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"Aegukga", often translated as "The Patriotic Song", is the national anthem of South Korea. It was adopted in 1948, the year the country was founded. Its music was composed in the 1930s and its lyrics date back to the 1890s. The lyrics of "Aegukga" were originally set to the music of the Scottish song "Auld Lang Syne" before a unique melody was composed specifically for it. Before the founding of South Korea, the song's lyrics, set to the music of "Auld Lang Syne", was used as the national anthem of the Korean exile government which existed during Korea's occupation by Imperial Japan from the 1910s to the mid-1940s. The song has two verses, but in most occasions only the first one is sung when performed publicly in South Korea.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Origin 2.2 Copyright

3 Lyrics 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

Etymology[edit]

National anthems of Korea

 "Patriotic Hymn of the Great Korean Empire" 1902–1910

 "His Imperial Majesty's Reign" 1910–1945

 "Song of a Devotion to a Country" 1947–present

 "The Patriotic Song" 1948–present

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The Encyclopedia of Korean Culture
Encyclopedia of Korean Culture
defines "Aegukga" as "the song to wake up the mind to love the country". "Aegukga" in itself is differentiated from a national anthem. While a national anthem or gukga is an official symbol of the state, aegukga refers to any song, official or unofficial, that contains patriotic fervor towards its country, such as Hungary's "Szózat" or the U.S. "The Stars and Stripes Forever". However, the nationally designated "Aegukga" plays the role of symbolizing the country.[2][3] In general shorthand, the term aegukga refers to the national anthem of South Korea.[4] Nevertheless, there are still more than ten other extant "Aegukgas" in South Korea.[2] History[edit]

"Auld Lang Syne", which the words were originally set to.

"Aegukga" sung in the early 1940s

South Korean national anthem performed by U.S. military band in 2011, during an official South Korean state visit to the U.S.

Origin[edit] In the 1890s, the previously established Joseon
Joseon
dynasty began to contact other countries for the first time, including the United States, United Kingdom, and Russia. The meeting with foreign countries gave rise to patriotism, which then created several "Aegugkas". For instance, works in 1896 includes "Aeguka" created by Na Pil-gun, Han Myung-one, and Lee Yong-mu.[2] On November 21, 1896, scholars from the Pai Chai school sang a version of "Aegukga" in the independence door ceremony. However, this song differs from the song sung by the Military Academy
Military Academy
in 1898 and from the songs sung on the birthday of the former emperor.[2] However, a book from the Korean Empire
Korean Empire
in 1900 has a record of a national anthem. It was called the " Korean Empire
Korean Empire
Aegukga", or literally the "Anthem of the Greater Korean Empire". The anthem is commonly believed to be written by Franz Eckert.[2][5] Some people contend that records documenting Franz Eckert's actions show that it was physically impossible for him to write the anthem. It is guessed that the song sung by the Paejae school was the Scottish song "Auld Lang Syne" and that the song sung by the Military Academy
Military Academy
is a version of the British song "God Save the Queen".[2] The song attributed to Eckert was established by the military in 1902. A version of Eckert's song with different lyrics began to be officially implemented in the schools in 1904. All the schools were forced to sing the version of the song. The policy is thought of as a by-product of the Japan– Korea
Korea
Treaty of 1905 and the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1907.[2] There are many theories concerning the composer of the currently official version of "Aegukga". It is most commonly believed that the lyrics of the song were written for the cornerstone-laying ceremony of the Independence Gate
Independence Gate
in Seoul in 1896 by Yun Chi-ho, a Korean politician.[2][6] Later, Kim Gu
Kim Gu
during the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
Korea
era, said to his comrades "In the March 1st Movement, we had the Taegeukgi
Taegeukgi
and the Aegukga. Why who wrote it should be an issue?" said Kim. "The lyrics and the anthem's spirit are more important than the nature of the lyricist.", he refuted.[7] Other theories name the composer as An Chang-ho, Choi Byung-hun, Kim In-sik, Min Yeong-hwan, or some combination of the aforementioned composers. The "Committee to search for the composer of 'Aegukga'" was established in 1955 by the government on the request of the United States, but the committee concluded that there was not enough evidence to name a composer.[8] Initially, "Aegukga" was sung to the tune of the Scottish folk song "Auld Lang Syne", introduced to Korea
Korea
by Western missionaries. The Provisional Korean Government (1919–1945) in Shanghai, China adopted it as their national anthem. At a ceremony celebrating the founding of South Korea
South Korea
on 15 August 1948, the Scottish tune was finally replaced by the Finale of " Korea
Korea
Fantasia", which Ahn Eak-tai
Ahn Eak-tai
had composed in 1935. The new "Aegukga" was later adopted by the Presidential Decree of 1948 by the then South Korean President Syngman Rhee
Syngman Rhee
(or Lee Seungman). Copyright[edit] Since the composer Ahn Eak-tai
Ahn Eak-tai
died in 1965, the copyright for the music was to not expire until at least 2036. Two South Korean professional football clubs were sued by a copyright holders' group for playing this song in December 2003.[9] However, on March 16, 2005, the composer's widow—Lolita Ahn—and her family relinquished all rights to "Aegukga" to the South Korean government.[10] The lyrics have since been released into the public domain.[11] Lyrics[edit]

Hangul

동해 물과 백두산이 마르고 닳도록 하느님이 보우하사 우리나라 만세.

Refrain: 무궁화 삼천리 화려강산 대한 사람, 대한으로 길이 보전하세.

남산 위에 저 소나무 철갑을 두른 듯 바람서리 불변함은 우리 기상일세.

Refrain

가을 하늘 공활한데 높고 구름 없이 밝은 달은 우리 가슴 일편단심일세.

Refrain

이 기상과 이 맘으로 충성을 다하여 괴로우나 즐거우나 나라 사랑하세.

Refrain

Hangul
Hangul
and hanja

東海 물과 白頭山이 마르고 닳도록 하느님이 保佑하사 우리나라 萬歲.

Refrain: 無窮花 三千里 華麗 江山 大韓 사람, 大韓으로 길이 保全하세.

南山 위에 저 소나무 鐵甲을 두른 듯 바람서리 不變함은 우리 氣像일세.

Refrain

가을 하늘 空豁한데 높고 구름 없이 밝은 달은 우리 가슴 一片丹心일세.

Refrain

이 氣像과 이 맘으로 忠誠을 다하여 괴로우나 즐거우나 나라 사랑하세.

Refrain

Revised Romanization

Donghae mulgwa Baekdusani mareugo daltorok Haneunimi bouhasa urinara manse.

Refrain: Mugunghwa samcheolli hwaryeo gangsan Daehan saram, daehaneuro giri bojeonhase.

Namsan wie jeo sonamu cheolgabeul dureun deut Baram seori bulbyeonhameun uri gisang-ilse.

Refrain

Ga-eul haneul gonghwalhande nopgo gureum eopsi Balgeun dareun uri gaseum ilpyeondansimilse.

Refrain

I gisanggwa i mameuro chungseong-eul dahayeo Goerouna jeulgeouna nara saranghase.

Refrain

IPA[verify]

to̞ŋɦɛ̝muɭgwa̠ pɛ̝k̚t͈usʰa̠ni ma̠ɾɯgo̞ ta̠ɭtʰo̞ɾo̞k̚ ha̠nɯnimi po̞uɦa̠sʰa̠ uɾina̠ɾa̠ ma̠nsʰe̞.

Refrain: muɡuŋβwa̠ sʰa̠mt͡ɕʰʌ̹ɭʎi hwa̠ɾjʌ ka̠ŋsʰa̠n tɛ̝ɦa̠n sʰa̠ɾa̠m, tɛ̝ɦa̠nɯɾo̞ kiɾi po̞d͡ʑʌ̹nɦa̠sʰe̞.

na̠msʰa̠n ɥie̞ t͡ɕʌ sʰo̞na̠mu t͡ɕʰʌɭga̠bɯɭ tuɾɯn tɯt̚ pa̠ɾa̠m sʰʌɾi puɭbjʌnɦa̠mɯn uɾi kisʰa̠ŋ.iɭsʰe̞.

Refrain

ka̠.ɯɭ ha̠nɯɭ ko̞ŋhwa̠ɭɦa̠nde̞ no̞p̚k͈o̞ kuɾɯm ʌp̚ɕ͈i pa̠ɭgɯn ta̠ɾɯn uɾi ka̠sʰɯm iɭpʰjʌnda̠nɕʰimiɭsʰe̞.

Refrain

i kisʰa̠ŋgwa̠ i ma̠mɯɾo̞ t͡ɕʰʌŋsʰʌŋ.ɯɭ ta̠ɦa̠jʌ køɾo̞una̠ t͡ɕɯɭgʌuna̠ na̠ɾa̠ sʰa̠ɾa̠ŋɦa̠sʰe̞.

Refrain

English translation

Until that day when the East Sea's[N 2] waters run dry and Mt. Baekdu is worn away, May God preserve our country for ten thousand years!

Refrain: Hibiscus
Hibiscus
and three thousand li full of splendid rivers and mountains; Great Koreans, to the great Korean way, stay always true!

As the pine atop Namsan Peak stands firm, as if wrapped in armor, unchanged through wind and frost, so shall our resilient spirit.

Refrain

The autumn skies are void and vast, high and cloudless; the bright moon is like our heart, undivided and always true.

Refrain

With this spirit and this mind, let us give all loyalty, in suffering or joy, to love our nation.

Refrain

See also[edit]

Music portal South Korea
South Korea
portal

Korean Empire
Korean Empire
Aegukga Aegukka List of Korea-related topics

Notes[edit]

^ Probably Yun Chi-ho
Yun Chi-ho
or Ahn Changho. ^ The name South Korea
South Korea
uses to refer to the Sea of Japan.

References[edit]

^ (CHEONGWADAE), 청와대. "대한민국 청와대". 대한민국 청와대. Archived from the original on 2015-06-10.  ^ a b c d e f g h "애국가". Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved October 8, 2013.  ^ "애국가[愛國歌]". Doosan Coroporation. Retrieved October 8, 2013.  ^ "애국-가愛國歌". NAVER Corp. Retrieved October 8, 2013.  ^ "대한제국애국가". NAVER Corp. Retrieved October 8, 2013.  ^ " South Korea
South Korea
– Aegukga". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 2011-11-17.  ^ 팽귄기자. "대학토론 배틀 – 좋은 투자의 조건 -". demo-press.optian.co.kr.  ^ "안익태가 애국가를 처음 만들었다?". NAVER Corp. Retrieved October 9, 2013.  ^ "애국가 틀때도 저작권료 내야돼?". The Hankyoreh. Retrieved October 11, 2013.  ^ "애국가 작곡가 안익태 48주기 추모식". News1 Korea. Retrieved October 11, 2013.  ^ "Republic of Korea
Korea
- National Anthem". Internet Archive. Retrieved October 21, 2013. 

External links[edit]

Streaming audio, lyrics and info Republic of Korea
Korea
National Anthem nationalanthems.info 아이러브 KBS 맹세문 애국가 다운로드 경상남도교육청 업무 안내> 장차관직속기관> 의정관> 국가상징> 국민의례 "Aegugka" sung to the tune of "Auld Lang Syne"

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