aeneas
und Vergil. Untersuchungen zur poetologischen Dimension der Aeneis, Heidelberg 2003. Eve Adler, Vergil's Empire, Rowman and Littlefield, 2003. Nurtantio, Yoneko (2014), Le silence dans l'Énéide, Brussels: EME & InterCommunications, ISBN 978-2-8066-2928-9

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Aeneid

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Aeneid

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aeneid.

Look up Aeneid
Aeneid
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Translations[edit]

Perseus Project A.1.1 – Latin
Latin
text, Dryden translation, and T.C. Williams translation (from the Perseus Project) Gutenberg Project: John Dryden
John Dryden
translation (1697) Gutenberg Project: J. W. Mackail translation (1885) Gutenberg Project: E. F. Taylor translation (1907) Fairclough's Loeb Translation (1916) Theoi.com (Books 1–6 only) The Online Library of Liberty Project from Liberty Fund, Inc.: The Aeneid
Aeneid
(Dryden translation, New York: P.F. Collier and Son, 1909) (PDF and HTML) The Aeneid
Aeneid
public domain audiobook at LibriVox

Text[edit]

Aeneidos Libri XII Latin
Latin
text by Publius Vergilius Maro, PDF format Menu Page The Aeneid
Aeneid
in several formats at Project Gutenberg Latin
Latin
Text Online

Sequels[edit]

The Thirteenth Book of the Aeneid: a fragment by Pier Candido Decembrio, translated by David Wilson-Okamura Supplement to the twelfth book of the Aeneid
Aeneid
by Maffeo Vegio at Latin text and English translation

Illustrations[edit]

Warburg Institute Iconographic Database (about 900 images related to the Aeneid)

Commentary[edit]

Commentary on selections from the Latin
Latin
text at Dickinson College Commentaries Four talks by scholars on aspects of the Aeneid
Aeneid
(including Virgil's relationship to Roman history, the Rome of Caesar Augustus, the challenges of translating Latin
Latin
poetry, and Purcell's opera Dido
Dido
and Aeneas), delivered at the Maine Humanities Council's Winter Weekend program. Notes on the political context of the Aeneid. Perseus/Tufts: Maurus Servius
Servius
Honoratus. Commentary on the Aeneid
Aeneid
of Vergil. (Latin) The Aeneid
Aeneid
on In Our Time at the BBC.

v t e

Virgil's Aeneid
Aeneid
(19 BC)

Characters

Deities

Alecto Crinisus Cupid Hecate Hymen Juno Jupiter Mars Mercury Saturn Tiberinus Venus

Humans

Acestes Achaemenides Achates Actor Aeneads Aeneas Aeolus Ajax the Lesser Aletes Amata Anchises Androgeos Andromache Anna Perenna Antiphates Ascanius Automedon Aventinus Butes Caieta Camilla Capys Cassandra Catillus Clonius Clytius Creusa Cydon Cydonians Dardanus Dares Phrygius Deiphobus Diomedes Elymus Entellus Erulus Euryalus Evander of Pallene Halaesus Halys Helenus Hippocoon Iarbas Ilioneus Juturna Laocoön Latinus Lausus Lavinia Macar Messapus Metabus Mezentius Mimas Misenus Mnestheus Neoptolemus Nisus and Euryalus Ornytus Palinurus Pallas Pandarus Panthous Paris Picus Polites Priam Ripheus Rutuli Salius Sinon Theano Thymoetes Turnus Ucalegon Ufens

Phoenicians

Acerbas Belus II Dido Mattan I Pygmalion of Tyre

Films

The Avenger (1962)

Literature

Roman d'Enéas
Roman d'Enéas
(1160 poem) Dido, Queen of Carthage
Carthage
(c. 1593 play) Amelia (1751 novel) The Dunciad
The Dunciad
(1729 novel) Lavinia
Lavinia
(2008 novel)

Opera

Didone (1641 Cavalli) Achille et Polyxène
Achille et Polyxène
(1687 Lully/Collasse) Dido
Dido
and Aeneas
Aeneas
(1688 Purcell) Didon (1693 Desmarets) Didone abbandonata
Didone abbandonata
(1724 libretto Metastasio) Didone abbandonata
Didone abbandonata
(1724 Sarro) Didone abbandonata
Didone abbandonata
(1724 Albinoni) Didone abbandonata
Didone abbandonata
(1726 Vinci) Didone abbandonata
Didone abbandonata
(1762 Sarti) Didon (1783 Piccinni) Dido, Queen of Carthage
Carthage
(1792 Storace) Les Troyens
Les Troyens
(1858 Berlioz)

Manuscripts

Book of Ballymote Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 31 Vergilius Augusteus Vergilius Romanus Vergilius Vaticanus

Phrases

Ad astra Annuit cœptis Experto crede Lacrimae rerum Obscuris vera involvens Quos ego Timeo Danaos et dona ferentes

Art

Laocoön
Laocoön
and His Sons (25 BC) Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius
Ascanius
(1619) Ascanius
Ascanius
Shooting the Stag of Sylvia (1689) Dido
Dido
building Carthage
Carthage
(1815)

Music

"And Then There Was Silence" Gates of Fire

Study

Aposiopesis Dactylic hexameter Hysteron proteron Sortes Vergilianae

Related

Trojan Horse The Golden Bough Eneados Sulpicius Apollinaris "Fortune favours the bold" "Mind over matter"

v t e

Works by Virgil

Appendix Vergiliana Eclogues
Eclogues
(Eclogue 4) Georgics Aeneid

Commons Wikiquote Wikisource
Wikisource
texts

v t e

Ancient Roman religion and mythology

Deities

Apollo Bellona Bona Dea Castor and Pollux Ceres Cupid Diana Dīs Pater Egeria Fauna Faunus Flora Genius Hercules Janus Juno Jupiter Lares Liber Libertas Lucina Mars Mercury Minerva Orcus Neptune Penates Pluto Pomona Priapus Proserpina Quirinus Saturn Silvanus Sol Venus Vesta Vulcan

Abstract deities

Abundantia Aequitas Concordia Fides Fortuna Pietas Roma Salus Securitas Spes Victoria Terra

Legendary figures

Aeneas Rhea Silvia Romulus
Romulus
and Remus Numa Pompilius Tullus Hostilius Servius
Servius
Tullius Ancus Marcius Lucius Tarquinius Priscus Lucius Tarquinius Superbus

Texts

Virgil

Aeneid

Ovid

Metamorphoses Fasti

Propertius Apuleius

The Golden Ass

Varro

Concepts and practices

Religion in ancient Rome Festivals Interpretatio graeca Imperial cult Temples

See also

Glossary of ancient Roman religion Greek mythology Myth and ritual Classical mythology Conversion to Christianity Decline of Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
polytheism

v t e

" Dido
Dido
and Aeneas" from Virgil's Aeneid

Characters

Dido Aeneas

Operas

Didone (1641, Cavalli) Dido
Dido
and Aeneas
Aeneas
(1688, Purcell)

discography "Dido's Lament"

Didon (1693, Desmarets) Didone abbandonata
Didone abbandonata
(1724, Metastasio) Didone abbandonata
Didone abbandonata
(1724, Sarro) Didone abbandonata
Didone abbandonata
(1724, Albinoni) Didone abbandonata
Didone abbandonata
(1762, Sarti) Didon (1783, Piccinni) Dido, Queen of Carthage
Carthage
(1792, Storace) Les Troyens
Les Troyens
(1863, Berlioz)

Plays

Dido, Queen of Carthage
Carthage
(c. 1593)

Poetry

Roman d'Enéas
Roman d'Enéas
(1160)

Music

Simple Man

Art

Dido
Dido
building Carthage

Related

Low Ham Roman Villa Amelia

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 313680866 LCCN: n81013510 GND: 4099391-7 BNF:

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